name = Bruno Schulz
caption = Self-portrait
birthdate = birth date|1892|7|12|mf=y
deathdate = death date and age|1942|11|19|1892|7|12|mf=y
deathplace = Drohobycz
occupation = writer, graphic artist, literary critic, art teacher
nationality = flagicon|Poland Polish
novel, short story
Modernism, precursor to surrealism
Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass, The Street of Crocodiles
Franz Kafka, Rainer Maria Rilke, Thomas Mann
Witold Gombrowicz, Eustachy Rylski, Jerzy Kosiński, Jerzy Prokopiuk, Stanisław Lem
Bruno Schulz (
July 12, 1892– November 19, 1942) was a Polish writer, graphic artist and literary critic, who is widely regarded as one of the great Polish-language prose stylists of the 20th century. Schulz was born, and spent his entire life in Drohobycz, Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the province of Galicia, to assimilated Jewishparents. Today, Drohobycz is located in the modern state of Ukraine.
Bruno Schulz was the son of cloth merchant Jakub Schulz and Henrietta, née Kuhmerker. [cite journal| last = Wójcikowski| first = Grzegorz| authorlink =| coauthors =| title = Rocznica urodzin i śmierci Brunona Schulza| journal = Forum Polonijne| volume = 3| issue = 2007| pages = 38| publisher =| date =| url =| doi =| id = ISSN 1234-2807| accessdate = ] At a very early age, he developed an interest in the arts. He studied at a gymnasium in Drohobycz from 1902 to 1910, and proceeded to study architecture at
Lwów University. In 1917 he briefly studied architecture in Vienna. After World War I, the region of Galicia which included Drohobycz became a Polish territory. In the postwar period, Schulz came to teach drawing in a Polish gymnasium, from 1924 to 1941. His employment kept him in his hometown, although he disliked his profession as a schoolteacher, apparently maintaining it only because it was his sole means of income. [Schulz, Bruno. "The Street of Crocodiles". 1992, page 15.]
The author nurtured his extraordinary imagination in a swarm of identities and nationalities: a
Jewwho thought and wrote in Polish, was fluent in German, and immersed in Jewish culturethough unfamiliar with the Yiddish language. [http://bostonreview.net/BR29.6/paloff.html "Who Owns Bruno Schulz?"] , by Benjamin Paloff Boston Review(December 2004/January 2005) ] Yet there was nothing cosmopolitan about him; his genius fed in solitude on specific local and ethnic sources. He preferred not to leave his provincial hometown, which over the course of his life belonged to four countries. His adult life was often perceived by outsiders as that of a hermit: uneventful and enclosed.
Schulz seems to have become a writer by chance, as he was discouraged by influential colleagues from publishing his first short stories. His aspirations were refreshed, however, when several letters that he wrote to a friend, in which he gave highly original accounts of his solitary life and the details of the lives of his fellow citizens, were brought to the attention of the novelist
Zofia Nałkowska. She encouraged Schulz to have them published as short fiction, and "The Cinnamon Shops" ("Sklepy Cynamonowe") was published in 1934; in English-speaking countries, it is most often referred to as " The Street of Crocodiles", a title derived from one of the chapters. This novel-memoir was followed three years later by " Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass" ("Sanatorium Pod Klepsydrą"). The original publications were fully illustrated by Schulz himself; in later editions of his works, however, these illustrations are often left out or are poorly reproduced. He also helped his fiancée translate Franz Kafka's " The Trial" into Polish, in 1936. In 1938, he was awarded the Polish Academy of Literature's prestigious Golden Laurelaward.
The outbreak of
World War IIin 1939 caught Schulz living in Drohobycz, which was occupied by the Soviet Union. There are reports that he worked on a novel called "The Messiah", but no trace of this manuscript survived his death. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, as a Jew he was forced to live in the ghettoof Drohobycz, but he was temporarily protected by Felix Landau, a Gestapoofficer who admired his drawings. During the last weeks of his life, Schulz painted a mural in Landau's home in Drohobycz, in the style with which he is identified. Shortly after completing the work, Schulz was bringing home a loaf of bread when he was shot and killed by a German officer, Karl Günther, a rival of his protector (Landau had killed Günther's "personal Jew," a dentist). Over the years his mural was covered with paint and forgotten.
Schulz's body of written work is rather small: "The Street of Crocodiles", "Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass" and a few other compositions that the author did not add to the first edition of his short story collection. A collection of Schulz's letters were published in Polish in 1975, entitled "The Book of Letters", and a number of critical essays Schulz wrote for various newspapers are also available. Several of Schulz's works have been lost, including some short stories from the early 1940s that the author had sent to be published in magazines, and his final unfinished novel "The Messiah".
A new edition of Schulz's stories was published in 1957, leading to French, German, and later English translations.
Cynthia Ozick's 1987 novel, "The Messiah of Stockholm", contributed to popularizing Schulz's work. Her text concerns a Swiss man convinced that he is the son of Schulz, who comes into possession of what he believes to be a manuscript of Schulz's final project, "The Messiah". Schulz's presence also informs Israeli novelist David Grossman's 1989 novel "See Under: Love." In a chapter entitled "Bruno," the narrator imagines Schulz embarking on a phantasmagoric sea journey rather than remaining in Drohobycz to be shot. [David Grossman, "See Under: Love." Trans. Betsy Rosenberg. New York: Washington Square Press, 1989.]
The Street of Crocodiles". New York: Walker and Company, 1963. (A translation by Celina Wieniewskaof "Sklepy Cynamonowe (Cinnamon Shops)".)
* "Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass" New York: Penguin, 1988. (A translation by Celina Wieniewska of "Sanatorium Pod Klepsydrą", with an introduction by
John Updike.) ISBN 0-14-005272-0
* "The Complete Fiction of Bruno Schulz". New York: Walker and Company, 1989. (Combination of the prior two collections.) ISBN 0-8027-1091-3
* "Muse & Messiah: The Life, Imagination & Legacy of Bruno Schulz" by Brian R.Banks (Inkermen Press UK 2006)
In February 2001, after a long search, Benjamin Geissler, a German documentary filmmaker, discovered the mural Schulz had created for Landau. The meticulous task of restoration was begun by Polish conservation workers, who informed Yad Vashem about the findings. In May of that year representatives of
Yad Vashemin Israelwere allowed to come to Drohobycz to examine the mural. They removed five fragments of the mural, which had already been restored, smuggled them out of the country, and transported them to Jerusalem. Geissler has documented the search, the finding and restoration, as well as the destruction of the mural in the film entitled “Finding Pictures”. [http://www.benjamingeissler.de/ENGLISH/bilder-EN.htm “Finding Pictures”] , film by Benjamin Geissler]
International controversy ensued. [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/14876 "Bruno Schulz's Frescoes"] , by Mark Baker, M.B.B. Biskupski, John Connelly, Ronald E. Coons et al.
The New York Review of Books(Volume 48, Number 19 • November 29, 2001) ] [http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/atc/20010709.atc.04.ram "All Things Considered"] , NPR(Monday, July 9, 2001) ] While Yad Vashem claims that parts of the mural were legally purchased, Ukrainehas officially stated that they were removed without authority or export licenses. As of 2007, parts of the mural are in storage in Yad Vashem, and their status is being negotiated. [ [http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasite/spages/859804.html מסתמן הסדר שיאפשר הצגת ציורי ברונו שולץ בי-ם - חדשות -הארץ ] ] The fragments left in place by Yad Vashem have since been restored and, after touring Polish museums, are now part of the collection at the Bruno Schulz Museum in Drohobycz.
[F] or Poles in particular, Yad Vashem’s actions... suggest that dying because one is a Jew negates the relevance of having lived largely as a Pole—and, harsher still, that Jewishness and Polishness have been deemed fundamentally irreconcilable. In response to mounting international outrage, Yad Vashem posted a public statement on its Website—one of very few official comments on the incident—asserting a "moral right" to Schulz’s work.
Schulz's work has provided the basis for two films:
Wojciech Has's " The Hour-Glass Sanatorium" (1973), drawing from a dozen of his stories and emphasizing the unforgettably dreamlike quality of his writings; and a short stop-motionanimated film called " Street of Crocodiles" (1986) by Stephen and Timothy Quay.
A play based on "Cinnamon Shops" was performed at the Jewish Culture Festival in Karkow in 2008 bu - theater performance based on a novel by Bruno Schulz, directed by Frank Soehnle, performed by the Puppet Theater from Białystok.
* Mortkowicz-Olczakowa, Hanna (1961). "Bunt wspomnień." Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.
* (in the original Polish)
* [http://www.schulzian.net Translations by John Curran Davis]
* [http://www.brunoschulzart.org The Art of Bruno Schulz]
* [http://malarze.com/artysta.php?id=244 Bruno Schulz's drawing and graphic works at malarze.com]
* [http://BrunoSchulz.com Bruno Schulz - BrunoSchulz.com]
* [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/schulz.htm Biography and Bibliography]
* [http://www.doubleedgetheatre.org/dreams.html Republic of Dreams: a new performance by Double Edge Theatre]
* [http://www.necessaryprose.com/ficowski.htm Bruno Schulz's Poetics: Quotes from his Letters and Other Writings]
* [http://stevemobia.com/WriteSubPages/sandglass.htm A Journey into the Underworld: An essay on the film "The Hour-Glass Sanatorium"]
* " [http://www.kinoeye.org/04/05/fiumara05.php The Street of Crocodiles] " an animated film by the
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=11465584 Photo - Find A Grave]
* [http://www.benjamingeissler.de/ENGLISH/bilder-EN.htm Documentary "Finding Pictures" of Benjamin Geissler]
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Polish novelist and painter
DATE OF BIRTH=
July 12 1892
PLACE OF BIRTH=Drohobycz,
DATE OF DEATH=
November 19 1942
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bruno Schulz — (* 12. Juli 1892 in Drohobycz, damals Österreich Ungarn, heute Ukraine; † 19. November 1942 ebenda) war ein polnisch jüdischer Schriftsteller, Literaturkritiker, Graphiker und Zeichner … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bruno Schulz — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Bruno Schulz (Drohobych, Ucrania, 12 de julio de 1892 – íbib., 19 de noviembre de 1942) fue un novelista y pintor polaco de religión judía, reconocido como uno de los mayores estilistas de la prosa polaca del siglo… … Wikipedia Español
Bruno Schulz — (12 de julio de 1892 – 19 de noviembre de 1942) fue un novelista y pintor polaco de religión judía, reconocido como uno de los mayores estilistas de la prosa polaca del siglo XX. Schulz nació en Drohobycz (hoy Drohobych), que entonces era parte… … Enciclopedia Universal
Bruno Schulz — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Schulz. Bruno Schulz … Wikipédia en Français
Bruno Schulz (Begriffsklärung) — Bruno Schulz ist der Name folgender Personen: Bruno Schulz (1892–1942), polnischer Schriftsteller, Literaturkritiker, Grafiker und Zeichner Bruno Schulz (Gelehrter) (1824–1890), deutscher Gelehrter und Maler Bruno Schulz (Architekt) (1865–1932),… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bruno Schulz (Architekt) — Bruno Schulz (* 24. Februar 1865 in Friedeberg, Neumark; † 1. April 1932 in Berlin; vollständiger Name: Karl Richard Bruno Schulz) war ein deutscher Architekt, preußischer Baubeamter, Bauforscher und Hochschullehrer. Leben Schulz wurde 1893 zum… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bruno Schulz (Psychiater) — Bruno Schulz (* 20. Juni 1890 in Braunschweig; † 7. Februar 1958 in München) war ein deutscher Erbbiologe und Psychiater. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Wirken 2 Werke (Auswahl) 3 Literatur … Deutsch Wikipedia
SCHULZ, BRUNO — (1892–1942), Polish author and painter. Born in Drogobycz, Galicia, Schulz trained as an architect and during the years 1924–39 taught art in the high school of his home town. Księga Bałwochwalcza, a volume of his collected pictures, appeared in… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
SCHULZ (B.) — SCHULZ BRUNO (1892 1942) Né à Drohobycz (Galicie orientale), dans une vieille famille juive pratiquante, Bruno Schulz s’est spécialisé en dessin et en lithographie. En 1924 il s’établit professeur de dessin dans sa ville natale et y resta jusqu’à … Encyclopédie Universelle
Schulz — is a common German family name in Northern Germany. It is roughly equivalent to the English family name Constable; the German word Schulz originates from the local official known as Dorf Schulz(e) , a local law enforcement officer like a police… … Wikipedia