United States Interests Section in Havana
The United States Interests Section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana, Cuba or USINT Havana (the State Department telegraphic address) represents US interests in
Cuba. It is staffed by United States Foreign Servicepersonnel and local staff employed by the US Department of State. USINT Havana and its counterpart, the "Interests Section of the Republic of Cuba" in Washington, are formally Sections of the respective Embassies of Switzerland, although they operate independently of the Swiss in virtually all but protocol respects. The two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations, but their respective Interests Sections function as de facto embassies. The current Chief of USINT Havana is Jonathan D. Farrar who replaced Michael E. Parmlyin 2008.
According to the USINT's website,
"The functions of USINT are similar to those of any U.S. government presence abroad: Consular Services, a Political and Economic Section, a Public Diplomacy Program, and Refugee Processing unique to Cuba.
"The objectives of USINT in Cuba is to promote a peaceful transition to a democratic system based on respect for rule of law, individual human rights and open economic and communication systems.
"Bilateral relations are based upon the Migration Accords designed to promote safe, legal and orderly migration, the Interests Section Agreement, and efforts to reduce global threats from crime and narcotics" [ [http://havana.usinterestsection.gov/history.html History - U.S. Interest Section Havana, Cuba ] ]
The U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is inaccessible from within Cuba. Consular issues regarding the naval base are handled by the U.S. Embassy in Kingston, Jamaica. [ [http://havana.usinterestsection.gov/acs.html American Citizen Services - U.S. Interest Section Havana, Cuba ] ]
When the US broke diplomatic relations with Cuba on
January 3, 1961, ostensibly due to a disagreement about staffing levels at the respective Embassies. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhowerstated at the time, "There is a limit to what the United States in self-respect can endure. That limit has now been reached". Protective powers were appointed to represent each country in the capital of the other. The US was represented by the Swiss in Havana and the Cubans in Washington by the Czechoslovak Republic. These offices, Sections of respective embassies, were staffed by Swiss and Czech diplomats. US and Cuban Interests Sections staffed by actual US and Cuban diplomats were mutually agreed upon in 1977 after the Carter Administrationtook office and decided to seek normalization of relations with Cuba. US officials replaced the Swiss when in the US Interests Section in Havana on September 1, 1977. Both under the Swiss and now with US staff, the Section has occupied the former United States Embassy building on Havana's Malecon which was designed by Harrison Abramovitzarchitects and originally entered into service in 1953. When relations were broken in 1961, the building was occupied, and its contents safeguarded, by the Swiss Embassy personnel who handled US Interests in Cuba on behalf of the US Government as the protecting poweruntil the arrival of the US staff in 1977.
The Swiss staff included some of the Foreign Service National employees who were working at the US Embassy when relations were broken. Sixteen years later when the US Government resumed its presence, many of them remained and resumed their direct employment. Most of the local hires employed by the Swiss also continued their employment. New hires were obtained through CUBALSE, the Cuban Government enterprise that serviced diplomatic missions.
The initial American staffing of the Section consisted of ten State Department Officials and a plain clothes
US Marineguard detachment. By mutual agreement, the Cubans had an equal number of staff in Washington. Lyle Franklin Lanewas the first Chief of the Interests Section in Havana. When they re-entered the building, they found items dating from the 1950s, including Eisenhower's photograph. [ [http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1977-9/1977-09-01-ABC-5.html US-Cuba Relations / Informal Embassies Open ABC News broadcast from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive ] ] Wayne Smith, who had closed the Embassy in 1961 as a young officer, replaced Lane in September 1979when the entire US staff turned over after an initial two year tour of duty. The former ambassadorial residence in Cubanacan is the official residence of the Section Chief.
After the initial bloom, bilateral relations deteriorated almost immediately as the extent of Cuban military involvement in Angola became clear to Washington. The first two years were a period of rebuilding contacts, dealing with the contents and condition of the building and the residence, repatriating dual national Americans and their families stranded in Cuba, securing the release of American prisoners held on political charges (including Lawrence K. Lunt, a suspected CIA agent [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2DD163FF934A15752C0A967958260 "Fourteen Years in Castro's Prisons"] ), servicing a large and growing prisoner population of American common criminals including marijuana smugglers and hijackers, repatriating Americans who had hijacked US planes to Cuba, and processing thousands of Cuban political prisoners released and allowed to leave Cuba if they could find a country that would take them.
During the first two years, only one US passenger aircraft was hijacked to Cuba from the US. President Castro went personally to the airport to manage the
June 12 1979incident involving Delta Air Linesflight 1061, a DC-10 piloted by Captain Vince Doda. It had been hijacked by Eduardo Guerra Jimenez, a former Cuban air force pilot who had hijacked a MIG jet to the United States 10 years earlier. Castro personally interfaced with and briefed the US Consular Officer, Tom Holladay, who had been sent to the scene. Castro assured the US Government that Cuba would adhere to the terms of the bilateral anti-hijacking agreement even though it was in suspension due to disagreements over US handling of Cuban boatjackers. When asked, Castro also authorized the passengers to purchase items from airport shops with hard currency. The aircraft and passengers returned to the US without delay or incident. Because they could not accept the Captain's credit cards, Cuba extended Delta credit for the refueling with the assurance the Interests Section would make the payment later on receipt of funds from Delta via the Department of State. The Consular staff, inexperienced, and including very green locally hired staff and temporary duty personnel, including INS officers and local employees from the Embassy in Mexico, was overwhelmed by the initial heavy workload and the inadequate conditions but managed to keep the work flowing. The Immigrant visa workload was very heavy but not very productive. Thousands of approved immigrant petitions flowed in but few beneficiaries had permission to depart the country and those that did had no petitions.
In the aftermath of the "dialogo" between a group of prominent Miami Cubans, led by
Bernardo Benes, and the Cuban government, secret bilateral talks were held in Mexico City in which Cuba agreed to release 2500 political prisoners at the rate of 500 per month and the US agreed to take them. The Cubans released the first tranche and an initial high profile group, including Polita Grauand Tony Cuestawas moved to the US expeditiously. However, due to bureaucratic hangups about parole quotas, INS scheduling, and name checks it was soon apparent that the US could not process the prisoners fast enough to maintain the release schedule. The Cubans continued to release the prisoners as scheduled but the processing did not keep up. By late August, the US was hopelessly behind in processing the released prisoners, some of whom had married after release. As the non-aligned meeting approached the Cubans threatened to set up a camp for the unprocessed prisoners in front of the Interest Section and drive the delegates to the international meeting past to show them how the US lives up to its commitments. Even this threat failed to accelerate the process although the Interests Section staff did all it could to do so. Washington hang ups were slow to resolve but the Cubans did not set up the threatened camp.
Role during the Mariel Boatlift
In early 1979, as more and more Cubans were authorized to leave the country, and could not find countries, including the United States, that would admit them, the internal situation became increasingly unstable, eventually leading to the
Mariel Boatliftin April 1980. The US government had led the Cuban government to believe that it would take most of the former political prisoners and their families it authorized to depart. However, it was not possible to fulfill this commitment. A large band of ex political prisoners with permission to leave and no place to go made daily rounds of the Embassies of Venezuela and Spain, as well as the US Interests Section, in search of visas. The Cuban government told the Interests Section it suspected that the US was attempting to destabilize the internal order of the country by using these desperate dissidents to fuel further popular discontent and warned that if immediate action to document these Cubans for emigration was not forthcoming, they would take matters into their own hands. They had done so before during the Johnson Administration when they opened the port of Camarioca to vessels from Miami picking up the relatives who wanted to leave. In that case the crisis was disarmed with the establishment of a formal orderly program to screen applicants and airlift the emigrants to the US. This program was terminated by the Nixon Administration leaving several thousand applicants unattended.
Although the Mariel boatlift was partially a Cuban response to Western failure to take the dissident unadapted prisoners and ex prisoners out of Cuba, it was sparked by the removal of the Cuban security guards from the Embassy of Peru compound resulting in its being overrun by thousands of Cuban asylum seekers. Leaving the country was again in vogue as the US-Cuban relationship improved. Cuban members of divided families were encouraged to seek exit permission. For those for whom legal channels were not available, since early 1979, increasing numbers of Cubans had tried to gain access to Foreign Embassies in Havana to gain asylum and safe passage abroad. Large groups entered diplomatic compounds by jumping from adjacent buildings and by ramming gates and perimeter fences with buses and trucks. In such an attempt at the Embassy of Peru, a Cuban guard was killed by friendly fire. Cuba precipitously removed the perimeter guards and over ten thousand Cuban asylum seekers flooded the compound. Eventually 125,000 Cubans left the island in the ensuing months, mostly to the United States. Also during the Mariel period a group of Cuban civilians waiting in front of the Interests Section was attacked by government employees and sought refuge inside the building. A junior Consular Officer,
Susan Johnson Lamanna, was accused of inciting the crowd and was expelled from Cuba as persona non grata. The Cubans had been secretly filming Consular crowd dispersal activities at the front entrance and used the film as evidence of incitement.
A renovation of the building was undertaken and finally completed in 1997, 20 years after the US Interests Section staff took occupancy.
Relations with the Cuban government and support for dissidents
Some observers trace a deterioration in relations with the Cuban government to the arrival of
James Casonas head of mission. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2863005.stm BBC NEWS | Americas | Cuba cracks down on dissidents ] ] Cason stepped up US support for opponents to the Castro government, and regularly met dissidents and anti-Castro journalists.
In March 2003, approximately 75 dissidents were jailed by the Cuban authorities for allegedly receiving unlawful payments from the Interests Section. Some of these were participants in the
Varela Project, though the leader of that project, Oswaldo Payá, was careful to stress his distance from the Americans.
USINT has long been a focus for propaganda between Cuba and the US. In the late 1990s, this was little more than a billboard facing USINT with a cartoon revolutionary shouting to Uncle Sam "Señores Imperialistas ¡No les tenemos absolutamente ningun miedo!" - "Messrs Imperialists. We have absolutely no fear of you!" In 2005 that billboard was repositioned to a nearby site - now facing across the sea to Florida. [http://www.traveloutward.com/articles/caribbean/images/6.jpg]
Elián Gonzálezcase, the area to the east of USINT (previously a grassed area containing the above-mentioned billboard) was paved and a stage was built. It is known as the Permanent Anti-Imperialist Forum in Cuba. Whilst originally used for rallies and protest meeting (particularly those protesting against actions by the US government), this stage has also been used for concerts, such as Audioslave's concert released on their album " Live in Cuba".
The grounds of the USINT annually feature a Christmas display - including a Santa Claus, a Frosty the snowman and a sleigh. In 2004, the display also included a large number "75". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4097367.stm BBC NEWS | World | Americas | Cuba threat over Christmas lights ] ] This was in reference to the jailed dissidents (see above). The Cuban government, in response to Section Chief
James Cason's refusal to remove the sign, placed several large billboards facing the building, carrying images of the abuse in Abu Ghraib and references to Nazis. [ [http://i68.photobucket.com/albums/i39/zleitzen/Havana.jpgPhotograph of billboard] ]
In January 2006, USINT began displaying messages on a scrolling "electronic billboard" in the windows of their top floor. Messages include the
George Burnsquotation, "How sad that all the people who would know how to run this country are driving taxis or cutting hair." [ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/12/AR2006051201879.html Havana's 148 Flags Prove Mightier Than the Billboard ] Following a protest march, the Cuban government erected a large number of poles, carrying black flags with single white stars, obscuring the messages. In June 2006, Granma International referred to the billboard as "the systematic launching of the crudest insults of our people via the electronic billboard, which, in violation of the most elemental regulations of international law, they think they can maintain with impunity on the facade of that imperial lair." [http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/junio/mar13/25papeles.html]
Also during 2006, the Cuban billboards began carrying images of President Bush and
Luis Posada Carrilesas vampires and axe-murderers.
Cuba-United States relations
American diplomatic missions
* [http://havana.usinterestsection.gov/ US Interest Section in Havana]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4105673.stm Article about "billboard war" December 2004]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4649574.stm Article about US electronic billboard Jan 2006]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4688300.stm Article about the Cuban flag protest]
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