Afro-Arab (sometimes referred to as African Arab) refers to people who possess both
black Africanand Arabancestry. [Gustavo Benavides, M. W. Daly, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix1z5GW_w5QC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=Daly,+Religion+and+Political+Power,+SUNY&source=web&ots=u9_2vhDmaK&sig=yPO8fOWSosHEl859ksBPFTg40Xg&hl=en#PPA84,M1 Religion and Political Power] ," SUNYPress, 1989, 84.] There are large communities of Afro-Arabs in North Africa, East Africaand some Middle Easterncountries as well as, through recent migrations, Western Europe.
The phrase "Afro-Arab" also refers to
African Unionefforts to improve co-operation between Africa and countries of the Arab world. [Sarah Grainger, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7293364.stm Uganda celebrates Afro-Arab unity] , BBC News, March 13, 2008.]
The Arabs of the
Middle Easthave very old connections to the African continent, and in addition more than half the Arab world now exists in Africa (in terms of area, and possibly population too), i.e. from Egypt and Sudan in the east to Mauritania in the west, although much of the North African population are Berbers(a separate, native ethnic group speaking an Afro-Asiaticlanguage) or ArabizedBerbers. The Islamic worldcovers even more area, ie. Nigeriain the west and many other West African nations too. So this intermingling of peoples from the African continent, along with the spread of Islam, has resulted in large populations of African Arab peoples covering a vast area of Africa. Present-day Sudanis home to millions of Arabs, with 40% of the population identifying themselves under the ethnic group of 'Arabs' even though the option of 'Afro-Arabs' is also available. Afro-Arabs within the Middle Eastitself are for the most part descendants of African slaves who were brought there during the arab slave trade. [Theola Labb, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A6645-2004Jan10 A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight, Iraqis of African Descent Are a Largely Overlooked Link to Slavery] , January 11, 2004; Page A01.] [Susan Beckerleg, [http://members.tripod.com/~yajaffar/african.html Hidden History, Secret Present: the Origins and Status of African Palestinians] , translated by Salah Al Zaroo.] East Africahosts a significant Afro-Arab population, especially along the Swahilicoast, such as in Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Malindi, the Comoros, Bagamoyo, and Ujiji. [R. E. S. Tanner, Cousin Marriage in the Afro-Arab Community of Mombasa, Kenya, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Apr., 1964), pp. 127-138 ] [Patricia Romero Curtin, Laboratory for the Oral History of Slavery: The Island of Lamu on the Kenya Coast, The American Historical Review, Vol. 88, No. 4 (Oct., 1983), pp. 858-882 ]
Darfur conflictis among Arab and non-Arab speaking black Africans of many ethnicities in Sudan. [Askia Muhammad, [http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/article_3474.shtml Sudanese president answers questions on Darfur] , The Final Call, May 14, 2007. Quote: "'Talk of Arabs killing Blacks is a lie,'” said Pres. Bashir in what may have been the first inter-active video conference between an African head of state with a Black group in this country. 'The government of Sudan is a government of Blacks, with all different ethnic backgrounds,' he continued. 'We’re all Africans. We’re all Black.'"] [ [http://www.arabmediawatch.com/amw/CountryBackgrounds/Sudan/DarfurBlackvsArab/tabid/162/Default.aspx Darfur: Black vs Arab?] , Arab Media Watch.] [Mahmood Mamdani, [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n05/mamd01_.html The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency] , London Review of Books, Vol. 29, No. 5, March 8, 2007.]
Arab states of the Persian Gulf, descendants of East Africans from Tanzaniaand Zanzibarperform Liwa and Fann At-Tanburamusic and dance [ [http://www.afropop.org/multi/feature/ID/692 Africans in the Arabian Gulf] , Afropop Worldwide.] [Poul Rovsing Olsen, "La Musique Africaine dans le Golfe Persique", Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 19, (1967), pp. 28-36] . Mizmar (dance)is performed in the Hejazregion of Saudi Arabia
Arab slave trade
* [http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=Africa&x=ArabBlacks "Black African and Arab intermarriage in East Africa"] -a cited [http://www.ColorQ.org ColorQ.org] essay
* [http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=Asia&x=BlackWestAsians "Black Africans in (Arab) West Asia"] -a cited [http://www.ColorQ.org ColorQ.org] essay
* Prof. Helmi Sharawy, [http://www.ipoaa.com/arab_culture_african_culture.htm Arab Culture and African Culture: ambiguous relations] , paper extracted from the book "The Dialogue between the Arab culture and other cultures"',
Arab League, Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organisation (ALECSO), Tunis, 1999.
* [http://www.afropop.org/multi/feature/ID/692 Africans in the Arabian Gulf] , Afropop Worldwide
* [http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Decisions/com/28CoM_1987a.pdf Resolution on Afro-arab Co-operation] of The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, 23, February 23-28, 1987.
* [http://www.iss.co.za/AF/RegOrg/unity_to_union/pdfs/arab/aulasrepmay05.pdf African Union/league of Arab States Inter-secretariat Consultative Meeting On Afro-arab Cooperation] , Addis Ababa: 10 – 12 May 2005.
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