image_caption = The
OrontesRiver flowing through Antakya
subdivision_name1 = Mediterranean
subdivision_name2 = Hatay
population_total = 144910|population_footnotes=
population_footnotes = 2000
elevation_m = 67|postal_code_type=
postal_code = 31
blank_info = 31|blank_name=Licence plate
area_code = (0)326
latd=36 |latm=12 |lats= |latNS=N|longd= 36|longm=09 |longs= |longEW=E
Antakya ( _ar. انطاكية, "Anṭākyä"; _el. Ἀντιόχεια, "Antiókheia" or "Antiócheia") is the seat of the
Hatay Provincein southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. In ancient times the city was known as Antiochand has historical significance for Christianity, being the place where the followers of Jesus Christwere called "Christians" for the very first time. The city and its massive walls also played an important role during the Crusades.
Antakya is located on the banks of the
Orontes River( _tr. Asi Nehri), approximately convert|22|km|mi|0|abbr=on inland from the Mediterraneancoast. It enjoys a Mediterranean climatewith hot and dry summers, and mild and wet winters; however due to its higher altitude, Antakya has slightly cooler temperatures than the coast. The city is in a valley surrounded by mountains, the Nur Mountainsto the north and Mount Keldağ( Jebel Akrato the south, with the 440 m high Mount Habib Neccar(ancient Silpius) forming its eastern limits. The mountains are a source of a green marble. Antakya is at the northern edge of the Dead Sea Riftand vulnerable to earthquakes.
The plain of
Amikto the north-east of the city is fertile soil watered by the Orontes, the Karasu Riverand the Afrin River, the lake in the plain was drained in 1980 by a French company. At the same time channels were built to widen the Orontes Riverand let it pass neatly through the city centre. The Orontes is joined in Antakya by the Hacı Kürüşstream to the north-east of the city near the church of St Peter, and the Hamşenwhich runs down from Habib-i Neccar to the south-west, under Memekli Bridge near the army barracks. Flora includes the bay trees and myrtle.
The city of Antakya today
Habib Neccarand the city walls which climb the hillsides symbolise Antakya, making the city a formidable fortress built on a series of hills running north-east to south-west. Antakya was originally centred on the eastern bank of the river but since the 19th century the city has expanded with new neighbourhoods built on the plains across the river to the south-west, and there are four bridges across the river linking the old and new cities. However, as in so much of Turkey, the buildings of the last two decades are all concrete blocks, and Antakya has lost much of its classic beauty. The narrow streets of the old city can be clogged with traffic.
Although the port of
Iskenderunhas become the largest city in Hatay, Antakya is a provincial capital still of considerable importance as the centre of a large district, growing in wealth and productiveness with the draining of Lake Amik. The town is a lively shopping and business centre with many restaurants, cinemas and other amenities, centred on a large park opposite the governor's building and the central avenue "Kurtuluş Caddesı". The tea gardens, cafes and restaurants in the neighbourhood of "Harbiye" are one of the city's most popular spots, particularly for the variety of mezein the restaurants. The OrontesRiver is rather smelly when water is low in summer. Although the people are generally modern in outlook, there is little in the way of wild night life. In the summer heat people will stay outside until late in the night walking with their families and friends and munching on snacks.
Being so near the Syrian border Antakya is a cosmopolitan city unlike most of the cities in Turkey today, and it has not experienced the 1980s and 1990s mass immigration of people from eastern Anatolia that has radically swelled the populations of other Mediterranean cities such as
Adanaand Mersin. As a result both Turkish and Arabicare still widely spoken in Antakya although you do not see Arabic written very much. A mixed community of faiths and demoninations co-exist peacefully here; although almost all the inhabitants are Muslima substantial proportion adhere to the Aleviand the Arab Nusayri traditions, in 'Harbiye' there is a place to honour the Nusayri saint Hızır. There are a number of tombs of Muslim saints, both Sunniand Alevi, throughout the city. There are also still small active Christian communities in the city, the largest church being St Peter and St Paul on Hurriyet Caddesi. With its long history of spiritual and religious movements Antakya is still a place of pilgrimage for Christians and Muslims and furthermore still carries a reputation in Turkey as a centre of spells, fortune telling, miracles and spirits.
Local crafts include a soap scented with oil of
bay tree. Infobox Weather
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The cuisine of Antakya is renowned. Popular dishes include the typical Turkish
kebab, served in Antakya with spices and onions in flat unleavened bread, or with yoghurt as ali nazikkebab. Hot spicy food is a feature of this part of Turkey, along with Turkish coffeeand local specialities including:
Künefe- a hot Arabic cheese pastry sweet. Antakya is Turkey's künefe capital, with the pastry shops in the centre all proclaiming themselves king _tr. kral. The secret is in the light yellow cheese that they use.
Müşebbek- rings of deep fried pastry.
Pomegranatesyrup, used as a salad dressing, called debes ramman, a traditional Levantine Arabicdressing.
Semirseka thin bread with hot pepper, minced meat or spinach filling
Içli köfteand oruk- varieties of the Arabic kibbeh, deep-fried balls of bulgurstuffed with minced meat.
* Spicy chicken, a speciality of Harbiye
Za'atara traditional Levantine Arabicspiced thyme, oregano, and sesame seeds, mixed with olive oil, spread on flat arabicbread.
chick peas, munched as a snack.
* Hirise , ethnic bolied and pounded wheat eat.
Hummus- the chick-pea dip
Surke- the spicy sun-dried cheese
Çökelek- dried curdsserved in spicy olive oil
Eelsfrom the Orontes, spiced and fried in olive oil.
Antiochfor the long, rich history of this area in the ancient and classical periods, dating back to the Calcolithic era of 5000 BC (as revealed by excavations of the mound of Tell-Açanaamong others). Subsequent rulers of the area include Alexander the Great, who after defeating the Persiansin 333 BC followed the Orontessouth into Syria. The city of Antioch was founded in 300 BC, after the death of Alexander, by the SeleucidKing Antiochus Soter, and went on to play an important part in the history as one of the largest cities in the Roman Empireand Byzantium, a key location of the early years of Christianity, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the rise of Islamand The Crusades.
The Ottoman city of Antakya
In 1822 (and again in 1872), Antakya was hit by an earthquake so when Ottoman general
Ibrahim Pashaestablished his headquarters in the city in 1835, it had only some 5000 inhabitants. It was hoped that the city might develop thanks to the Euphratesvalley railway, which was supposed to link it to the port of Suedia (now Samandağı). But such plans were doomed to come to naught. Instead, the city was struck by repeated outbreaks of cholera. Later the city did nevertheless develop and rapidly resumed much of its old importance when a railway was built along the lower Orontes valley.
The Republic of Hatay and modern Turkey
Hatay Provincefor the history of the region during the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the short-lived Republic of Hatay(in 1938), and the areas incorporation into the Republic of Turkey in 1939.
Places of interest
With its remarkable history there is much for visitors to see in Antakya, although much has doubtless been lost in the rapid and ugly growth of the city in recent decades.
Antakya Archaeological Museumhas the second largest collection of Roman mosaicsin the world, found when excavating Roman villas on the hillside at Harbiye. (Entry is 5 lira for foreigners, 2 lira for Turkish citizens).
* the rock-carved "
Church of St Peter", with its network of refuges and tunnels carved out of the rock, a site of Christian pilgrimage. There are also tombs cut into the rock face at various places along the Orontes valley.
* The seedy "Gündüz cinema" in the city centre was once used as parliament building of the
Republic of Hatay.
* the waterfall and restaurants at "Harbiye".
* The Ottoman "Habib-i Neccar Camii" is the oldest mosque in Antakya.
* The labyrinth of narrow streets in the old market area
* The views of the city from the hillsides above
With its rich architectural heritage, Antakya is a member of the
Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions[http://www.historic-towns.org/documents/members/turkey.doc] . Sadly the Roman bridge (thought to date from the era of Diocletianwas destroyed in 1972 during the widening and channelling of the Orontes.Fact|date=May 2008
Aalen, Germany(since 1995).
* Alexandros (
1st century BC) Greek sculptor
Selâhattin Ülkümen- Righteous among the nations
* [http://antakyam.net/ pictures Photo Galery]
* [http://www.hatay.gov.tr/ the provincial governor's website]
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/Antakya Pictures of Antakya]
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/antakya_museum Pictures of Antakya Museum]
* [http://www.hatayportal.org/galeri/ Pictures of Hatay]
* [http://www.hataygazetesi.com/ the local newspaper]
* [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/tr-hatay.html Flag and info of the Republic of Hatay]
* [http://www.mku.edu.tr/ Mustafa Kemal University]
* [http://www.turkeyforecast.com/weather/hatay/ Hatay Weather Forecast Information]
* [http://www.asyaradyo.com Hatay Radio Station]
* [http://www.antakya.tv/ Tourist information and pictures about Hatay/Antakya with webcams and weather information]
* [http://www.hatayradyosu.com Hatay Radio Station]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Antakya — [än΄tə kyä′] Turk. name for ANTIOCH (Syria) … English World dictionary
Antakya — Vorlage:Infobox Ort in der Türkei/Wartung/Landkreis Antakya … Deutsch Wikipedia
Antakya — Antioche 36°12.08′N 36°09.9′E / 36.20133, 36.165 … Wikipédia en Français
Antakya — or Antakiyah or ancient Antioch geographical name city S Turkey on the Orontes population 123,871 … New Collegiate Dictionary
Antakya — /ahn tah kyah/, n. Turkish name of Antioch. * * * … Universalium
Antakya — Antạkya, Hauptstadt der Provinz Hatay in Südanatolien, Türkei, am Orontes (Asi Nehri) nach seinem Austritt aus der Amikebene, 124 000 Einwohner; Sitz eines orthodoxen Patriarchen; archäologisches Museum (römische Mosaiken); Wirtschaft: im… … Universal-Lexikon
Antakya — turco Antiochia stor … Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione
Antakya — An•ta•kya [[t]ɑnˈtɑ kyɑ[/t]] n. geg Turkish name of Antioch … From formal English to slang
Antakya — /æntəˈkiə/ (say antuh keeuh) noun → Antioch … Australian English dictionary
Antakya — noun a town in southern Turkey; ancient commercial center and capital of Syria; an early center of Christianity • Syn: ↑Antioch, ↑Antakiya • Instance Hypernyms: ↑town • Part Holonyms: ↑Turkey, ↑Republic of Turkey … Useful english dictionary