Treaty of Prairie du Chien


Treaty of Prairie du Chien

The Treaty of Prairie du Chien may refer to any of several treaties made and signed in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin between the United States, representatives from the Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ioway, Winnebago and the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomi) Native American peoples.

1825

The first treaty of Prairie du Chien was signed by William Clark and Lewis Clark for the United States and representatives of the Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ioway, Winnebago and the Anishinaabeg on August 19, 1825 and proclaimed on February 6, 1826.

Due to the overall tribal movements toward the western direction, the Sioux Nation were in often in conflict with their neighbours. This treaty begins by establishing peace between the Sioux and their neighbours: Chippewa, Sac and Fox, and Ioway peoples. The treaty continues by demarcating formal boundaries between each of the tribal groups, often called the "Prairie du Chien Line." For tribes who rarely had rigid boundaries, the Prairie du Chien Line served as a hindrance due to a provision in the treaty stating that tribes were to hunt within the acknowledged limits. The series of Prairie du Chien Line served as the land cession boundaries in later treaties. Due to the vast scope of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien and not all of the necessary tribes were present at the signing of this treaty, the treaty also made a provision for additional councils to be held the following year in 1826 (see Treaty of Fond du Lac). Along with these additional councils, the Chippewa agreed to additional meetings.

1829

Two treaties were negotiated simultaneously at Prairie du Chien in the summer of 1829, both signed by General John McNeil, Colonel Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater for the United States. Both treaties were proclaimed on January 2, 1830.

First of these, the second Treaty of Prairie du Chien, concluded on on July 29, 1829, was between the United States and representatives of the Council of Three Fires (also known as the "United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians"). This treaty ceded to the United States an area in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin, as well as the area currently occupied by the cities of Wilmette, Illinois and Evanston, Illinois. This treaty established reservation areas in western Illinois for the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation, who were subsequently removed to Kansas. This treaty also preserved the rights of the Council of Three Fires to hunt in the ceded territory. The U.S. also received many acres of timber.

Second of these, third Treaty of Prairie du Chien, concluded on August 1, 1829, was made between the United States and representatives of the Winnebago tribe, it also resulted in the cession of land in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin.

1830

The fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien was negotiated between the United States and the Sac and Fox, the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton and Sisiton Sioux, Omaha, Ioway, Otoe and Missouria tribes. The treaty was signed on July 15, 1830, with William Clark and Willoughby Morgan representing the United States. Conducted in St. Louis, Yankton Sioux and Santee Sioux agreed to the adhesion to the 1830 Treaty of Prairie du Chien on October 13, 1830. The treaty and its adhesion was proclaimed on February 24, 1831.

In this treaty, the tribes agreed to land cession of three large tracts of land: two strips of land 20 miles wide each on either side of the boundary established by the first (1825) Treaty of Prairie du Chien (roughly from La Crosse, Wisconsin to Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin), extending from the Mississippi River to the Des Moines River in what today is southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa and a large triangular tract of land in northwestern Missouri, western Iowa and southern Minnesota from Kansas City, Missouri due north to the Des Moines River, to the area about Spirit Lake, Iowa to Worthington, Minnesota, down Rock River, down the Missouri River and back to Kansas City. The large triangular tract was later ceded by additional tribes as the Platte Purchase in 1836.

References

External links

* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0250.htm Text of the 1825 Treaty]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0297.htm Text of the 1829 Treaty with the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/win0300.htm Text of the 1829 Treaty with the Winnebago]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sau0305.htm Text of the 1830 Treaty]


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