- Treaty of Prairie du Chien
The Treaty of Prairie du Chien may refer to any of several treaties made and signed in
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsinbetween the United States, representatives from the Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ioway, Winnebago and the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomi) Native American peoples.
The first treaty of Prairie du Chien was signed by William Clark and
Lewis Clarkfor the United Statesand representatives of the Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ioway, Winnebago and the Anishinaabeg on August 19, 1825and proclaimed on February 6, 1826.
Due to the overall tribal movements toward the western direction, the
SiouxNation were in often in conflict with their neighbours. This treaty begins by establishing peace between the Siouxand their neighbours: Chippewa, Sac and Fox, and Ioway peoples. The treaty continues by demarcating formal boundaries between each of the tribal groups, often called the "Prairie du Chien Line." For tribes who rarely had rigid boundaries, the Prairie du Chien Line served as a hindrance due to a provision in the treaty stating that tribes were to hunt within the acknowledged limits. The series of Prairie du Chien Line served as the land cession boundaries in later treaties. Due to the vast scope of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien and not all of the necessary tribes were present at the signing of this treaty, the treaty also made a provision for additional councils to be held the following year in 1826(see Treaty of Fond du Lac). Along with these additional councils, the Chippewa agreed to additional meetings.
Two treaties were negotiated simultaneously at Prairie du Chien in the summer of 1829, both signed by General John McNeil, Colonel Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater for the
United States. Both treaties were proclaimed on January 2, 1830.
First of these, the second Treaty of Prairie du Chien, concluded on on
July 29, 1829, was between the United States and representatives of the Council of Three Fires(also known as the "United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and PotawatomiIndians"). This treaty ceded to the United States an area in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin, as well as the area currently occupied by the cities of Wilmette, Illinoisand Evanston, Illinois. This treaty established reservation areas in western Illinois for the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation, who were subsequently removed to Kansas. This treaty also preserved the rights of the Council of Three Firesto hunt in the ceded territory. The U.S. also received many acres of timber.
Second of these, third Treaty of Prairie du Chien, concluded on
August 1, 1829, was made between the United States and representatives of the Winnebagotribe, it also resulted in the cession of land in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin.
The fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien was negotiated between the United States and the
Sac and Fox, the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton and Sisiton Sioux, Omaha, Ioway, Otoe and Missouriatribes. The treaty was signed on July 15, 1830, with William Clarkand Willoughby Morgan representing the United States. Conducted in St. Louis, Yankton Siouxand Santee Siouxagreed to the adhesion to the 1830 Treaty of Prairie du Chien on October 13, 1830. The treaty and its adhesion was proclaimed on February 24, 1831.
In this treaty, the tribes agreed to land cession of three large tracts of land: two strips of land 20 miles wide each on either side of the boundary established by the first (1825) Treaty of Prairie du Chien (roughly from
La Crosse, Wisconsinto Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin), extending from the Mississippi Riverto the Des Moines Riverin what today is southeastern Minnesotaand northeastern Iowaand a large triangular tract of land in northwestern Missouri, western Iowa and southern Minnesota from Kansas City, Missouridue north to the Des Moines River, to the area about Spirit Lake, Iowato Worthington, Minnesota, down Rock River, down the Missouri Riverand back to Kansas City. The large triangular tract was later ceded by additional tribes as the Platte Purchasein 1836.
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0250.htm Text of the 1825 Treaty]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0297.htm Text of the 1829 Treaty with the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/win0300.htm Text of the 1829 Treaty with the Winnebago]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sau0305.htm Text of the 1830 Treaty]
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