Polyp (medicine)

Infobox_Disease
Name = Colon polyps


Caption = Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery
DiseasesDB =
ICD10 = ICD10|K|63|5|k|55 & various
ICD9 =
ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus = 000266
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 414
MeshName = Polyp
MeshNumber = C23.300.825

A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue (tumor) projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, sinus(es), urinary bladder and uterus. They may also occur elsewhere in the body where mucous membranes exist like the cervix cite book | first=Toni | last=Weschler | year=2002 | title=Taking Charge of Your Fertility | pages=pp.227-228,330 | edition=Revised Edition | publisher=HarperCollins | location=New York | id=ISBN 0-06-093764-5 ] and small intestine.

Colorectal polyp

Colon polyps are uncommonly associated with symptoms. Occasionally rectal bleeding, and on rare occasions pain, diarrhea or constipation may occur because of colon polyps. Colon polyps are a concern because of the potential for colon cancer being present microscopically and the risk of benign colon polyps transforming with time into colon cancer. Since most polyps are asymptomatic, they are usually discovered at the time of colon cancer screening with either digital rectal exam (DRE), flexible sigmoidoscopy, Barium enema, colonoscopy or virtual colonoscopy. The polyps are routinely removed at the time of colonoscopy either with a polypectomy snare (P.Deyhle, 1970) or with biopsy forceps. If an adenomatous polyp is found with flexible sigmoidoscopy or if a polyp is found with any other diagnostic modality, the patient must undergo colonoscopy for removal of the polyp(s). Even though colon cancer is usually not found in polyps smaller than 2.5 cm, all polyps found are removed since the removal of polyps reduces the future likelihood of developing colon cancer. When adenomatous polyps are removed, a repeat colonoscopy is usually performed in three to five years.

Most colon polyps can be categorized as sporadic.

Inherited Polyposis Syndromes

* Familial adenomatous polyposis
* Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
* Turcot syndrome
* Juvenile polyposis syndrome
* Cowden disease
* Bannayan-Zonana syndrome

Non-inherited Polyposis Syndromes

* Cronkhite-Canada disease

Types of colon polyps

* malignant polyp
* Adenomatous
* Hamartomatous
* Hyperplastic
* Inflammatory

Endometrial polyp

An endometrial polyp or uterine polyp is a polyp or lesion in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) that takes up space within the uterine cavity. Commonly occurring, they are experienced by up to 10% of women.cite book
last =Bates
first =Jane
title =Practical Gynaecological Ultrasound
publisher =Cambridge University Press
date =2007
pages =65
url =http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=oZ3RYlRAoxgC&pg=PP1&d
isbn = 1900151510
] They may have a large flat base (sessile) or be attached to the uterus by an elongated pedicle (pedunculated).cite web
title =Uterine polyps
publisher =MayoClinic.com
date =2006-04-27
url =http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/uterine-polyps/DS00699/DSECTION=1
accessdate =2007-10-20
] Pedunculated polyps are more common that sessile ones.cite book
last =Sternberg
first =Stephen S.
coauthors =Stacey E. Mills, Darryl Carter
title =Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology
publisher =Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
date =2004
pages =2460
url =http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=ko3Hew4xaj4C&d
isbn =0781740517
] They range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. If pedunculated, they can protrude through the cervix into the vagina.cite web
title =Dysmenorrhea: Menstrual abnormalities
publisher =Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy
date =2005
url =http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec18/ch244/ch244d.html
accessdate =2007-10-20
] Small blood vessels may be present in polyps, particularly large ones.

Cervical polyp

A cervical polyp is a common benign polyp or tumor on the surface of the cervical canal.cite book
last =Boon
first =Mathilde E.
coauthors =Albert J. H. Suurmeijer
title =The Pap Smear
publisher =Taylor & Francis
date =1996
pages =87
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=umcl4R3sp2AC&pg=PA87&d
isbn =3718658577
] They can cause irregular menstrual bleeding but often show no symptoms.cite book
last =Bates
first =Jane
title =Practical Gynaecological Ultrasound
publisher =Cambridge University Press
date =1997
pages =77
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=oZ3RYlRAoxgC&pg=PA77&d
isbn =1900151510
] Treatment consists of simple removal of the polyp and prognosis is generally good.cite web
last =Smith
first =Melanie N.
title =Cervical polyps
publisher =MEDLINE
date =2006-05-10
url =http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001494.htm
accessdate =2007-11-05
] About 1% of cervical polyps will show neoplastic change which may lead to cancer. [Citation
last =Tillman
first =Elizabeth
title =Short Instructor Materials
publisher =Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
format =PDF
url =http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:7uWWuX7sq-4J:www.cdc.gov/DES/hcp/resources/materials/clinician_short_inst.pdf+%22cervical+polyp%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=uk
accessdate =2007-10-21
] They are most common in post-menstrual, pre-menopausal women who have given birth.cite book
last =Bosze
first =Peter
coauthors =David M. Luesley
title =Eagc Course Book on Colposcopy
publisher =Informa Health Care
date =2004
pages =66
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=bg6FxsY1xTUC&pg=PA66&d
isbn =9630073560
]

Nasal polyp

Footnotes

External links

* [http://www.screen4coloncancer.org/ ASGE Website dedicated to colon cancer awareness and early detection.]
* [http://www.askasge.org ASGE Website educating the public about endoscopy.]
* [http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colonpolyps_ez/ National Institutes of Health polyp website]
* [http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic567.htm Thorough review of polyposis syndromes by Dr. Ali Nawaz Khan with CME available]
* [http://personalweb.sunset.net/~mansell/polyp.htm Explanation of colon polyps and colon cancer in lay terms.]
* [http://www.omed.org/downloads/pdf/publications/how_i_doit/2007/omed_hid_removing_large_or_sessile_colonic_polyps.pdf "How I Do It" — Removing large or sessile colonic polyps] . Dr. Brian Saunders MD FRCP; St. Mark’s Academic Institute; Harrow, Middlesex, UK. Retrieved April 9, 2008.


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