Boeing 747-400


Boeing 747-400

infobox Aircraft
name = Boeing 747-400
type = Airliner
manufacturer = Boeing Commercial Airplanes




caption = A Boeing 747-400 operated by British Airways, the largest operator of the 747
designer =
first flight = April 29 1988
introduction = February 9 1989 (Northwest Airlines)
retired =
status = In service
primary user = British Airways
more users = Japan Airlines Lufthansa Qantas
produced = Passenger version: 1988-2005 Freighter version: 1988-Present
number built =
unit cost = US$230 million (2006)
developed from = Boeing 747
variants with their own articles = Boeing 747-8 Boeing YAL-1

The Boeing 747-400 is the most recent version of the Boeing 747 in service. The -400 series is the best selling and the most advanced model of the 747 family. The 747-400 is being replaced by the Boeing 747-8.

Design and development

The 747-400 was announced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in October 1985. Compared to the 747-300 the 747-400 has ft to m|6 wing tip extensions and ft to m|6 winglets, and a glass cockpit which dispensed with the need for a flight engineer. The 747-400 also improved on the -300 with tail fuel tanks, revised engines, an all-new interior, revised fuselage/wing fairings and newer in-flight entertainment. Like the 747-300, the passenger version of the 747-400 included the stretched upper deck (SUD) as a standard feature. The SUD was almost twice as long as the standard upper deck. It had previously been offered as a retrofit and first appeared on two Japanese 747-100 SR models. [ [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=99 Boeing 747-300] , Airliners.net] While the wingspan was increased, the overall weight of the wings was decreased due to the use of composites and aluminum alloys.

It was rolled out in January 1988 and first flew on April 29, 1988. Certification was received on January 10, 1989 with PW4000 engines, May 18, 1989 with CF6-80C2s and June 8, 1989 with RB211-524Gs. The first 747-400 was delivered to Northwest Airlines on January 26, 1989, with service entry on February 9. [http://boeing.com/commercial/747family/background.html About the 747 Family] , Boeing, retrieved 12 June, 2006.]

The extended range freighter (ERF) entered service in October 2002. The next month, the extended range (ER) passenger version entered service with Qantas, the only airline ever to order the passenger version of the 747-400ER. Qantas uses the aircraft on its Melbourne-Los Angeles and Sydney-San Francisco flights, which are too long to operate using a standard 747-400.

The Boeing Signature Interior was later made available on the 747-400, either as interior refitting on existing 747-400s or as a "fresh-from-installation" option on newer 747-400s and 747-400ERs. One example, China Airlines's four newest Boeing 747-400s (tail number B-1821x), also the last four passenger 747-400s built, were newly built with Boeing Signature Interior. One of these (B-18210) has a hybrid livery, with China Airlines' tail and Boeing's fuselage liveries.

Variants

747-400

The 747-400 is an improved version of the 747-300 with increased wingspan, winglets, revised engines and a glass cockpit that removed the need for a flight engineer. The 747-400 passenger version features a stretched upper deck (SUD) like the 747-300 as a standard feature. In 1989, a Qantas 747-400 flew non-stop from London to Sydney, a distance of 9,720 nmi (11,190 mi, 18,000 km) in 20 hours and 9 minutes, although this was a delivery flight with no passengers or freight aboard. [ [http://www.qantas.com.au/info/about/history/details16 "Boeing aircraft Take Qantas Further"] , Qantas Access date: 29 April 2006.]

Production of the 747-400 passenger version officially ceased on March 15, 2007. [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/307716_boeing16.html "747-400 passenger is no more"] , Seattle PI, 17 March, 2007.] The last four -400s on order were canceled by Philippine Airlines (which switched to the 777-300ER). The last to order the -400 was China Airlines in November 2002, with the last passenger 747-400 constructed in 2005 and delivered in April of that year. It was the 1358th 747 (MSN33737/B-18215). [Flight International, 27 March - 2 April 2007]

747-400F

The 747-400F (Freighter) is an all freight version which uses the fuselage design of the 747-200F. The aircraft's first flight was on May 4, 1993 and it entered service with Cargolux Airlines on November 17, 1993. Major customers include Atlas Air, Cargolux, China Airlines, Korean Air, Nippon Cargo Airlines, Polar Air Cargo, and Singapore Airlines. The -400F can be easily distinguished from the passenger -400 by its shorter upper-deck hump.

The United States Air Force has purchased seven 747-400Fs to act as "Airborne Laser" carriers, designated YAL-1A. The aircraft are heavily modified to carry a nose mounted turret and Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) equipment.

As of June 2008, Boeing had orders for six 747-400F aircraft yet to be completed. [http://active.boeing.com/commercial/orders/displaystandardreport.cfm?cboCurrentModel=747&optReportType=AllModels&cboAllModel=747&ViewReportF=View+Report 747 Model Orders and Deliveries data] , Boeing, June 2008. Retrieved: 27 July 2008.]

747-400M

The 747-400M (a passenger/freight or "Combi" variant) first flew on June 30, 1989 and entered service with KLM on September 12, 1989. The -400M has a large cargo door fitted to the rear of the fuselage. The last 747-400M was delivered to KLM on April 10, 2002. [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/background.html "About the 747 Family"] , Boeing.]

747-400D

The 747-400D (Domestic) is a high density seating model developed for short-haul domestic Japanese flights. The aircraft is capable of seating a maximum of 568 passengers in a 2-class configuration or 660 passengers in a single-class configuration. The -400D lacks the wing tip extensions and winglets included on other variants, allowing for increased number of takeoffs and landings by lowering wing stresses.Fact|date=April 2007 The benefits of winglets would be minimal on short routes. The -400D may be converted to the long range version when needed.

The 747-400 Domestic first flew on March 18, 1991 and entered service with Japan Airlines on October 22, 1991. The last was delivered to All Nippon Airways in December 1995.

747-400ER

The 747-400ER (Extended range) was launched on November 28, 2000 following an order by Qantas for 6 aircraft. This was ultimately the only order for the passenger version. The -400ER can fly an additional 805 km or carry 6,800 kg more freight. Qantas received the first -400ER on October 31, 2002.

The 747-400ER includes the option of 1 or 2 additional 3,240 US gallon body fuel tanks in the forward cargo hold. Manufactured by Marshall Aerospace, these tanks utilize innovative metal to metal honeycomb bonded technology to achieve an incredibly high dry weight to fuel volume ratio. Similar technology has been used in the development by Marshall of body fuel tanks for the 777-200LR and P-8A Poseidon MMA aircraft.

747-400ERF

The 747-400ERF is the freight version of the -400ER, launched on April 30, 2001. The -400ERF was delivered to Air France (via ILFC) on October 17, 2002. The 747-400ERF has a maximum payload of 248,600 pounds (112,760 kg)(maximum takeoff weight is 910,000 pounds) and offers the cargo airline the choice of either adding 22,000 pounds (9,980 kg) more payload than other 747-400 freighters, or adding 525 nautical miles to the maximum range. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/q2/080527b_pr.html Boeing, Cathay Pacific Airways Celebrate First 747-400ERF Delivery] ] It has a maximum range of 9,200 km, about 525 km farther than other 747-400 freighters, and has a strengthened fuselage, landing gear and parts of its wing, along with new, larger tires.

Boeing has seven 747-400ERF aircraft yet to be delivered in June 2008. The new 747-8 Freighter will have more payload capacity but less range than the 747-400ERF.

747-400BCF

The 747-400BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter), formerly known as the 747-400SF (Special Freighter), is a conversion program for standard passenger 747-400s. The project was launched in 2004. The first Boeing 747-400BCF was redelivered to Cathay Pacific Cargo and entered service on December 19 2005.

747 Large Cargo Freighter

Boeing announced in October 2003 that due to the length of time of marine shipping, air transport will be the primary method of transporting parts for the Boeing 787. Pre-owned passenger 747-400 aircraft have been converted into an outsize, "Large Cargo Freighter" configuration, in order to ferry sub-assemblies to Everett, Washington for final assembly. [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116822235075569896.html "Ugly in the Air: Boeing's New Plane Gets Gawks, Stares"] . Lunsford, J. L. "The Wall Street Journal". January 8, 2007.] The LCF has a bulging fuselage similar to that of the Super Guppy or Airbus Beluga cargo planes used for transporting wings and fuselage sections. The conversion, designed by Boeing engineers from Puget Sound, Moscow and Canoga Park, and Gamesa Aeronautica in Spain," [http://boeing.com/news/releases/2005/q1/nr_050222g.html Boeing's 747 Large Cargo Freighter Development on Plan] ." Boeing Commercial Airplanes press release. February 22, 2005.] is carried out in Taiwan by a subsidiary of the Evergreen Group." [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2005/q1/nr_050218g.html Boeing Selects EGAT for 747 Large Cargo Freighter Modifications] ." Boeing Commercial Airplanes press release. February 18, 2005.] Boeing has purchased four second-hand aircraft, converted two of them and two are being modified.

Delivery times will be reduced from up to 30 days to as low as a day with the 747 LCF. [http://www.boeing.com/news/feature/paris07/assets/bgs-facts/Fact%20Sheets/fct%20Dreamlifter.pdf 747 Dreamlifter fact sheet on Boeing.com] ] The Large Cargo Freighter can hold three times the volume of a 747-400F freighter." [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2003/q4/nr_031013g.html Boeing 7E7 Will Use Air Transport for Component Delivery] ." Boeing Commercial Airplanes press release. October 13, 2003.] Evergreen International Airlines, which is unrelated to the Evergreen Group, is the operator of the LCF fleet." [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/787family/news/2005/q4/051214a_nr.html Evergreen International Airlines, Inc. to Operate Boeing 747 Large Cargo Freighters] ." Boeing Commercial Airplanes press release. December 15, 2005.]

The LCF is not a Boeing production model and will not be sold to any customers or see any airliner operation. It will be for Boeing's exclusive use.

Current operators

Total Passenger Aircraft in service: 493 cn|date=July 2008

Passenger

(sorted by number of 747 in fleet, then by name of operator) (engine)
*flagicon|United Kingdom British Airways (57) (RB211)
*flagicon|Japan Japan Air Lines (38) (CF6)
*flagicon|Germany Lufthansa (30) (CF6)
*flagicon|Australia Qantas (30) (RB211/CF6)
*flagicon|United States United Airlines (29) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Hong Kong Cathay Pacific (23) (RB211/PW4056)
*flagicon|Netherlands KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (22) (CF6)
*flagicon|South Korea Korean Air (21) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Japan All Nippon Airways (19) (CF6)
*flagicon|Thailand Thai Airways International (18) (CF6)
*flagicon|United States Northwest Airlines (16) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Singapore Singapore Airlines (15) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Taiwan China Airlines (13) (PW4056/CF6)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Virgin Atlantic Airways (13) (CF6)
*flagicon|China Air China (12) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Malaysia Malaysia Airlines (10) (PW4056)
*flagicon|France Air France (10) (CF6)
*flagicon|Taiwan EVA Air (10) (CF6)
*flagicon|New Zealand Air New Zealand (8) (CF6/RB211)
*flagicon|India Air India (7) (PW4056)
*flagicon|France Corsairfly (6) (PW4056)
*flagicon|South Korea Asiana Airlines (5) (CF6)
*flagicon|Philippines Philippine Airlines (5) (CF6)
*flagicon|Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Airlines (5) (CF6)
*flagicon|Israel El Al (4) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Argentina Aerolineas Argentinas (3) (PW4056/CF6)
*flagicon|Indonesia Garuda Indonesia (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|Iran Mahan Air (3) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Fiji Air Pacific (2) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Morocco Royal Air Maroc (1) (CF6)

Cargo

(sorted by number of 747 in fleet, then by name of operator)
*flagicon|Hong Kong Cathay Pacific Cargo (20, 16 orders) (RB211/PW4056/CF6)
*flagicon|Taiwan China Airlines Cargo (20) (CF6)
*flagicon|South Korea Korean Air Cargo (23, 8 orders) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Singapore Singapore Airlines Cargo (14) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Luxembourg Cargolux (16, 13 orders) (RB211/CF6)
*flagicon|France Air France Cargo (10) (CF6)
*flagicon|South Korea Asiana Cargo (8) (CF6)
*flagicon|Hong Kong Dragonair Cargo (7, 1 order) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Malaysia Malaysia Airlines Cargo (6)
*flagicon|United States UPS (8) (CF6)
*flagicon|United States Polar Air Cargo (6) (CF6)
*flagicon|United States Kalitta Air (6) (CF6)
*flagicon|China Air China Cargo (9) (PW4056)
*flagicon|United States Atlas Air (5) (CF6)
*flagicon|United Arab Emirates Emirates SkyCargo (4) (CF6)
*flagicon|Taiwan EVA Air Cargo (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Global Supply Systems (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|China Jade Cargo International (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|Japan JAL Cargo (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|Netherlands KLM Cargo (3) (CF6)
*flagicon|China China Southern Cargo (2) (CF6)
*flagicon|China Great Wall Airlines (2) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Netherlands Martinair Cargo (2) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Japan Nippon Cargo Airlines (2) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Belgium TNT Airways (2) (CF6)
*flagicon|China China Cargo Airlines (1) (CF6)

Other users

*flagicon|United States Boeing (3)** (PW4056)
*flagicon|United Arab Emirates Dubai Air Wing (2) (PW4056/CF6)
*flagicon|Japan Japan Air Self-Defense Force (2) (CF6)
*flagicon|Saudi Arabia Kingdom Aircraft Leasing (1) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Oman Royal Flight of Oman (1) (CF6)
*flagicon|United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Amiri Flight (1) (PW4056)
*flagicon|Brunei Government of Brunei (1) (CF6)
*flagicon|Kuwait Government of Kuwait (1) (CF6)
*flagicon|Saudi Arabia Government of Saudi Arabia (1) (CF6)
*flagicon|United States United States Air Force (1) (CF6)
*flagicon|BHR Bahrain Amiri Flight (1)

Note sorted by number of 747 in fleet, then by name of operator.

pecifications

Sources: [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/specs.html] , [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/747.htm]

Incidents and accidents

* On July 23, 1999, a man hijacked All Nippon Airways Flight 61, a 747-400D airliner bound for New Chitose Airport near Sapporo, Hokkaidō from Tokyo International Airport (Haneda). The man killed the pilot. Other crew members restrained him, and the airliner landed safely." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/401680.stm World: Asia-Pacific Japanese hijacker kills pilot ] ," "BBC"]
* On October 31, 2000, Singapore Airlines Flight 006, a 747-400 flying on a Singapore to Los Angeles via Taipei route rammed into construction equipment while attempting to take off from a closed runway at Chiang Kai Shek International Airport, caught fire and was destroyed, killing 79 passengers and three crew members. The accident prompted the airline to change the flight number of this route from 006 to 030 and to remove the "Tropical Megatop" livery on the accident aircraft's sister ship." [http://www.airdisaster.com/reports/ntsb/ASCAAR-02-01.pdf Aircraft Accident Report ASC-AAR-02-04-001] : Crashed on a partially closed runway during takeoff Singapore Airlines Flight 006 Boeing 747-400, 9V-SPK CKS Airport, Taoyuan, Taiwan October 31, 2000," "Aviation Safety Council, Taiwan, Republic of China"]
* On January 31, 2001, Japan Airlines Flight 907, a 747-400D bound for Naha International Airport from Tokyo International Airport, nearly collided with another Japan Airlines aircraft. The 747 suddenly dived and avoided a DC-10. See 2001 Japan Airlines mid-air incident." [http://www.asasi.org/papers/2005/Hiroaki%20Tomita%20-%20near%20collision%20in%20Japan.pdf Accident Investigation to a Near Mid-Air Collision] "]
* On July 25, 2008, Qantas Flight 30, a 747-400 bound for Melbourne Airport from Hong Kong International Airport, made an emergency landing at Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, Philippines with a gaping hole in its lower fuselage forward of the starboard wing; the aircraft lost a fairing. No one was hurt. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/28/world/asia/28qantas.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin Qantas to Examine Oxygen Bottles, New York Times, July 28, 2008] ] [Wall, Robert. [http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story.jsp?id=news/Q74707258.xml&headline=Qantas%20747%20Lands%20After%20Fuselage%20Part%20Detaches&channel=comm "Qantas 747 Lands After Fuselage Part Detaches"] , Aviation Week, 25 July 2008.] After ruling out terrorism, authorities focused on the possibility of an exploding oxygen bottle from the emergency oxygen supply system. [ [http://my.att.net/s/editorial.dll?pnum=1&bfromind=7406&eeid=6002303&_sitecat=1505&dcatid=0&eetype=article&render=y&ac=3&ck=&ch=ne&rg=blsadstrgt&_lid=332&_lnm=tg+ne+topnews&ck= Experts say no bomb in Qantas jet hole, Associated Press, July 27, 2008] ] This theory was confirmed as the cause in an interim report issued by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080829/ap_on_re_au_an/australia_qantas Associated Press, August 28, 2008] ]

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Boeing YAL-1
* Boeing 747-8
similar aircraft=
* Airbus A380
lists=
* List of airliners
* List of Boeing 747 operators
see also=
* Competition between Airbus and Boeing

References

External links

* [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/back/index.html 747-400 page on Boeing.com]
* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=100 747-400 page on Airliners.net]
* [http://www.aircraft-info.net/aircraft/jet_aircraft/boeing/747-400/ Boeing 747 - Aircraft-Info.net]


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