The alignment level in an audio signal chain or on an audio recording is a defined anchor point that represents a reasonable or typical level. It does not represent a particular sound level or signal level or digital representation, but it can be defined as corresponding to particular levels in each of these domains.
For example, alignment level is commonly 0
dBuin broadcast chains and what is commonly known as "0vu" in professional audio (+4dbm which is 1.227 volts RMS across a load of 600 ohms) in places where the signal exists as analogue voltage. Under normal situations the +4dbm or "0vu" reference allowed for a headroom of 18 or more db above the reference level without significant distortion. This is largely due to the use of slow responding VU meters in almost all analog professional audio equipment which, by their design, and by specification responded to an average level, not peak levels. It most commonly is at −18 dB FS(18 dB below full scaledigital) on digital recordings for programme exchange, in accordance with EBU recommendations. Digital equipment must use peak reading metering systems in order to avoid severe digital distortion if a signal goes beyond 'full scale' or maximum digital levels. 24-bit original or master recordings commonly have alignment level at −24 dB FS in order to allow extra headroom, which can then be reduced to match the available headroom of the final medium by audio level compression. FM broadcasts usually have only 9 dB of headroomas recommended by the EBU, but digital broadcasts, which could operate with 18dB of headroom, given their low noise floor even in difficult reception areas, currently operate in a state of confusion, with some transmitting at maximum level while others operate at much lower level even though they carry material that has been compressed for compatibility with the lower dynamic range of FM transmissions.
The reason for Alignment Level
Using alignment level rather than
maximum permitted levelas the reference point allows more sensible headroommanagement throughout the audio chain, so that quality is only sacrificed through compression as late as possible.
The problem of
loudness wars, which have caused a general fall in audio quality, initially on radio stations, but more recently on CDs too, is well known. As radio stations competed for attention and impact, in order to maximise the listener scores on which their advertising revenue was based, they made more use of level compressors, and in particular the multi-band compressors such as optimodthat actually change the frequency balance of music. Such compressors usually incorporate fast acting limiters to eliminate brief peaks, since brief peaks, though they may not contribute much to perceived loudness, limit the modulation level that can be applied to FM transmissions in particular, if serious clipping and distortion are to be avoided. Digital broadcasting has changed all this, since stations are no longer found by tuning across the band, so the loudest ones no longer stand out. Low noise level is also guaranteed regardless of signal level, so that it is no longer necessary to fully modulate in order to ensure acceptable clarity in poor reception areas. Many professionals feel that the more widespread adoption and understanding of alignment level throughout the audio industry could help bring modulation levels down, leaving headroomto cope with brief peaks, and using a different form of level compression that reduces dynamic range on programmes where this is considered desirable, but does not remove the brief peaks which add 'sparkle' and contribute to clearer sound. CDs in particular have suffered a loss of quality since they were introduced through the widespread use of fast limiting, which, given their very low noise level is quite unnecessary. Digital audio playerssuch as the iPod, demonstrate the need for a common alignment level convincingly. While tracks taken from recent CDs sound loud enough, many older recordings (such as Pink Floyd albums which notably allowed lots of headroom for stunning dynamic range and rarely reach peak digital level) are far too quiet, even at full volume setting. Older audio systems incorporated typically 12dB of 'overvolume', meaning that it was possible to turn up the loudness on a quiet recording to make maximum use of amplifier output even if peak level was never reached on the recording. Modern devices, however, tend to produce maximum output at full volume only on recordings that reach full-scale digital level. If extra gain is added, then playing a modern CD after listening to a well recorded older one is likely to deafen, requiring the volume control to be turned down by a huge amount. Again, the adoption of a common alignment level (early CDs allowed around 18dB of headroom by common consent) would make sense, improving quality and usability and ending the loudness war.
Making compression a listening option
The incorporation of (switchable) level compression in domestic music systems and car in-car systems would allow higher quality on systems capable of wide dynamic range and in situations that allowed realistic reproduction. Such compression systems have been suggested and tried from time to time, but are not in widespread use — a 'chicken and egg' problem since producers feel they must make programmes and recordings that sound good in car with high ambient noise or on cheap low-power music systems. In the
UK, some DAB receivers do incorporate a menu setting for automatic loudness compensation which adds extra gain on BBC Radio 3and BBC Radio 4, to allow for the fact that these programmes adopt lower levels than, for example, the pop station Radio 1. Some television receivers also have a menu setting for loudness equalisation, aimed at helping to reduce excessive loudness on advertisements. However, there is as yet no common agreement to reduce compression and limiting on the basis that these will be applied where desired at the receiver.
Standard operating level
Permitted maximum level
Transmission level point
Maximum coding level
* [http://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/tec_text_r68-2000_tcm6-4669.pdf EBU Recommendation R68-2000]
* [http://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/tec_text_r117-2006_tcm6-42681.pdf EBU Recommendation R117-2006] (against
* [http://www.irt.de/IRT/FuE/as/pdf/AES2002OnLevelling.pdf AES Convention Paper 5538 On Levelling and Loudness Problems at Broadcast Studios]
* [http://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/tec_doc_t3282_tcm6-10542.pdf EBU Tech 3282-E on EBU RDAT Tape Levels]
* [http://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/tec_text_r89-1997_tcm6-4703.pdf EBU R89-1997 on CD-R levels]
* [http://www.tcelectronic.com/media/lund_2004_distortion_tmt20.pdf Distortion to the People — TC Electronics]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
level-to-level alignment — pasluoksninis tapatinimas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. level to level alignment; level to level registration vok. Überdeckung von Ebene zu Ebene, f rus. послойное совмещение, n pranc. alignement couche par couche, m … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas
level-to-level registration — pasluoksninis tapatinimas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. level to level alignment; level to level registration vok. Überdeckung von Ebene zu Ebene, f rus. послойное совмещение, n pranc. alignement couche par couche, m … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas
Alignment (Dungeons & Dragons) — In the Dungeons Dragons fantasy role playing game, alignment is a categorization of the ethical and moral perspective of people, creatures and societies. Early editions of Dungeons Dragons allowed players to choose between three alignments when… … Wikipedia
Nominal level — This article is about the term used in sound and signal processing. For usage in statistics, see nominal measurement. Nominal level is the operating level at which an electronic signal processing device is designed to operate. The electronic… … Wikipedia
Line level — is a term used to denote the strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound information between audio components such as CD and DVD players, TVs, audio amplifiers, and mixing consoles, and sometimes MP3 players. In contrast to line… … Wikipedia
Programme level — refers to the level that an audio source is transmitted or recorded at, and is important in audio if listeners to CD s, radio and television are to get the best experience, without excessive noise in quiet periods or compression of loud sounds.… … Wikipedia
Transmission level point — In a telecommunications system, a transmission level point (TLP) (or Zero dBm transmission level point) is a test point, i.e. a physical point in an electronic circuit where a signal may be inserted or measured, and for which the nominal power of … Wikipedia
Data structure alignment — is the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory. It consists of two separate but related issues: data alignment and data structure padding. When a modern computer reads from or writes to a memory address, it will do this in word sized … Wikipedia
Wheel alignment — A wheel alignment is part of standard automobile maintenance that consists of adjusting the angles of the wheels so that they are set to the car maker s specification. The purpose of these adjustments is maximum tire life and vehicle travel that… … Wikipedia
Business-IT-Alignment — Business Service Management (BSM) stellt die Verbindung zwischen dem Prozessmanagement (auch Geschäftsprozessmanagement, GPM) und dem IT Service Management (ITSM) dar. Es hat das Ziel eine bessere Abstimmung zwischen Business und IT zu erzielen.… … Deutsch Wikipedia