1st millennium

The first millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 1, and ended on December 31, 1000, of the Julian calendar. This millennium is the beginning of the Anno Domini/Common Era for this calendar as there is no "year zero."

The early first millennium marks the peak of the Roman Empire and its subsequent decline. In analysis grouping history by period this same era is a period of transition also known as Late Antiquity, culminating in the transformation of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, while the Western Roman Empire collapses, giving rise to the Early Middle Ages.

As the millennium ages, Christianity and Islam rise to power in the 4th and 7th centuries, respectively. The late 1st millennium sees the Vikings incursions and settlements, founding of the Carolingian dynasties, and as the millennium closes, the gradual transition to what is known as the High Middle Ages.

World population, which had tripled over the preceding millennium, grew more slowly during the thousand year era and could well have diminished. One optimistic estimate the world's population rose from approximately 170 to 300 million, but other estimates vary; one estimate suggests that the world population actually declined from 400 million people to 250 million people.


* Beginning (30s) and rise (4th century) of Christianity
* Volcanic destruction of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae (AD 79)
* In Albion — London founded by Romans as Londinium
* Diaspora of the Jews (1st century)
* Rise of the Sassanid Empire (226)
* The Olympic Games observed until 393
* The Library of Alexandria, largest library in the world, burned
* High point, and fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century)
* Rise of the Byzantine Empire
* Rise of the Bulgarian Empire
* Rise of the Merovingian dynasty (5th century)
* Germanic kingdoms established in Northern and Western Europe (Migration Period, Dark Ages)
* Greek fire invented c. 670 in Constantinople
* Beginning of Islam (7th century)
* Maya civilization at its height
* Three kingdoms in China
* The height of Hindu culture in India under the Gupta Dynasty
* The height of Tamil civilization under the Cholas. Indian colonization of South-East Asia.
* Islamic conquest of the Middle East and North Africa
* Viking raids common in northern Europe (Viking Age, from the 8th century)
* Beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe
* Rise of the Ghana Empire in Mauritania
* Settlement of the Magyars in Hungary (800–900)
* The Jelling stones (AD 958) are erected in Denmark; the stones are identified with the unification of Denmark as one nation
* The Battle of Hafrsfjord in 872 AD, Harald Fairhair unites Norway by defeating his opponents in a great naval battle outside the west coast of Norway.

ignificant people

* Caesar Augustus, Roman emperor (63 BC14)
* Jesus of Nazareth, Rabbi and iconoclast apotheosized by the Christian religion; also viewed by the Islamic religion as having been a prophet (d. c. 29–33)
* Paul of Tarsus (d. 67), central apostle of Christianity to the gentiles
* Pliny the Elder (2379), Roman author
* Cai Lun (d. 121), Chinese inventor of paper
* Plutarch (d. c. 127), Greek historian
* Zhang Heng (d. 139), Chinese astronomer and mathematician
* Ptolemy (c. 83161), Greek astronomer and mathematician
* Chandragupta (280319), founder of the Indian Gupta Empire
* Constantine I (d. 337), Roman emperor
* Augustine of Hippo (354430), theologian and Father of the Church
* Attila (d. 453), Hunnic king and warlord
* Theodoric the Great (454526), king of the Goths and of Italy
* Clovis I (466511), united all the Frankish tribes under his rule
* Aryabhata (b. 476), Indian astronomer and mathematician
* Justinian I (482565), Byzantine Emperor
* Belisarius (c. 505565), Byzantine general
* Khosrau I (d. 579), Sassanid King of Persia
* Muhammad (570632), prophet and founder of Islam
* Ali ibn Abu Talib (599661) first Shi'a Imam
* Saint Isidore of Seville (d. 636), archbishop and encyclopedist
* Brahmagupta (d. 668), Indian mathematician and astronomer
* Saint Bede (672 or 673735) English historian
* Abi Ishaq (d. 735) Arab grammarian
* Charles Martel (d. 741), defeated the Arabs at Tours, 732
* Li Bai (701762), Chinese poet
* Geber (c. 721–c. 815), Muslim chemist
* Charlemagne (742814), Frankish conqueror and founder of the Holy Roman Empire
* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (c. 780–c. 850), Persian mathematician
* Alfred the Great (c. 849899)
* Al Battani (850923), Arab astronomer and mathematician
* Simeon I (d. 927), Tsar of Bulgaria
* Otto the Great (912973)
* Bjarni Herjólfsson, Norwegian explorer; first known European discoverer of the mainland of the Americas, sighted in 986.
* Harald I of Norway, first king of Norway and mightiest ruler in Northern Europe at his time. Reigned from 872 to 933

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

* Paper invented in China
* Algebra developed in the Middle East
* Coffee discovered in Ethiopia
* Various horse-riding improvements including the horseshoe and the stirrup
* Hops added to beer for the first time
* Ptolemaic system used to describe the motion of the planets
* Chess developed, gaining widespread use
* Magnetic compass invented
* Steel first used in India

Centuries and decades

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