Type introspection

In computing, type introspection is a capability of some object-oriented programming languages to determine the type of an object at runtime. This is a notable capability of the Objective-C language, and is a common feature in any language that allows object classes to be manipulated as first-class objects by the programmer. Type introspection can be used to implement polymorphism.

Examples

Ruby

Type introspection is a core feature of Ruby as well. In Ruby, the Object class (ancestor of every class) provides Object#instance_of? and Object#kind_of? methods for checking the instance's class. The latter returns true when the particular instance the message was sent to is an instance of a descendant of the class in question. To clarify, consider the following example code (you can immediately try this with irb):$ irbirb(main):001:0> A=Class.new=> Airb(main):002:0> B=Class.new A=> Birb(main):003:0> a=A.new=> #irb(main):004:0> b=B.send 'new'=> #irb(main):005:0> a.instance_of? A=> trueirb(main):006:0> b.instance_of? A=> falseirb(main):007:0> b.kind_of? A=> trueIn the example above, the Class class is used as any other class in Ruby. Two classes are created, A and B, the former is being a superclass of the latter, then one instance of each class is checked. The last expression gives true because A is a superclass of the class of b. In the example below the syntactic sugar provided by Ruby is used to define classes (and leads to the same result):$ irbirb(main):001:0> class A; end=> nilirb(main):002:0> class B < A; end=> nilirb(main):003:0> a=A.new=> #irb(main):004:0> b=B.new=> #irb(main):005:0> a.instance_of? A=> trueirb(main):006:0> b.instance_of? A=> falseirb(main):007:0> b.kind_of? A=> trueOr you can directly ask for the class of any object, and "compare" them (code below assumes having executed the code above):irb(main):008:0> A.instance_of? Class=> trueirb(main):009:0> a.class=> Airb(main):010:0> a.class.class=> Classirb(main):011:0> A > B=> trueirb(main):012:0> B <= A=> true

Objective-C

In Objective-C, for example, both the generic Object and NSObject (in Cocoa/OpenStep) provide the method isMemberOfClass: which returns true if the argument to the method is an instance of the specified class. The method isKindOfClass: analogously returns true if the argument inherits from the specified class.

For example, say we have a Puppy and Kitten class inheriting from Animal, and a Vet class.

Now, in the desex method we can write- desex: (id) to_desex{ if( [to_desex isKindOfClass: [Animal class] ) { //we're actually desexing an Animal, so continue if( [to_desex isMemberOfClass: [Puppy class] ) desex_dog(to_desex); else if( [to_desex isMemberOfClass: [Kitten class] ) desex_cat(to_desex); else error(); } else { error();

Now, when desex is called with a generic object (an id), the function will behave correctly depending on the type of the generic object.

C++

C++ supports type introspection via the typeid operator. To enable this operator, the code must be compiled with RTTI.

Andrei Alexandrescu showed how to wrap the typeid operator in a Equality Comparable and LessThan Comparable class in his book Modern C++ programming. Code is available in the Loki library.


#include "loki/TypeInfo.h"
#include
#include

class TypeToTypedInstanceMap{public: template void put(boost::shared_ptr ptr) { map_ [Loki::TypeInfo(typeid(T))] = ptr; }

template boost::shared_ptr get() { return static_cast >(map_ [Loki::TypeInfo(typeid(T))] ); }private: std::map > map_;};

http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/~tjuerges/ALMA/ACS/Docs/ACS_docs/cpp/lokiTypeInfo_8h-source.html

http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/LessThanComparable.html

http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/EqualityComparable.html

ee also

*Reflection (computer science)
*Introspector (program)


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