- Táin Bó Cúailnge
Táin Bó Cúailnge (Irish pronunciation: [t̪ˠaːnʲ boː ˈkuəlʲɲə]; "the driving-off of cows of Cooley", more usually rendered The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is a legendary tale from early Irish literature, often considered an epic, although it is written primarily in prose rather than verse. It tells of a war against Ulster by the Connacht queen Medb and her husband Ailill, who intend to steal the stud bull Donn Cuailnge, opposed only by the teenage Ulster hero Cú Chulainn. A similar tale set in the West of Ireland is Táin Bó Flidhais.
Traditionally set in the 1st century AD in an essentially pre-Christian heroic age, the Táin is the central text of a group of tales known as the Ulster Cycle. It survives in two main written versions or "recensions" in 12th century manuscripts, the first a compilation largely written in Old Irish, the second a more consistent work in Middle Irish.
The Táin is preceded by a number of remscéla, or pre-tales, which provide background on the main characters and explain the presence of certain characters from Ulster in the Connacht camp, the curse that causes the temporary inability of the remaining Ulstermen to fight and the magic origins of the bulls Donn Cuailnge and Finnbhennach. The eight remscéla chosen by Thomas Kinsella for his 1969 translation are sometimes taken to be part of the Táin itself, but come from a variety of manuscripts of different dates. Several other tales exist which are described as remscéla to the Táin, some of which have only a tangential relation to it.
The first recension begins with Ailill and Medb assembling their army in Cruachan, the purpose of this military build-up taken for granted. The second recension adds a prologue in which Ailill and Medb compare their respective wealths and find that the only thing that distinguishes them is Ailill's possession of the phenomenally fertile bull Finnbhennach, who had been born into Medb's herd but scorned being owned by a woman so decided to transfer himself to Ailill's. Medb determines to get the equally potent Donn Cuailnge from Cooley to equal her wealth with her husband. She successfully negotiates with the bull's owner, Dáire mac Fiachna, to rent the animal for a year until her messengers, drunk, reveal that they would have taken the bull by force even if they had not been allowed to borrow it. The deal breaks down, and Medb raises an army, including Ulster exiles led by Fergus mac Róich and other allies, and sets out to capture him.
The men of Ulster are disabled by an apparent illness, the ces noínden (literally "debility of nine (days)", although it lasts several months). A separate tale explains this as the curse of the goddess Macha, who imposed it after being forced by the king of Ulster to race against a chariot while heavily pregnant. The only person fit to defend Ulster is seventeen-year-old Cú Chulainn, and he lets the army take Ulster by surprise because he's off on a tryst when he should be watching the border. Cú Chulainn, assisted by his charioteer Láeg, wages a guerrilla campaign against the advancing army, then halts it by invoking the right of single combat at fords, defeating champion after champion in a stand-off lasting months. However, he is unable to prevent Medb from capturing the bull.
Cú Chulainn is both helped and hindered by supernatural figures. Before one combat the Morrígan visits him in the form of a beautiful young woman and offers him her love, but he spurns her. She then reveals herself and threatens to interfere in his next fight. She does so, first in the form of an eel who trips him in the ford, then as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, and finally as a heifer at the head of the stampede, but in each form Cú Chulainn wounds her. After he defeats his opponent, the Morrígan appears to him in the form of an old woman milking a cow, with wounds corresponding to the ones Cú Chulainn gave her in her animal forms. She offers him three drinks of milk. With each drink he blesses her, and the blessings heal her wounds.
After a particularly arduous combat he is visited by another supernatural figure, Lugh, who reveals he is his father. He puts Cú Chulainn to sleep for three days while he works his healing arts on him. While he sleeps the youth corps of Ulster come to his aid but are all slaughtered. When Cú Chulainn wakes he undergoes a spectacular ríastrad or "distortion", in which his body twists in its skin and he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe. He makes a bloody assault on the Connacht camp and avenges the youth corps sixfold.
After this extraordinary incident, the sequence of single combats resumes, although on several occasions Medb breaks the agreement by sending several men against him at once. When Fergus, his foster-father, is sent to fight him, Cú Chulainn agrees to yield to him on the condition that Fergus yields the next time they meet. Finally there is a physically and emotionally gruelling three-day duel between the hero and his foster-brother and best friend, Ferdiad, whom Cú Chulainn kills.
Eventually the Ulstermen start to rouse, one by one at first, then en masse, and the final battle begins. Ailill and Medb pressure Fergus into Battle. Cύ Chulainn wishes to go to battle exclaiming, "If only I were fit, you would see me breaking through along with the rest of them", referring to the great kings and warriors of the land of Ulster that have arrived to take on Aillill and Medb’s forces. For example, Conchobar, Seancha Mac Ailill, Láegaire Buadach the victorious, Munremar Mac Gerrcinn, Feidlimid, and many more great warrriors showed up to fight for Ulster. All of the warriors from Ulster came together and impressed great awesomeness and power upon Ailill and Medb since they originated from the most powerful province of Ireland. It ends after Fergus makes good on his promise and yields to Cú Chulainn, pulling his forces off the field. Connacht's other allies panic and Medb is forced to retreat. She does, however, manage to bring Donn Cuailnge back to Connacht, where he fights Finnbhennach, kills him, but, mortally wounded himself, wanders around Ireland creating placenames before finally returning home to die of exhaustion.
The image of Cú Chulainn dying, tied to a post so that even in death he might face his enemies standing, adopted by early 20th century Irish republicans, does not come from the Táin but from a later story. However it has been incorporated into some oral versions of the Táin, in which Cú Chulainn dies from wounds sustained during his final duel with Ferdiad.
The Táin Bó Cúailnge has survived in two main recensions. The first consists of a partial text in the Lebor na hUidre (the "Book of the Dun Cow"), a late 11th/early 12th century manuscript compiled in the monastery at Clonmacnoise, and another partial text of the same version in the 14th century manuscript called the Yellow Book of Lecan. These two sources overlap, and a complete text can be reconstructed by combining them. This recension is a compilation of two or more earlier versions, indicated by the number of duplicated episodes and references to "other versions" in the text. Many of the episodes are superb, written in the characteristic terse prose of the best Old Irish literature, but others are cryptic summaries, and the whole is rather disjointed. Parts of this recension can be dated from linguistic evidence to the 8th century, and some of the verse passages may be even older.
The second recension is found in the 12th century manuscript known as the Book of Leinster. This appears to have been a syncretic exercise by a scribe who brought together the Lebor na hUidre materials and unknown sources for the Yellow Book of Lecan materials to create a coherent version of the epic. While the result is a satisfactory narrative whole, the language has been modernised into a much more florid style, with all of the spareness of expression of the earlier recension lost in the process.
The Book of Leinster version ends with a colophon in Latin which says:
“ But I who have written this story, or rather this fable, give no credence to the various incidents related in it. For some things in it are the deceptions of demons, other poetic figments; some are probable, others improbable; while still others are intended for the delectation of foolish men. ”
An incomplete third recension is known from fragments in a number of later manuscripts.
There is reason to suspect that the Táin had a considerable oral history before any of it was committed to writing: for example, the poem Conailla Medb michuru ("Medb enjoined illegal contracts") by Luccreth moccu Chiara, dated to c. 600, tells the story of Fergus' exile with Ailill and Medb, which the poet describes as sen-eolas ("old knowledge"). Two further 7th century poems also allude to elements of the story: in Verba Scáthaige ("Words of Scáthach"), the warrior-woman Scáthach prophesies Cú Chulainn's combats at the ford; and Ro-mbáe laithi rordu rind ("We had a great day of plying spear-points"), attributed to Cú Chulainn himself, refers to an incident in the Boyhood Deeds section of the Táin.
The Táin in translation
Two translations by Irish poets are available in mass market editions: Thomas Kinsella's The Táin (1969, Oxford University Press) and Ciarán Carson's The Táin (2007, Penguin Classics). Both are based primarily on the first recension with passages added from the second, although they differ slightly in their selection and arrangement of material. Kinsella's translation is illustrated by Louis le Brocquy (see Louis le Brocquy Táin illustrations) and also contains translations of a selection of remscéla.
Cecile O'Rahilly has published academic editions/translations of both recensions, Táin Bó Cúailnge from the Book of Leinster (1967) and Táin Bó Cúailnge Recension 1 (1976), as well as an edition of the later Stowe Version (1984), a variant version of recension 2 in more modern language, with a few extra passages. Winifred Faraday's The Cattle-Raid of Cualnge (1904) translates the first recension, and Joseph Dunn's The Ancient Irish Epic Tale Táin Bó Cúailnge (1914) translates the second, with passages added from the first recension and the Stowe version.
- See Irish mythology in popular culture
- ^ Carney, James. "The Pangs of the Ulstermen: An Exchangist Perspective." Journal of Indo-European Studies 36. (2008): 52-66. 
- ^ Reference is made to the fragmented nature of the story in a related tale, Dofallsigud Tána Bó Cuailnge ("The rediscovery of the Táin Bó Cuailnge"), in the Book of Leinster, which begins: "The poets of Ireland one day were gathered around Senchán Torpéist, to see if they could recall the 'Táin Bó Cuailnge' in its entirety. But they all said they knew only parts of it." Thomas Kinsella (trans., 1969), The Táin, Oxford University Press.
- ^ Cecile O'Rahilly (ed. & trans., 1967), Táin Bó Cuailnge from the Book of Leinster, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
- ^ James Carney, "Language and literature in 1169", in Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland, Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 451-510
- ^ Táin Bó Cúailnge from the Book of Leinster: Cecile O'Rahilly's text and translation at CELT
- ^ Táin Bó Cúailnge Recension 1: Cecile O'Rahilly's text and translation at CELT
- ^ Winifred Faraday's The Cattle Raid of Cualnge
- ^ Ernst Windisch's text matched with Joseph Dunn's translation
- ^ Dunn's translation at Sacred Texts
- ^ Dunn's translation at Project Gutenberg
- Ann Dooley (2006), Playing the Hero: Reading the Táin Bó Cuailnge, University of Toronto Press, Toronto
- Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson (1964), The Oldest Irish Tradition: A Window on the Iron Age, Cambridge
- J. P. Mallory (ed) (1992), Aspects of the Táin, December Publications, Belfast
- J. P. Mallory & Gerard Stockman (eds) (1994), Ulidia: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Ulster Cycle of Tales, December Publications, Belfast
- James MacKillop (1998), Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press
- Maria Tymoczo (1999), Translation in a Postcolonial Context, Manchester
- text and translation of Táin Bó Cúailnge Recension 1, published by Cecile O'Rahilly, provided at CELT
- text and translation of Táin Bó Cúailnge from the Book of Leinster, published by Cecile O'Rahilly, provided at CELT
- Timeless Myths: Ulaid Cycle
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Táin Bó Cuailnge — [tɔːjn boː kuːlnji, irisch »Der Rinderraub von Cooley«], frühirische Heldensage des Ulsterzyklus (irische Sprache und Literatur), schildert den Raub des Stiers Donn Cuailnge (»der Braune von Cooley«) aus Ulster durch die Königin Medb von… … Universal-Lexikon
Tain Bo Cuailnge — Táin Bó Cúailnge Littérature Par catégories … Wikipédia en Français
Táin Bó Cúailnge — [ˈt̪ˠa:ɲ bo: kuəlʲəɲɟə] o, en castellano El robo del toro de Cuailnge (en inglés Cooley, península del condado Louth), es una famosa leyenda del Ciclo de Ulster, formando parte de la Mitología celta de origen irlandés. En parte, narra cómo por… … Wikipedia Español
Táin Bó Cuailnge — Die Táin Bó Cúailnge (irisch [t̪ˠaːnʲ boː ˈkuəlʲɲə], Rinderraub von Cooley, oft kurz Táin genannt) ist die zentrale Sage des Ulster Zyklus, eines der vier großen Zyklen der mittelalterlichen irischen Literatur, als deren wichtigste Erzählung die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Táin Bó Cúailnge — Die Táin Bó Cúailnge (irisch: Rinderraub von Cooley, oft kurz Táin genannt) ist die zentrale Sage des Ulster Zyklus, eines der vier großen Zyklen der altirischen Mythologie. Niedergeschrieben wurde das Epos auf Alt und Mittelirisch; es ist… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Táin bó Cuailnge — (The Cattle Raid of Cooley) (ca. sixth century) The central narrative of the Old Irish ULSTER CYCLE (a heroic cycle of tales concerned with the deeds of the great hero CUCHULAIN), the Táin bó Cuailnge is the closest thing in Old Irish to a… … Encyclopedia of medieval literature
Táin Bó Cúailnge — La Táin Bó Cúailnge, que l’on traduit usuellement par la « Rafle (ou Razzia) des Vaches de Cooley » est le récit principal et le plus long du cycle d Ulster qui, avec le cycle mythologique, le cycle fenian, et le cycle historique,… … Wikipédia en Français
Táin Bó Cúailnge — noun The central tale in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology … Wiktionary
Táin Bó Flidhais — („Das Wegtreiben von Flidais Rindern“), auch Táin Bó Flidais oder Mayo Táin, ist der Titel einer Erzählung aus dem Ulster Zyklus der Irischen Mythologie. Überliefert ist eine altirische, aber kürzere und eine etwas längere Version aus dem… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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