Mandera

Mandera
Mandera is located in Kenya
Mandera
Location in Kenya
Coordinates: 03°55′N 41°50′E / 3.917°N 41.833°E / 3.917; 41.833
Country Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya
Admin. division North Eastern Province
Population (1999)
 - Total 30,433
  [1]

Mandera is a town in North Eastern Province, Kenya. It is capital of the Mandera District. The town is located at around 3°55′N 41°50′E / 3.917°N 41.833°E / 3.917; 41.833, near the borders with Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a population of 30,433 (1999 census).

It used to be one single district subdivided into the three constituencies of Mandera Central, Mandera East and Mandera west. However, in 2007, president Kibaki created two new districts called Mandera west and Mandera central in effect turning every constituency into a district.

It is located in an area prone to drought. From late 2005, there has been a severe famine. As with the other areas of the North Eastern Province, Mandera is inhabited almost exclusively by ethnic Somalis. The major three clans in the town are Murule, Garre and Degodiya. Other clans include Sheekhaal, Marehan, Sharmooge and Leysan clans.

Contents

Subdivison

Mandera as a whole used to be one district that was divided into three constituencies, namely Mandera East, Mandera Central and Mandera West. However, in 2007, president Kibaki ordered the creation of two more districts in the area which turned the area into three districts by creating two more districts of Mandera Central and Mandera West.

Climate

Mandera
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The Climate of Mandera is an arid climate under the Koppen climate classification. Temperatures tend to be hot throughout the year. Daily temperatures are typically above 30 °C (86 °F) while at night, temperatures can fall to 20 °C (68 °F). Precipitation is extremely low, with the area receiving very minimal amount of rain. Droughts are not unusual, often resulting in significant loss of livestock to the inhabitants of the rural towns, many of whom remain nomads.[2]

Inter-Clan conflict

The region around Mandera, known as the Mandera triangle, is prone to conflicts between the Somali clans who dominate the area. Clan clashes between the Garre and Murule Somali clans in Mandera district has so far claimed at least 100 lives since they first erupted in December 2004.

The conflicts were triggered by the December 19th, 2004 murder of a Murulle relief worker by Garre gunmen at Fino-Elwak road junction. He was apparently suspected of being a spy working inside of Murule territory. This killing led to growing hostility between the two clans, which eventually degenerated into full-scale overt confrontation in January 2005.

A number of issues have been advanced to explain the cause and genesis of this clan conflict.

In 1988, Mandera Central constituency was carved out from the then larger Mandera East where Murule dominate following devastating clan clashes between Murule and Garre clans in early 1980s. This creation of a new constituency was envisaged at cooling growing tensions between the two clans over political representation.

With Mandera Central constituency formed, the issue of political representation was solved but another problem was born. There emerged growing hatred and suspicion between the two clans. Differences began to widen to an extent that the clan leadership and chiefs from both clans started to openly mobilise their clan members for the domination of the other.

And to worsen the already fragile situation, the KANU administration (especially between 1982–2002) created many administrative units (sublocations, locations and divisions) in hitherto community-grazing areas in the district, mainly for political mileage. The disputed Alango location (both clans claiming ownership of the two locations, one in Mandera East and the other in Mandera Central constituencies) is a good example of conflict arising from creation and or competition over administrative units. Chiefs and their assistants in the location and other neighbouring locations have been clamouring that their boundaries have been interfered with.

Murule and Garre clans have accused each other of harbouring and supporting foreign militia. Watering livestock at Alango Dam has often resulted in confrontations and armed violence.

Although the creation of additional administrative units was meant to make ‘services closer to the people’, it is important to point out that that has not been the case in Mandera and adjacent districts. These additional locations and sub locations have mainly contributed to the escalation of conflicts in the entire North Eastern province, because clans which felt they have an upper hand in the politics were "out manoeuvered" by others.

On the other hand, the power struggle between different factions in Somalia has spilled over to the Kenyan side. Each of the clan has been trying to forge military alliance with their counterparts in Somali.

The Murule have allegedly forged an alliance with the Ali Dera section of the larger Marehaan clan of Somalia, which are a power house in the Gedo region of Somalia.

The Garre, too, have allegedly forged an alliance with their Garre kinsmen in Ethiopia and Somalia. It is also rumoured that these alliances are being forged ahead of the 2007 general elections as each group intends to mobilize enough voters to sustain their political representation and or supremacy.

Competition over access to pasture and water resources in the district has been the traditional cause and trigger of conflict between the two clans. The Garre community wants herders to be confined to their traditionally designated grazing areas. Murulle community who happen to own substantial number of livestock including camels but have a smaller grazing area are of the opinion that the former’s position is meant to confine them to a very small grazing area, which cannot sustain their huge camel herds and deny them access to pasture on the western flank of the district, which is mainly inhabited by the Garre.

Civil Action projects, supported through the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA), a U.S. led multi-nation group based in Djibouti, has established a closer working relationships with local people of Arabia, Mandera East in order to end the threat of terrorism in the region.

Former U.S. Ambassador to Kenya William M. Bellamy on January 2004, presided the construction of the Arabia Secondary School in Mandera District of Kenya's North Eastern Province. He was hosted by the area M.P., the Hon. Shabaan Isaak.

The Arabia Secondary School project is by far the largest of many similar "Civil Action" projects in Kenya. Over the past year U.S. military and counterparts in the Kenyan Department of Defense Projects have worked together on projects at various locations in that area. U.S. soldiers and the Kenyan military cooperated over the past several months on that project to refurbish and expand facilities at the school, located some 70 km. south of Mandera town.

The Arabia Secondary School now has a library, a new dining hall and kitchen, and an additional classroom building. As a result, the number of students attending the school will increase from 160 to 240. The U.S. committed a total of 7.3 million Kshs. to underwrite the project, using local contractors and supplies.

Notable among personalities from Mandera include The Barclays Bank of Kenya Managing director, Adan Mohamed and former chairman of the Law Society of Kenya, Ahmed Nasser.

In the 2007 election, the former Assistant minister for Local Government Shaaban Issack has been defeated by ODM’s Hussein after serving the area for almost three consecutive terms. However, he disputed the results, citing election malpractices and lodged a petition in the high court of Kenya before withdrawing it.

Rape and torture allegations

In 2008, there has again being an inter-clan conflict between Garre and Murule. The government sent security forces, including the military, to quell the violence. They were sent to Elwak, an area largely inhabited by the Garre clan. The residents accused the forces of torture and rape. Human Rights Watch said its research showed that thousands of residents had being tortured and women raped and called for an inquiry into what it called collective punishment. The Police however maintain that there had neither been torture nor beatings.[3]

External links

References

it is worth noting that the use of Heer system (traditional way of solving conflict among Somalis) play a significant role whereby elders were instrumental in mediating between waring clans which have been used in similar inter and intra clan conflict in North Eastern province.

th THE RECENT WAR IN MANDERA last month part one there was a conflict between the militia the so called Alshabaab which rules almost the southern part of somalia and in the Gedo region of somalia and the Ahlu sunna waljamaa with the help of the Ethiopian government to remove the mltia away from the region.the fighting took place in some parts of mandera town especially the boarder area.some of the areas were:BP1 geneva and kamor.hundreds killed hundreds dispalced and others injured.after four days of gunfires in the region the Ahlu sunna together with the Ethiopian forces succeeded to take the militia out of the town bulla hawa and elwak around 300km away from mandera town.currently the situation is calm and the town been in the hands of Ahlu sunna waljaama.


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