Hyperlink cinema

Hyperlink cinema is a term coined by author Alissa Quart, who used the term in her review of the film "Happy Endings" (2005) for the film journal "Film Comment" in 2005.cite journal
last =Quart
first =Alissa
title =Networked
journal =Film Comment
volume =41
issue =4
pages =48–5
date =Jul/Aug 2005
url =http://www.alissaquart.com/articles/2005/08/networked_don_roos_and_happy_e.html
accessdate =2007-07-25
] Noted film critic Roger Ebert popularized the term when reviewing the film "Syriana".cite web
last =Ebert
first =Roger
authorlink =Roger Ebert
title =Syriana
work =Reviews
publisher =rogerebert.com
date =2005-12-09
url =http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051208/REVIEWS/51130002/1023
accessdate =2007-07-25
] These films are not hypermedia and do not have actual hyperlinks, but are multilinear in a more metaphorical sense.

In describing "Happy Endings", Quart considers captions acting as footnotes and split screen as elements of hyperlink cinema and notes the influence of the World Wide Web and multitasking. Playing with time and character's personal history, plot twists, interwoven storylines between multiple characters, jumping between the beginning and end (flashback and flashforward) are also elements. Roger Ebert further describes hyperlink cinema as films where the characters or action reside in separate stories, but a connection or influence between those disparate stories is slowly revealed to the audience; illustrated in Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu's films "Amores Perros" (2000), "21 Grams" (2003), and "Babel" (2006).

Quart suggests that director Robert Altman created the structure for the genre and demonstrated its usefulness for combining interlocking stories in his films "Nashville" (1975) and "Short Cuts" (1993).Ebert, Roger (2006). "Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2007". Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 100. ISBN 0740761579] She also considers the television series "24" and Alan Rudolph’s film "Welcome to L.A." (1976) as early prototypes. "Crash" (2004) is an example of the genre, as are Altman's "The Player" (1992), Steven Soderbergh's "Traffic" (2000), "City of God" (2002), "Syriana" (2005), and "Nine Lives" (2005).

Hyperlink films

*"Nashville" (1975)
*"The Player" (1992)
*"Short Cuts" (1993)
*"The Opposite of Sex" (1998)
*"Magnolia" (1999)
*"Timecode" (2000)
*"Amores Perros" (2000)
*"Traffic" (2000)
*"Thirteen Conversations About One Thing" (2001) Fact|date=September 2008
*"City of God" (2002)
*"21 Grams" (2003)
*"Cape of Good Hope" (2004) cite web
last =Ebert
first =Roger
authorlink =Roger Ebert
title =Cape of Good Hope
work =Reviews
publisher =rogerebert.com
date =2006-01-06
url =http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060105/REVIEWS/60103003/1023
accessdate =2008-02-08
*"Crash" (2004)
*"Happy Endings" (2005)
*"Syriana" (2005)
*"Nine Lives" (2005)
*"Babel" (2006) cite web
last =Ebert
first =Roger
authorlink =Roger Ebert
title =Babel
work =Reviews
publisher =rogerebert.com
date =2007-09-22
url =http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070922/REVIEWS08/70922001/1023
accessdate =2008-02-08
*"Rendition" (2007) [Gandert, Sean. (18 October 2007). " [http://www.pastemagazine.com/action/article/5503/review/film/rendition Paste Magazine :: Review :: Rendition] ". "Paste". Retrieved on February 8, 2008.]
*"The Edge of Heaven" (2007) [Skinner, Marjorie. (4 September 2008). " [http://www.portlandmercury.com/film/the_celestial_prophecy/Content?oid=886902 The Celestial Prophecy :: Living on The Edge of Heaven] ". "Portland Mercury". Retrieved on September 5, 2008.]
*"The Air I Breathe" (2008) [" [http://movies.nytimes.com/2008/01/25/movies/25brea.html?ref=arts The Air I Breathe - Movie - Review - The New York Times] ". "The New York Times". Retrieved on May 13, 2008.]

ee also

*Anthology film
*Nonlinear (arts)


External links

* [http://www.kottke.org/06/02/syriana Jason Kottke's explanation of the origin of the term]

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