Satu Mare


Satu Mare

Infobox Settlement
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
timezone=EET
utc_offset=+2
timezone_DST=EEST
utc_offset_DST=+3
map_caption = Location of Satu Mare
official_name=Satu Mare
Szatmárnémeti




image_shield=COA_SatuMare_RO.gif
subdivision_type1=County
subdivision_name1=Satu Mare County
subdivision_type2=Status
subdivision_name2=Autolink|County capital
settlement_type= County capital|
leader_title=Mayor
leader_name=Gyula Ilyés
leader_party=Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
area_total_km2=150.3
population_total=115,142
population_density_km2=766
latd=47
latm=47
lats=24
latNS=N
longd=22
longm=53
longs=24
longEW=E
website=http://www.satu-mare.ro/|

Satu Mare (pronunciation in Romanian: IPA|/'sa.tu 'ma.re/; meaning "Big Village" in Romanian; _hu. Szatmárnémeti; _de. Sathmar; _yi. סאטמאר "(Satmar)") is a city with a population of 115,142 and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania.

Satu Mare is the origin of the Satmarer Hasidic Jews, who lived there until World War II and now reside in New York City, Jerusalem, London, and other places.

Geography

Satu Mare city is situated in the Satu Mare County, in North - West Romania, on the Someş river, 13 km from the border with Hungary and 27 km from the border with Ukraine.

Population

Satu Mare has a total population of 115,142; the ethnic breakdown is as follows:
*Romanian: (57.87%)
*Hungarian: (39.34%)
*German: (1.18%)
*Roma: (0.96%)and 480 others.

The city day is May 14, which commemorates the devastating floods that affected the city in 1970, although it is also a day of rebirth.

History

Archaeological evidence from Ţara Oaşului, Ardud, Medieşu Aurit, Homorod, etc. clearly shows settlements in the area dating to the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. There is also evidence that the local Dacian population remained there after the Roman conquest in 101/106 AD. Later, these lands formed part of Menumorut's holdings; one of the defensive citadels dating to the 10th century was at Satu Mare ("Castrum Zotmar"), as mentioned in the "Gesta Hungarorum". The city centre - "Villa Zotmar" - was inhabited by natives, but Teutonic colonists settled on the periphery, brought there in 1006 by Queen Giselle of Bavaria; later, they were joined by German colonists from beyond the Someş River, in Mintiu.cite web |url=http://www.satu-mare.ro/despre/istorie.html.en |publisher= Satu Mare City Hall |title= History of Satu Mare City |accessdate=2008-08-02]

In 1543, the Báthory family took possession of the citadel, proceeding to divert the Someş' waters in order to defend the southern part of the citadel; thus, the fortress remained on an island linked to the main roads by three bridges over the Someş. In 1562 the citadel was besieged by Ottoman armies led by pasha Ibrahim of Buda and pasha Maleoci of Timişoara. Then the Habsburgs besieged it, leading the fleeing Transylvanian armies to set it on fire. The Austrian general Lazar Schwendi ordered the citadel to be rebuilt after the plans of Italian architect Ottavio Baldigara; using an Italian system of fortifications, the new structure would be pentagonal with five towers. In the Middle Ages, Satu Mare and Mintiu were two distinct entities, but between 1712 and 1715 the two gradually united their administration. On 2 January 1721 Emperor Charles VI recognised the union, at the same time granting Satu Mare the status of free royal city.

Due to the economic and commercial benefits it began to receive in the 13th century, Satu Mare became an important centre for craft guilds. In the 18th century, intense urbanisation began; several buildings survive from that period, including the old city hall, the inn, a barracks, the Greek Catholic church and the Reformed church. A Roman Catholic diocese was established there in 1804. In 1823, the city's systematization commission was established in order to direct its local government. In 1844, paving operations begun in 1805 were stepped up. The first industrial concerns also opened, including the steam mill, the brick factory, the Neuschloss Factory for wood products, the lumber factory, the Princz Factory and the Unio Factory. Due to its location at the intersection of commercial roads, Satu Mare (then called "Szatmárnémeti") became and important rail hub. The Satu Mare - Nagykároly line was built in 1871, followed in 1872 by the Satu Mare - Máramarossziget line, an 1894 link to Nagybánya, 1900 to Erdőd and 1906 to Bikszád.

In 1918, as a result of the Union of Transylvania with Romania, Satu Mare ceased to be part of Austria-Hungary and joined the Kingdom of Romania. It underwent important economic and socio-cultural changes. The city's large companies (the Unio wagon factory, the Princz Factory, the Ardeleana textile enterprise, the Freund petroleum refinery, the brick factory and the furniture factory) prospered in this period, and the city invested heavily in communication lines, schools, hospitals, public works and public parks. The banking and commerce system also developed: in 1929 the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, as well as the commodities stock market, were established. 25 commercial enterprises and 75 industrial and production firms were members of these. In 1930 there were 33 banks.

In 1940, the Second Vienna Award gave Northern Transylvania, including Satu Mare, to Hungary, leading to dramatic changes in the socio-political and economic life of the city, such as the extermination of its considerable Jewish population as part of the Holocaust. In October 1944, the city was retaken. Soon afterwards, a Communist regime came to power, lasting until the 1989 revolution.

ports

There are two main football clubs in Satu Mare: Olimpia and Someşul both playing in the Romanian Liga III. There are two football stadiums in Satu Mare: Stadionul Olimpia with 20,000 seats and Someşul Stadium with 3,000 seats.

Economy

Satu Mare benefits from its proximity to the borders with Hungary and Ukraine, which makes it a prime location for logistical and industrial parks.

The most important companies that have established production facilities in Satu Mare are Electrolux, Voestalpine, Dräxlmaier Group, Continental AG, Woco Group, Schlemmer, Casco, Phoenix AG, Hay Automobiltechnik and Zollner Elektronik in the industrial sector, Friesland in the food sector, Steilmann in the textile sector and Saint-Gobain and Boissigny in the wood industry.

The German company Arcandor has its main Romanian office established in Satu Mare.

Satu Mare's retail sector is very developed; a number of international companies such as Profi, Real, Kaufland, Billa and Interex have supermarkets or hypermarkets in the city. There is also a DIY store, a Praktiker, and two malls. The smaller one, Plaza Europa, has a surface area of about 6000 m²; the larger one, Someşul, is some 12,000 m² in area.

There is also an industrial park called Satu Mare Industrial park located at the edge of the city on a 63 ha surface.

Satu Mare is served by the Satu Mare International Airport located 5 km south of the city.

Tourism

Major tourists attractions are:
*Turnul pompierilor (Fireman's Tower) a 45 m tall tower;
*the Roman-Catholic Cathedral;
*the Lupa Capitolina statue;
*Biserica cu lanturi (the Chain Church);
*Administrative Palace, Satu Mare a 97 m tall building;
*the Dacia Hotel.

There are several hotels in the city, including one 4 star hotel Villa Bodi, eleven 3 star hotels Astoria, Leon, Villa Lux, Dacia, Aurora, Dana I, Dana II, Select, Rania, Melody, Belvedere and one 2 star hotel: Sport.

ister Cities

*flagicon|Ukraine Berehove
*flagicon|Hungary Nyíregyháza
*flagicon|Poland Rzeszów
*flagicon|Austria Schwaz
*flagicon|Germany Wolfenbüttel
*flagicon|Netherlands Zutphen

Natives

;Romania
* Ioana Boitor
* Corina Ciorbǎ
* Cosmin Costinas
* Raul Cristian
* Daniel David
* Mircea Florian
* Alexandru Karikas
* Ioan Mircea Paşcu
* Vasile Paulovics
* Daniel Prodan
* Ovidiu Ioan Silaghi
* Dan Zaviceanu

;Hungary
* Antal Bánhidi
* László Bánhidi
* László Botka
* Gábor Darvas
* András Domahidy
* Jenő Dsida
* Mónika Esztán
* Noémi Matsutani
* Vince Nagy
* Pánczél Zoltán
* Horváth Zoltán

;Israel
* Aaron Teitelbaum
* Moshe Dovid Winternitz

;Canada
* Ernest Klein

;USA
* Ernie Grunfeld

Gallery

ee also

*Danube Swabians
*Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)

External links

* [http://www.satu-mare.ro Satu Mare - official site]

Notes


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Satu Mare — Vue générale de la ville …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Satu-Mare — Sathmar Szatmárnémeti …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • SATU-MARE — (Hung. Szatmárnémeti or Szatmár, also called Sakmér), city in Satu Mare province, N.W. Romania; until World War I and between 1940 and 1944, part of Hungary. There is sporadic mention of the presence of Jews in or passing through Satu Mare in the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Satu Mare — 1 Original name in latin Satu Mare Name in other language Satu Mare, Satu Mare, Satul Mare, Сату Маре State code RO Continent/City Europe/Bucharest longitude 47.83333 latitude 26.01667 altitude 337 Population 4091 Date 2012 06 12 2 Original name… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Satu Mare — Sp Sãtu Mãrė Ap Satu Mare rumuniškai Sp Sátmaras Ap Szatmar vengriškai L aps. c., ŠV Rumunija …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Satu Mare — ▪ Romania Hungarian  Szatmár Németi,  or  Szatmár        city, northwestern Romania. It lies on the northeastern fringe of the Great Hungarian Plain, on the right bank of the Someş River, 8 miles (13 km) from the Hungarian border and 17 miles (27 …   Universalium

  • Satu Mare — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Satu Mare Country and Admin Code RO.32 RO …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

  • Satu Mare — ► Distrito del NO de Rumania, fronterizo con Hungría y Ucrania; 4 405 km2 y 418 000 h. Cap., Satu …   Enciclopedia Universal


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