The Secret Adversary

infobox Book |
name = The Secret Adversary
title_orig =
translator =


image_caption = Dust-jacket illustration of the first UK edition
author = Agatha Christie
cover_artist = Ernest Akers
country = United Kingdom
language = English
series =
genre = Crime novel
publisher = Bodley Head
release_date = January 1922
media_type = Print (Hardback & Paperback)
pages = 320 pp (first edition, hardback)
isbn = NA
preceded_by = The Mysterious Affair at Styles
followed_by = The Murder on the Links

"The Secret Adversary" is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie and first published in the UK by The Bodley Head in January 1922"The English Catalogue of Books". Vol XI (A-L: January 1921 – December 1925). Kraus Reprint Corporation, Millwood, New York, 1979 (page 310)] and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company later in the same year [John Cooper and B.A. Pyke. "Detective Fiction - the collector's guide": Second Edition (Pages 82 and 86) Scholar Press. 1994. ISBN 0-85967-991-8] [http://home.insightbb.com/~jsmarcum/agatha20.htm American Tribute to Agatha Christie] ] . The UK edition retailed at seven shillings and sixpence (7/6) and the US edition at $1.75. The book introduces the characters of Tommy and Tuppence who feature in four other Christie books and one collection of short stories written throughout her writing career.

Plot summary

Set in London and some British towns in 1919, young couple Tommy Beresford and Tuppence Cowley, out of work and money, form the "The Young Adventurers, Ltd." partnership, and plan on hiring themselves out. Being overheard by Mr. Whittington, Tuppence is offered a comfortable position, only to be rejected after she gives her name as "Jane Finn", a name Tommy had overheard on the road. Mr. Whittington becomes suspicious of Tuppence, and the meeting ends with Tuppence receiving money with the understanding that she will refrain from using her (non-existing) knowledge. Convinced that they can get further money out of Mr. Whittington if they play their cards right, Tommy and Tuppence prepare to shadow him, only to discover that he has closed his office and disappeared without a trace. His behaviour indicated to them that there is another angle to the story. To find out, they place an advertisement, asking for information regarding Jane Finn.

One response is by Mr. Carter, a leading figure in an unnamed British intelligence agency, who provides the background to Jane Finn. She was a passenger on the Lusitania, and was entrusted by a fellow passenger with a secret treaty shortly before the ship sank. Since then, neither Jane Finn nor the treaty have been found. At the same time, publication of the treaty would compromise the current British government, potentially leading to a bolshevist coup. Tommy and Tuppence agree to work for Mr. Carter on an unofficial basis, with the aim of recovering the treaty and foiling the bolshevists and especially their elusive leader. Mr. Brown. The second response is by the US-American Julius Hersheimmer, cousin of Jane Finn and millionaire. He is intent on finding her, and had already contacted the police for assistance. His only photograph of Jane Finn, however, was picked up by a false Inspector Brown, making the task of finding her even more difficult. Tommy and Tuppence take him into their confidence, and they agree to join forces. All three take residence at the Ritz hotel.

The only hint they can go by at this time is a name, "Rita", uttered by Mr. Whittington in Tuppence's presence in connection with Jane Finn. Tommy and Tuppence decide to search for a Rita among the surviving passengers of the Lusitania, and locate Margaret Vandemeyer. Their luck persists as Mr. Whittington and a second person (Boris Ivanovitch) leave Mrs. Vandemeyer's flat while they are around. At this point the plot separates into three threads: Tommy is able to contact Julius, before Boris and Mr. Whittington separate. While Tommy traces Boris through London into a house in Soho, Julius follows Mr. Whittington on the train to Bournemouth, and Tuppence takes her chance to find employment at Mrs. Vandemeyer's.

Boris leads Tommy right into a meeting of bolshevist conspirators, where he is caught. Pretending he has knowledge regarding Jane Finn, his life is spared for a while.

After Tommy's departure, Tuppence secures the cooperation of Albert, the lift boy of Mrs. Vandemeyer's residence, and enters the following day into Mrs. Vandemeyer's service. There, she has the chance to overhear a conversation between Mrs. Vandemeyer and Boris. The next visitor is Sir James Peel Edgerton, a lawyer serving as King's Counsel, who upon leaving makes an opaque remark regarding the suitability of Tuppence's current place of employment.

In the afternoon, Tuppence meets Julius after his return from Bournemouth. Juluis had followed Mr. Whittington to a private nursing home, where Mr. Whittington was meeting with a nurse. Unfortunately, before Julius could act, both Whittington and the nurse left, the latter with a female patient, while Julius was detected by Dr. Hall, the owner of the nursing home.

After a couple of uneventful days, Tuppence persuades Julius to seek advice from James Edgerton, based on his previous remark towards her. They share their concern regarding Tommy's disappearance with Sir James, who suggests to use his acquaintance with Mrs. Vandemeyer to obtain information. The plan is for Sir James to visit Mrs. Vandemeyer later in the evening. Tuppence, however, upon returning early to the flat, interrupts her mistress preparations to go into hiding, and manages to overwhelm her. In the ensuing conversation, Tuppence is able to obtain the promise of information regarding Jane Finn, Tommy and the mysterious Mr. Brown in exchange for a substantial amount of money out of Julius' long purse. Upon the arrival of Julius and Sir James, however, she faints, is revived by some brandy and dies soon after due to poisoning.

After this dead end, the three decide to contact Dr. Hull, the only person who might shed light on Mr. Whittington's whereabouts. It turns out that Jane Finn had been admitted to his nursing home under the name Janet Vandemeyer, and she was in his care because she suffered a complete loss of memory after the sinking of the Lusitania. On the evening of Whittington's visit, Jane Finn was brought back to London, to an unknown place. With no trail left to follow, Sir James announces his intent to start his planned vacation, with some hint that he may try to work behind the scenes, and a veiled hint to Tuppence not to trust Julius.

Julius, being convinced of the futility of their search, is ready to give up, and proposes that Tuppence marry him. She, however, leaves him a note declining the offer, and rushes out, after receiving a telegram signed by Tommy.

In the meantime, Tommy remained imprisoned in the conspirator's house, being served food by a young woman named Annette. After a few days of waiting, Tommy's bluff is called, and he is tied up to be brought away to be killed. During this time one of the conspirators refers to the Ritz as Tommy's previous place of residence, indicating that they know now more about him. His situation improves, however, when Annette arranges his escape but refuses to come along.

Upon returning to the Ritz, Tommy and Julius recognize the telegram to Tuppence as a means of getting her out of the way. They retrieve the telegram, and but fail to find any trace of her at the address given.

However, in the meantime Sir James has discovered Jane Finn, who has recovered her memory after an accident. Tommy, Julius and James get directions to the place where she hid the treaty. When they arrive, the package contains only a message from Mr. Brown. Realizing that the conspirators are now in possession of the treaty, Tommy rushes to London to alert Mr. Carter. There, Tommy learns another bad news: Pieces of Tuppence's clothing have been found at the seashore.

At his lowest, Tommy returns to the Ritz, with the intent of getting even with Mr. Brown over Tuppence's fate. He and Julius find themselves in a personal row, which Julius resolves by leaving the hotel. Tommy then decides to decline an offer by Sir James, at one of his farms in Argentina, and while searching for paper in Julius' drawer comes across a photograph of Annette. This chance find offers a new clue to the case, and Tommy concludes that the Jane Finn was they had found was planted by their enemies, in order to convince them that the game was over. Thus, he believes that they are closer to the solution than they believe, and notifies Mr. Carter that he believes Tuppence's pieces of clothing were fakes. He thinks that the conspirators will free the real Jane Finn, under the assumption that she will lead them to the hidden treaty.

Tommy then requests from Mr. Carter an original copy of the telegram sent to Tuppence, and finds out that the telegram was altered after Tuppence had read it, to throw him onto the wrong track. Thus, with the lift boy Albert, he proceeds to Tuppence's place of imprisonment, but leaves a false message for Julius, indicating that he left for Argentina.

Julius, still intent on finding his cousin, decides to use force, and kidnaps Mr. Kramenin, a known Bolshevik sympathizer and suspected conspirator. Kramenin, at gunpoint, agrees to lead Julius to the place of Jane's and Tuppence's confinement. At the house, Kramenin bluff his way to get both women released, whereupon all of them rush of in Julius' car. The bluff is called then, and they are followed. During the ensuing flight it becomes clear that Jane Finn and Annette are the same person, and that Jane had all the time pretended to suffer from amnesia. As well, it turns out that Tommy had been around and managed to jump onto the car. In a surprise development, he snatches Julius' weapon, and sends Tuppence and Jane via train to Sir James in London, while he stays behind with the unwilling Julius.

During the return to London, both women are wary of being followed, but with some tricks manage to reach Sir James' residence. Here, Jane confides her story: After having received the package, she got suspicious of Mrs. Vandemeyer. Concealing her fear, she replaced the treaty in the parcel with a blank sheet, carrying the treaty hidden inside a magazine. Then, during the train ride to London, she got mugged and woke up in an unknown location. Upon overhearing that their captors were not sure about the meaning of the empty sheet in the packet, and their intent of torturing her to gain information, Jane decided to pretend amnesia and started to converse in French only. During the night, she hid the treaty in the back of some pictures in her room. On the odd chance that she might recover her memory, she was kept from that moment under Mrs. Vandemeyer's care. Then, after a number of years, she was brought back to London, to serve on Tommy during his imprisonment.

Upon this information, Sir James suggests they immediately retrieve the treaty. He is convinced that Tuppence and Jane have been traced, and that the desperate Mr. Brown will follow them further to obtain the treaty. He plans to capture him, and expects that the conspirators without their leader are bound to fail. Furthermore, Tuppence confides in Sir James her suspicion that Julius is Mr. Brown, that he killed the real Julius and also Mrs. Vandemeyer. Sir James confirms her suspicions, and suggests they rush to get the treaty, lest Julius overpower Tommy and outwit them again.

In the house, the treaty is finally recovered. However, Jane and Tuppence are confronted by a Sir James who identifies himself as the head of the conspirators, who plans to kill them, wound himself, and blame it all on the elusive Mr. Brown. At this pivotal moment, Julius and Tommy, who were hidden in the room and had guessed the location of the treaty and Mr. Brown's identity, overwhelm Sir James. The latter manages to commit suicide.

A party given by Julius serves as a final meeting of all parties involved, and a general recapitulation of events, hints and conclusions. The novel concludes with Julius and Jane as well as Tommy and Tuppence joining in matrimony.

Major themes

The novel utilizes character clichés extensively: An obvious villain is immediately identified when Tuppence " [...] disliked and distrusted himinstinctively" (on first seeing Mr. Whittington, Ch. 2) or could "feel [...] something hard and menacing" (on first meeting Vandemeyer, Ch. 9).Tommy's first impressions of Boris ("He was fair, with a weak, unpleasant face, and Tommy put him down as being either a Russian or a Pole", Ch. 7) and an unnamed conspirator ("The low beetling brows, and the criminal jaw, the bestiality of the whole countenance", Ch. 8) are equally superficial. Even places are attributed such attributes: The meeting place of the conspirators is described as "a particularly evil-looking house" (Ch. 7).

The rank and file members of the organization form a "sinister gathering" drawn from various enemies to the British establishment:"The common criminal, the well-bred Irish gentleman (Sinn Féin), the pale Russian (Bolshevik), and the efficient German master of the ceremonies!" (Ch. 8). The British Labour Party and Trade Unions, on the other hand, are portrayed as being overall honest, but used by the conspirators for their own ends.

The two serious candidates for the main villain, Mr. Brown, on the other hand, are less obvious to read. Both's Julius' and Sir James' characters are developed more extensively, and both cannot easily be placed.

The plot develops through a series of coincidences (Tuppence gives her name as "Jane Finn", which starts the whole affair; Tommy guesses the Password "Mr. Brown" ).

Literary significance and reception

Upon publication of the first book edition it was reviewed by "The Times Literary Supplement" in its edition of January 26, 1922 which described it as "a whirl of thrilling adventures". It stated that the characters of Tommy and Tuppence as "refreshingly original" and praised the fact that the "identity of the arch-criminal, the elusive "Mr Brown", is cleverly concealed to the very end". ["The Times Literary Supplement" January 22, 1922 (Page 61)]

"The New York Times Book Review" of June 11, 1922 was also impressed, stating, "It is safe to assert that unless the reader peers into the last chapter or so of the tale, he will not know who this secret adversary is until the author chooses to reveal him." The review gave something of a backhanded compliment when it said that Christie "gives a sense of plausibility to the most preposterous situations and developments." Nevertheless they conceded that, "Miss Christie has a clever prattling style that shifts easily into amusing dialogue and so aids the pleasure of the reader as he tears along with Tommy and Tuppence on the trail of the mysterious Mr. Brown. Many of the situations are a bit moth-eaten from frequent usage by other writers, but at that Miss Christie manages to invest them with a new sense of individuality that renders them rather absorbing." ["The New York Times Book Review" June 11, 1922 (Page 15)]

Robert Barnard: "The first and best (no extravagant compliment this) of the Tommy and Tuppence stories. It tells how the dauntless pair foils a plot to foment labour unrest and red revolution in Britain, masterminded by the man behind the Bolshevists. Good reactionary fun, if you're in that mood" [Barnard, Robert. "A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie" - Revised edition (Page 200). Fontana Books, 1990. ISBN 0006374743 ] .

Film, TV or theatrical adaptations

Die Abenteurer GmbH (1929)

"The Secret Adversary" was the second Christie work to be turned into a film. Made in Germany by the "Orplid Film" company and released in that country on February 15 1929, it was entitled "Die Abenteurer GmbH", was a silent movie and ran for 76 minutes. It was released in the UK and US as "Adventures Inc." Character names from the book were changed for the film. Previously thought to be lost, it was given a rare showing at the National Film Theatre on July 15, 2001 (See [http://www.christian-kirsch.de/christie/news/film_festival.html] )

Adaptor: Jane Bess
Director: Fred Sauer
Photography: Adolf Otto Weitzenberg
Art Direction: Leopold Blonder and Franz Schroedter

Cast:
"Eve Gray" as Lucienne Fereoni
"Carlo Aldini" as Pierre Lafitte
"Elfriede Borodin" as Jeanette Finné
"Hilda Bayley" as Rita van den Meer
"Eberhard Leithoff" as George Finné
"Jack Mylong-Münz" as Boris
"Shayle Gardner" as Julius Vardier
"Hans Mierendorff" as Hans Mierendorff
"Valy Arnheim" as Wittington
and "Michael Rasumny"

The Secret Adversary (1983)

The book was also adapted by London Weekend Television as a 115-minute drama and transmitted on Sunday, October 9, 1983. It acted as an introduction to a ten-part adaptation of "Partners in Crime" made with the same stars which began transmission one week later under the title "Agatha Christie's Partners in Crime".

Adaptor: Pat Sandys
Director: Tony Wharmby

Cast:
"Francesca Annis" as Prudence Beresford
"James Warwick" as Thomas Beresford
"Reece Dinsdale" as Albert
"Arthur Cox" as Detective Inspector Marriott
"Gavan O'Herlihy" as Julius P. Hersheimmer
"Alec McCowen" as Sir James Peele Edgerton
"Honor Blackman" as Rita Vandemeyer
"Peter Barkworth" as Carter
"Toria Fuller" as Jane Finn
"John Fraser" as Kramenin
"George Baker" as Whittington
"Donald Houston" as Boris
"Joseph Brady" as Dr Hall
"Wolf Kahler" as The German
"Peter Lovstrom" as Henry
"Matthew Scurfield" as Conrad
"Holly Watson" as Child on Beach
"Phyllida Hewat" as Woman in Tea Shop
"James Walker" as First Clerk
"Mike Elles" as Second Clerk
"Gabrielle Blunt" as Annie
"Norman Hartley" as Florist
"Roger Ostime" as Ritz Hotel Receptionist
"Nicholas Geake" as Watson
"Simon Watkins" as Man at Astley Priors
"Steve Fletcher" as Messenger Boy

Graphic novel adaptation

"The Secret Adversary" was released by HarperCollins as a graphic novel adaptation on May 20, 2008 adapted by François Rivière and illustrated by Frank Leclercq (ISBN 0-00-727461-0). This was translated from the edition first published in France by [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanuel_Proust_éditions Emmanuel Proust éditions] in 2003 under the title of "Mister Brown".

Publication history

* 1922, John Lane (The Bodley Head), January 1922, Hardback, 320 pp
* 1922, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), 1922, Hardback, 330 pp
* 1927, John Lane (The Bodley Head), February 1927, Hardback (Cheap edition - two shillings)
* 1946, Avon Books (New York), Avon number 100, Paperback, 264 pp
* 1955, Pan Books, Paperback (Pan number 357)
* 1957, Pan Books, Paperback (Great Pan GP82)
* 1967, Bantam Books (New York), Paperback
* 1976, Panther Books (London), Paperback, ISBN 0-58-604424-8
* 1991, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 256pp ISBN 0-00-617478-7
* 1991, Ulverscroft Large Print Edition, Hardcover, ISBN 0-70-892441-7
* 2007, Facsimile of 1922 UK first edition (HarperCollins), November 5, 2007, Hardcover, 320 pp ISBN 0-00-726515-8

Like its predecessor, "The Mysterious Affair at Styles", "The Secret Adversary" was first published as an unillustrated serialisation in "The Times" weekly edition (aka "The Weekly Times") as a complete and unabridged text in seventeen instalments from August 12 (Issue 2328) to December 2, 1921 (Issue 2343) [Holdings at the British Library (Newspapers - Colindale). Shelfmark: NPL LON LD77] .

Book dedication

The dedication of the book reads:
"To all those who lead monotonous lives in the hope that they experience at second hand the delights and dangers of adventure".

This rather whimsical statement was one of only two times that Christie addressed a dedication to her readers, the other occasion being the penultimate Tommy and Tuppence book, "By the Pricking of My Thumbs" in 1968.

Dustjacket blurb

The dustjacket front flap of the first edition carried no specially written blurb. Instead it repeated the text which appeared on the jacket of "The Mysterious Affair at Styles" (the back jacket flap carrying review quotes of this latter book).

References

External links

It is one of two of Christie's books that are in the public domain in the US (the other being "The Mysterious Affair at Styles"). The copyright on the book will not expire in many Western countries before 2047.
*gutenberg|no=1155|name=The Secret Adversary
* [http://us.agathachristie.com/site/find_a_story/stories/The_Secret_Adversary.php "The Secret Adversary"] at the official Agatha Christie website
*
* [http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/349824 "Die Abenteurer GmbH"] (1929) entry at British Film Institute
*
* [http://www.screenonline.org.uk/tv/id/1246017/index.html "The Secret Adversary"] (1983) article at Screenonline


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