Speed reading

"Jimmy Carter and his daughter Amy participate in a speed reading course.

Speed reading is a collection of reading methods which attempt to increase rates of reading without greatly reducing comprehension or retention. Methods include chunking and eliminating subvocalization. No absolute distinct "normal" and "speed-reading" types of reading exist in practice, since all readers use some of the techniques used in speed reading (such as identifying words without focusing on each letter, not sounding out all words, not sub-vocalizing some phrases, or spending less time on some phrases than others, and skimming small sections). Speed reading is characterized by an analysis of trade-offs between measures of speed and comprehension, recognizing that different types of reading call for different speed and comprehension rates, and that those rates may be improved with practice.[1] The many available speed reading training programs include books, videos, software, and seminars.

Contents

History

Psychologists and educational specialists working on visual acuity used a tachistoscope to conclude[when?] that, with training, an average person could identify minute images flashed on the screen for only one five-hundredth of a second (2 ms). Though the images used were of airplanes, the results had implications for reading.

Using the same methodology, the U.S. Air Force soon discovered that they could flash four words simultaneously on the screen at rates of one five-hundredth of a second (2 ms) with full recognition by the reader[citation needed]. This early form of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation demonstrated that reading speeds could be increased from reading rates to skimming rates, and visual processing could also be improved[citation needed]. Researchers suggested that readers could be instructed in a variety of pacing techniques in an attempt to improve reading. Use of a tachistoscope during instruction could increase reading speeds from 200 to 400 words per minute. However, post-instruction timings showed that speed gains rapidly diminished.

Following the tachistoscope discoveries, the Harvard Business School produced the first film-aided course, designed to widen the reader’s field of focus in order to increase reading speed[citation needed]. Again, the focus was on visual processing as a means of improvement. Using machines to increase people's reading speeds was a trend of the 1940s. While it had been assumed that reading speed increases of 100% were possible and had been attained, lasting results had yet to be demonstrated.

It was not until the late 1950s that a portable, reliable and convenient device would be developed as a tool for increasing reading speed. The researcher was a school-teacher named Evelyn Wood. She was committed to understanding why some people were naturally faster at reading than others and was trying to force herself to read very quickly. It is told that while brushing off the pages of the book she had thrown down in despair, she discovered that the sweeping motion of her hand across the page caught the attention of her eyes, and helped them move more smoothly across the page. She then used the hand as a pacer, and called it the "Wood Method", which was renamed to Reading Dynamics in 1958. She coined the term "speed reading."[2]

Also, some speed reading proponents have taught that certain groups of people are more gifted at speed reading than others (e.g., young children, dyslexics, or those with ADHD).[citation needed] Speed Reading 4 Kids (2003) and Damn the School System — Full Speed Ahead! (1973) are two books that have advocated speed reading for children, including some learning-disabled.

Methods

Basic

Basic speed-reading begins with choosing the right environment in which to read. Assuming a comfortable posture in order to make reading more enjoyable, and ensuring one has sufficient oxygen intake are also important. Having good eyesight and being able to maintain focus are other factors that can naturally increase one's reading rate.

Skimming

Skimming is a process of speed reading that involves visually searching the sentences of a page for clues to meaning. For some people, this comes naturally, and usually may not be acquired by practice. Skimming is usually seen more in adults than in children. It is conducted at a higher rate (700 words per minute and above) than normal reading for comprehension (around 200-230 wpm), and results in lower comprehension rates, especially with information-rich reading material.

Another form of skimming is that commonly employed by readers on the Web. This involves skipping over text that is less interesting or less relevant. This form of reading is not new but has become increasingly prevalent due to the ease with which alternative information can be accessed online. Some of the sentences have minor information that might not be required.

Meta guiding

Meta guiding is the visual guiding of the eye using a finger or pointer, such as a pen, in order for the eye to move faster along the length of a passage of text. It involves drawing invisible shapes on a page of text in order to broaden the visual span for speed reading. For example, an audience of customers at a speed reading seminar will be instructed to use a finger or pen to make these shapes on a page and told that this will speed up their visual cortex, increase their visual span to take in the whole line, and even imprint the information into their subconscious for later retrieval. It has also been claimed to reduce subvocalization, thereby speeding up reading. This encourages the eye to skim over the text but reduces comprehension and memory, and leads to missing important details of the text. An emphasis on viewing each word, albeit briefly, is required for this method to be effective.

Commercial speed reading programs

Speed reading programs are available through courses, both in person or software based, and manuals. While the average adult reading rate is 250 words per minute with 70% comprehension,[3] speed reading programs typically claim that improvements to 500 words per minute or more while maintaining or improving comprehension are possible.

One point of difference between the various speed reading courses is the assertions concerning subvocalization. Some courses claim that the main obstacle to speed reading is any form of subvocalization. Although absence of subvocalization might not improve reading speed, its presence might obstruct high speed. These statements are equally valid, since there is no evidence that less subvocalisation can improve reading or even can willingly be changed at all.[4] Other courses claim that subvocalization can be used on keywords in order to speed up learning and reading. Some proponents of speed reading claim that subvocalization can be broken down into two levels, only one of which will reduce reading speed.[citation needed]

Speed reading courses and books take a variety of approaches to the concept of reading comprehension. Some courses and books claim that good comprehension is essential to speed reading, and that comprehension will improve with speed reading. Special non-standardized reading comprehension questionnaires are provided in order to convince the reader of the effects of the program. Some courses advise that while comprehension is important, it should not be measured or promoted. Speed reading courses variously claim that not all information in text needs to be covered while speed reading.[1] Some claim that speed reading involves skipping text (exactly as has been measured during studies on skimming), whereas other speed reading promoters[who?] claim that all of the text is processed, but with some or most becoming subconsciously processed. Similarly, some courses claim that text should be serially processed whereas others say that information should be processed in a more haphazard or ad hoc fashion.

Reading Dynamics

Reading Dynamics is the speed reading system taught by Evelyn Wood. It was endorsed by President John F. Kennedy and other famous figures as a means of remembering the information from thousands of words read per minute.

The system centers on moving one's hand across the page in order to maintain eye focus on the words. Like most speed reading systems, it also suggests trying to suppress the instinct of subvocalization or "thinking aloud," instead focusing on the meaning of the words without being limited by the time it would take to mentally pronounce the syllables.

PhotoReading

PhotoReading is a commercial product promoted by Learning Strategies Corporation with the phrase PhotoRead at 25,000 words a minute. Doubts have been raised[by whom?] about the ability of the brain to take in such a quantity of data at once. The human vision span is somewhat limited for this purpose if peripheral vision is not used.

The PhotoReading system was said to be developed by Paul Scheele, co-founder of Learning Strategies. A company called Subliminal Dynamics claimed that Scheele took a related seminar on subliminal processing with them,[5] which Scheele referenced on page 4 of the first chapter in the first edition of his book.[6] According to Scheele, PhotoReading differs from their system in at least three ways (quoted here verbatim)[7]:

  1. "The key is not subliminal perception. The key is the brain's capacity for preconscious processing. I've spent my years developing a protocol to capture this capacity and put it reliably in the hands of our clients. (Reference the work of N.F. Dixon from England, and P. Lewicki at Tulsa University, Oklahoma)."
  2. "Neuro-Linguistic Programming is the basis for our techniques of putting folks in contact with the resources of the non-conscious data storage systems of the brain for activation and recall."
  3. "Accelerative, brain-based teaching and learning are essential in the design and delivery of our programs, including the design of the book."

A study by NASA titled "Preliminary Analysis of PhotoReading"[8] states:

These results clearly indicate that there is no benefit to using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert showed an increase in reading time with the PhotoReading technique in comparison to normal reading. This increase in reading time was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension. These results were found for two standardized tests of text comprehension and for three matched sets of expository texts.

Software

Eye-exercise-for-speed-reading.gif

Computer programs are available to help instruct speed reading students. Some programs present the data as a serial stream, since the brain handles text more efficiently by breaking it into such a stream before parsing and interpreting it. The 2000 National Reading Panel (NRP) report (p. 3-1) seems to support such a mechanism.

To increase speed, some older programs required readers to view the center of the screen while the lines of text around it grew longer. They also presented several objects (instead of text) moving line by line or bouncing around the screen; users had to follow the object(s) with only their eyes. A number of researchers criticize using objects instead of words as an effective training method, claiming that the only way to read faster is to read actual text. Many of the newer speed reading programs use built-in text, and they primarily guide users through the lines of an on-screen book at defined speeds. Often the text is highlighted to indicate where users should focus their eyes; they are not expected to read by pronouncing the words, but instead to read by viewing the words as complete images. The exercises are also intended to train readers to eliminate subvocalization, even though it has not been proven that this will increase reading speed.

Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP)

A presentation method called Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) was developed to diminish the resource cost of readers' eye movements. RSVP is a method of displaying information (generally text or images) in which the text is displayed word-by-word in a fixed focal position. This may be used to increase reading rate or provide access to long text on small displays.

Effect on comprehension

Skimming on its own should not be used when complete comprehension of the text is the objective. Skimming is mainly used when researching and getting an overall idea of the text. Nonetheless, where time is limited, skimming or skipping over text can aid comprehension. Duggan & Payne (2009) gave readers a limited amount of time and compared skimming with normal reading. They found that the main points of a text were better understood after skimming than after normal reading. There was no difference between the groups in their understanding of less important information from the text (Duggan & Payne 2009). In contrast, other findings suggest that speed reading courses which teach techniques that largely constitute skimming of written text result in a lower comprehension rate (below 50% comprehension on standardized comprehension tests) (Carver 1992).

Claims of speed readers

The World Championship Speed Reading Competition stresses reading comprehension as critical, and that the top contestants typically read around 1,000 to 2,000 words per minute with approximately 50% comprehension or above, the world champion is Anne Jones with 4,700 words per minute with 67% comprehension. The 10,000 word/min claimants have yet to reach this level.[citation needed]

Much controversy is raised over this point. This is mainly because a reading comprehension level of 50% is deemed unusable by some educationalists (Carver 1992). Speed reading advocates claim that it is a great success and even state that it is a demonstration of good comprehension for many purposes (Buzan 2000). The trade-off between "speed" and comprehension must be analyzed with respect to the type of reading that is being done, the risks associated with mis-understanding due to low comprehension, and the benefits associated with getting through the material quickly and gaining information at the actual rate it is obtained.

Howard Stephen Berg was published in the 1990 Guinness Book of World Records as the Fastest Reader in the World.

The Guinness Book of World Records reviewed the evidence for his claim, and it resulted in their publishing it in their 1990 record book.[9] There is also a question on scanning, or skimming being considered "reading". Berg himself states that he only garners the concepts and not the details of the text.[10]

In January 1998 the United States Federal Trade Commission filed a complaint against Howard Stephen Berg for false and deceptive advertising.[11]

U.S. President John F. Kennedy was a proponent of speed reading[12] and encouraged his staff to take lessons.

Jimmy Carter, also a U.S. president, and his wife Rosalynn, were both avid readers and enrolled in a speed-reading course at the White House,[13] along with several staff members.

A critical discussion about speed reading stories appeared in Slate. Among others, the article raises doubts about the origin of John F. Kennedy's allegedly amazing reading speed. Ronald Carver, a professor of education research and psychology, claims that the fastest college graduate readers can only read at most twice as fast as their slowest counterparts, namely about 600 words per minute.[14] Other critics have suggested that speed reading is actually skimming, not reading.[15]

See also

Footnotes

References

  • Allyn & Bacon, (1987) The Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension. Boston
  • Buzan (2000) The Speed Reading Book. BBC Ltd
  • Carver, R.P-Prof (1990) Reading Rate: A Comprehensive Review of Research and Theory.
  • Carver, R. P. (1992). Reading rate: Theory, research and practical implications. Journal of Reading, 36, 84-95.
  • Cunningham, A. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Wilson, M. R. (1990). Cognitive variation in adult college students differing in reading ability. In T. H. Carr & B. A. Levy (Eds.), Reading and its development: Component skills approaches (pp. 129–159). New York: Academic Press.
  • Duggan, G. B., & Payne, S. J. (2009). Text skimming: The process and effectiveness of foraging through text under time pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(3), 228-242.
  • Educational Research Institute of America (2006). A Review of the Research on the Instructional Effectivenessof AceReader. Report No. 258.
  • Harris and Sipay (1990) How to Increase Reading Ability. Longman
  • FTC Report (1998) [1] [2]
  • Homa, D (1983) An assessment of two “extraordinary” speed-readers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 21(2), 123-126.
  • McBride, Vearl G. (1973). Damn the School System—Full Speed Ahead!
  • National Reading Panel (2000). p. 3-1.
  • Nell, V. (1988). The psychology of reading for pleasure. Needs and gratifications. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(1), 6-50
  • Perfetti (1995) Reading Ability New York:Oxford University Press
  • Scheele, Paul R (1996) The Photoreading Whole Mind System
  • Stancliffe, George D (2003) Speed Reading 4 Kids
  • Whitaker (2005) Speed Reading Wikibooks
  • Carver, R. P. (1992). Reading rate: Theory, research and practical implications. Journal of Reading, 36, 84-95.
  • Abela (2004) Black Art of Speed Reading
  • Zach Davis (2009) PoweReading. Informationswelle nutzen, Zeit sparen, Effektivität steigern (German). Peoplebuilding Verlag.
  • "BBC-Improve your skim reading technique". bbc.co.uk. BBB. http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/reading/techniques/skimming/index.shtml. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • speed reading — noun A technique of very rapid reading, by which words are taken in in phrases or other groups instead of singly • • • Main Entry: ↑speed * * * speed reading UK US noun [uncountable] a method of reading that allows you to read very fast Thesaurus …   Useful english dictionary

  • speed-reading — [spēd′rēd΄iŋ] n. a technique for reading texts at an extremely rapid rate with adequate comprehension speed read vi., vt. speed reader n. * * * speed read·ing (spēdʹrē dĭng) n. A method of reading rapidly by assimilating several words or phrases… …   Universalium

  • speed-reading — [spēd′rēd΄iŋ] n. a technique for reading texts at an extremely rapid rate with adequate comprehension speed read vi., vt. speed reader n …   English World dictionary

  • speed reading — speed .reading n [U] the skill of reading very quickly …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • speed reading — speed ,reading noun uncount a method of reading that allows you to read very fast …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • speed-reading — noun reading at speeds significantly faster than normal • Hypernyms: ↑reading * * * ˈ ̷ ̷ ˌ ̷ ̷  ̷ ̷ noun : a method of reading rapidly by skimming • speed read ˈ ̷ ̷ ˌ transitive verb • speed reader ˈ ̷ ̷ ˌ ̷ ̷  ̷ ̷ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Speed-Reading — Schnelllesen steht für die Fähigkeit, überdurchschnittlich schnell zu lesen und dennoch zu verstehen. Es gibt unzählige, aber alle sehr ähnliche, Techniken, mit denen man das Schnelllesen lernen kann. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Schnellleser 2 Wie wird… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Speed Reading — Schnelllesen steht für die Fähigkeit, überdurchschnittlich schnell zu lesen und dennoch zu verstehen. Es gibt unzählige, aber alle sehr ähnliche, Techniken, mit denen man das Schnelllesen lernen kann. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Schnellleser 2 Wie wird… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • speed reading — /ˈspid ridɪŋ/ (say speed reeding) noun reading at a fast speed while maintaining comprehension, using any of various techniques which enable this process, as by assimilating several phrases or sentences at once …   Australian English dictionary

  • speed-reading — noun Date: 1962 a method of reading rapidly by skimming • speed read transitive verb …   New Collegiate Dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.