Fernando Espuelas (b.
August 6 1966in Montevideo, Uruguay) is an American entrepreneur, author and philanthropist.
Espuelas is considered one of the pioneers of the consumer Internet [Harvard Business School case StarMedia: Launching a Latin American Revolution] . He is the founder of
Starmedia, the first pan-Latin Internet portal, launched in 1996. Starmediawas the first venture-capital backed Latin Internet company and also the first IPOin the Latin Internet industry [The New York Times, C.E.O ROUND TABLE, Online Pioneers: The Buzz Never Stops] . By the year 2000, Starmedia was the leading Latin portal [Fortune Magazine article, Going Global With StarMedia Chief Fernando Espuelas, April 2000] , serving over 25 million Spanish and Portuguese speakers every month across the Latin world.
According to the
Harvard Business Schoolcase [http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=800166 "StarMedia: Launching a Latin American Revolution "] , "by the fall of 1999,StarMedia had sprinted to a sizable lead in the race to acquire Latin American Internet users. Its pan-regional, horizontal portal was the first to target Spanish- and Portuguese-language speakers on the Internet, registering 1.2 billion page views in the third quarter of 1999. Thirty-three-year-old StarMedia co-founder Fernando Espuelas was the toast of " Silicon Alley" and a recognized hero throughout Latin America. A picture of him on the cover of Internet Worldmagazine--ripping his shirt open to show the StarMedia logo, like Superman, summed up the spirit of the company."
In 2003, Espuelas created VOY, a digital media company focused on "Latinos and those discovering Latin culture". [http://www.voyplaza.com/ VOY'] s portal was launched in 2005.
Forrester Research's study " [http://www.forrester.com/Research/Document/Excerpt/0,7211,42622,00.html Hispanic Social Computing Takes Off] ", published in June of 2007, ranked VOY's portals as the leading Latin pure-play social network in the United States [Forrester Research, June 2007 Hispanic Social Computing Takes Off] .
CNNnamed Espuelas as one of the “Leaders of the Millennium”, and he was recognized as a “2000 All-Star” business leader by Crain's New York Businessmagazine. The World Economic Forumincludes him among its " Global Leaders of Tomorrow," and he was also a recipient of " Latin Trade Magazine"'s Bravo Award, being named "CEO of the Year" by the magazine. "Hispanic Business Magazine" gave Espuelas its Hispanic Entrepreneur Award in 2000. He received a "New York" Award in 1999. Espuelas has been named to the "power-list" of such diverse media as " The Hollywood Reporter", " The Industry Standard", "Latino Leaders Magazine", "Red Herring Magazine", " Silicon Alley Reporter", "Hispanic Business Magazine", CNN, " Upside Magazine" and " Hispanic Magazine". In 2007, Espuelas was named a Henry Crown Fellow[http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/c.huLWJeMRKpH/b.2806495/k.D204/2007_Class.htm] at the [http://www.aspeninstitute.org/ Aspen Institute] . Espuelas' video biography is available here: " [http://www.youtube.com/user/cafeespuelas The Fernando Espuelas Story] "
Espuelas was the co-founder and Chairman of the
StarMedia Foundationwhich, in partnership with the Inter-American Development Bankand Microsoft, built technology training schools in poor neighborhoods in Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay. Espuelas served on the Board of Directors of the Educational Broadcasting Corporation, operators of PBS' New York flagship television station [http://www.thirteen.org/ THIRTEEN (WNET)] , as well as on the Board of Trustees of Connecticut College.
In 2004, Espuelas wrote [http://www.amazon.com/dp/B000C4SMVS "Life in Action"] (published by
Penguin Books), an auto-biographical book describing his philosophy of self-actualization, framed through historical examples such as Winston Churchill, Espuelas' personal hero, to Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr.. " Life in Action" recounted Espuelas' story from childhood in Uruguay, through his early years in the United States, to his business success and struggles after the Internet industry collapse of 2001.
Life in Action", Espuelas writes about studying at the Elbio Fernándezschool, a prestigious private school in Montevideo. Espuelas' family in Uruguay was financially secure until his father, a real estate entrepreneur, abandoned them when he was 8 years old.
Seeking survival at a time when Uruguay experienced acute political and economic crisis, Espuelas and his mother immigrated to the
United Statesin 1976 with only $100. After a series of factory jobs making everything from dresses to ice cream sandwiches, his mother found work as a housekeeper in Greenwich, Connecticut. As he recounted on PBS' Tavis Smileyshow, Espuelas started his first business in Greenwich, while in 5th grade, when he convinced his friends to invest in a kid's bank and insurance company. The next year, he founded the first student government in North Street School and was elected President of his class. He later began the school's newspaper, serving as editor-in-chief.
Greenwich High School,graduating in 1984. At Greenwich High, Espuelas was the President of the Debate Team and the Connecticut State Champion debater in 1982. He worked in a series of jobs while going to school: gardener; gas station attendant; Woolworth's clerk; restaurant worker; movie usher; newspaper delivery boy; messenger; Chinese food delivery person; pet shop cleaner; baby sitter; electronics board assembler in an electronic church organ manufacturing company; and as an intern at Philip Morris' headquarters in New York.
In 1988, Espuelas graduated "with distinction" from
Connecticut Collegewith a degree in history. While at Connecticut College, Espuelas was first the Managing Editor, then Editor-in-Chief and eventually Publisher of the college's newspaper, " The College Voice" and its associated publications. Espuelas also served as the President of Branford House, as well as on several college-wide faculty-student-administration committees, including the College's Education Committee. He was later elected to the Board of Trustees of Connecticut College
In 1988, Espuelas was hired out of college as an assistant account executive by
WundermanWorldwide, a division of the Young & Rubicamadvertising agency. While at Wunderman, Espuelas worked on the American Express, General Foods' Gevaliaand Weight Watchersaccounts.
After a year at Wunderman, he became an account executive at
IPG's Lowe & Partnersto work on the agency's Citibank Visaaccount.
In 1991, Espuelas returned to
South Americato work in Ogilvy & Mather's Argentine operations. In Argentina, Espuelas was the founding Managing Director of Ogilvy & Mather Direct. Starting with one account, Espuelas led the company to be O&M Argentina's single largest source of profit by the second year of operations. After 2 months in Argentina, Espuelas was additionally named head of the company’s Unileveraccount, responsible for a portfolio of global brands such as Doveand Ponds. The Unilever business was one of the most important accounts for both O&M in Argentina and across its worldwide network. At the end of 1991, Espuelas was elected to the Board of Directors of Ogilvy & MatherArgentina, at the age of 25.
AT&Trecruited Espuelas to lead the roll-out of the AT&T brand throughout Latin America. Within a year, he was promoted to Managing Director of Marketing Communications for the Latin American and Caribbean region, becoming one of the youngest executives of that rank at the company.
AT&T, Espuelas conceived and launched AT&T Hola (in Spanish) and AT&T Ola (in Portuguese), the company’s first online service. A combination of news feeds from Reuters, interactive forums, online games and the first search engine that searched in Spanish and Portuguese, AT&T Hola/Ola was positively received by both the media and consumers across Latin America.
In 1996, Espuelas envisioned the portal that would “unite” Latin America:
Starmedia. After a frustrating year and a half of approaching venture capitalists to invest in his vision, only to have them uniformly refuse, many avowing that Latins "did not like technology" and would never use the Internet, the company went on to raise $2.5 million dollars in 1997.
It was the first venture capital ever invested in a Latin Internet company. Over the next 4 years, the company raised over $500 million in investments, including capital from
Chase Manhattan Bank, GE Capital, Ebay, the Hearst Corporation, Intel Capital, NBCand David Rockefeller. In 1999, the company went public on the Nasdaq, the first Latin Internet company to do so, eventually reaching a market valuation of over $3.8 billion USDat its peak. Starmedia had over 1,200 employees in 18 offices across 12 countries in the Americas and Europe. Today, Starmedia is France Telecom's single largest Internet operation in the world and claims to serve "over 24 million people each month," according to company statements.
At the end of 2003, Espuelas launched VOY to great media fanfare. With widespread coverage in the United States, Latin America and
Spain, covers of magazines and international TV stories, Espuelas' company said that it was “enabling a culturally relevant community that entertains and empowers today's new generation of Latinos and those discovering Latin culture. VOY interacts with people on their platform of choice: Internet, mobile, IPTVand other merging distribution channels. VOY’s consumers connect with each other and relevant content to discover, develop and share all that is Latin.”
VOY launched its online service, [http://www.voymusic.com VOY Music] , as the first integrated Latin music experience on the web. Through the combination of culturally relevant content with community enabling features such as video, audio and text-based creation, sharing and distribution services, the company said that it was making VOY Music into “the central meeting place online for Latinos and Latinophiles in this country and around the world.” In 2007, Forrester Research's study " [http://www.forrester.com/Research/Document/Excerpt/0,7211,42622,00.html Hispanic Social Computing Takes-off] " ranked VOY's portals as the leading Latin social network pure play brand in the United States.
As part of its initial branding strategy, VOY released the award winning documentary, [http://www.favelarising.com Favela Rising] . The film received widespread critical acclaim. Espuelas said at the time of the release, “Favela Rising encapsulates the VOY philosophy of optimism and self-empowerment. The film’s message of hope transforms people, motivates and inspires us to action.” Telling the true story of one man's struggle against violence and racism to start a social movement for peace,
Favela Risingwon over 25 major international awards and was short listed for an Academy Awardnomination. It premiered at the Tribeca Film Festivalin 2005 and was seen around the world through the film festival circuit. In 2006 it opened in theaters across the U.S. and Brazil and later made its U.S. television debut on Cinemax.
Espuelas is a public speaker in the United States, Latin America and Europe on myriad topics including social and political issues, the Internet industry and the impact of technology on people and society. Since the launch of StarMedia, Espuelas has been extensively covered by broadcast, print and online media throughout the world.
In a highly publicized moment of inspiration that was recounted in numerous articles and television segments, Espuelas envisioned a "virtual plaza to connect the peoples of Latin America" while hiking atop a mountain in
Nepal. Soon after, Espuelas founded Starmedia with his Chinese-American childhood friend, Jack Chen.
Starmedia's Chairman/ CEO, Espuelas created the first Internet media company for Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking audiences worldwide. Using a combination of their 12 credit cards, family savings, and loans from friends, the pair managed to piece together the first $100,000 used to launch the Latin portal in September 1996. Eventually Starmedia raised over $500 million USDin equity in a series of private and public offerings. Starmedia's market capitalization reached $3.8 billion dollars. Starmedia's success served as an important catalyst in the development of the Latin Internet market by encouraging both entrepreneurs and financiers to back the development of the sector.
According to the
Harvard Business Schoolcase [http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=800166 "StarMedia: Launching a Latin American Revolution "] , written by professors Thomas Eisenmann and John K. Rust, "by the fall of 1999, StarMedia had sprinted to a sizable lead in the race to acquire Latin American Internet users. Its pan-regional, horizontal portal was the first to target Spanish- and Portuguese-language speakers on the Internet, registering 1.2 billion page views in the third quarter of 1999. Thirty-three-year-old StarMedia co-founder Fernando Espuelas was the toast of " Silicon Alley" and a recognized hero throughout Latin America. A picture of him on the cover of Internet Worldmagazine--ripping his shirt open to show the StarMedia logo, like Superman, summed up the spirit of the company."
The company’s high profile, as manifested in its thousands of press articles across the world, ensured that the whole Latin Internet sector benefited from a constant source of positive attention and relevance. Billions of dollars were subsequently invested in
Latin Americaby foreign and local companies, international venture capitalists and buy-out firms seeking to capitalize in the fast growth of this new segment. Myriad companies were created and funded, telecommunications companies made significant investments in infrastructure to meet the demand, and governments and other key sectors of the society, specifically the news media, adopted Web tools to modernize.
Espuelas, a skilled marketer armed with cash from his successful
IPO, was the mastermind of massive marketing campaigns promoting the StarMediabrand. In the process, Espuelas became iconic as the “poster boy” of the Latin Internet, appearing on the cover of magazines, in television shows and even in CNN’s own promotions: a brief image of Espuelas was included, amongst other renowned politicians and celebrities, within the 15 second top-of-hour CNNon-air network ID.
CNNfilmed a documentary on Espuelas’ life that was broadcasted across the world. The media referred to Espuelas as "The Hispanic Bill Gates" and "The New Simon Bolivar", terms that would be often recapitulated in thousands of articles and interviews referencing Starmedia.
May 25 1999, StarMedia completed the first public offering on Nasdaqfor a Latin Internet company, selling 7 million shares at $15. The company went on to raise hundreds of millions more capital over the next 2 years. By 2000, at age 34, Espuelas was acknowledged as one of the main players in Silicon Alley and the Latino Internet industry. Uruguay's leading newspaper, " El Pais", dubbed him “The Emperor of the Internet” on its front page.
August 5 2001, after a disagreement with the Board regarding the strategic direction of the company, Espuelas resigned as CEO of StarMedia but agreed to stay on as Chairman until November 15 2001to effect an orderly management transition. At that time, he was replaced by Susan Segalas head of he company; Segal was a venture capitalist, representing Chase Manhattan Bank's Chase Capital Partners, which had given Starmedia its first round of institutional financing in 1997. Segal then led the company’s new strategy to divest itself of its market leading portal assets, including the StarMedia brand and network of websites, and focus the company on its mobile unit, StarMedia Mobile. The resulting new company, Cyclelogic, was led by Segal until it filed for bankruptcy in 2003.
November 15 2001, StarMedia announced that it was reviewing the accounting treatment of some transactions in its Mexican subsidiaries. The Board of Directors formed a Special Board Committee, led by Segal, which hired outside lawyers and accountants to undertake a multi-million dollar, 6 month investigation of the transactions and their accounting treatment as approved by the company's outside accountants, Ernst & Young, and Starmedia's Board of Directors' Audit Committee. Days after the announcement of the creation of the Special Board Committee, the company and its Board were sued by class-action law-firms, led by the now defunct Milberg Weiss LLP.
The class-action suit alleged that
StarMediahad boosted its revenues by $10 million through overstating revenues with two Mexican subsidiary companies. After the Special Board Committee completed its investigation and found no wrongdoing on the part of management, Starmedia's outside accounting firm Ernst & Youngor the Board's Audit Committee, the suit was settled by StarMedia's Board of Directors and its insurance company. As part of the settlement, a full release was given by the shareholders to the company's former management, Board of Directors and accountants. After this settlement was reached, the suit was dismissed by the Federal judge trying the case.
As part of Segal's new strategy, in July 2002, StarMedia was sold for $8 million
USDto EresMas, a Spanish ISP. EresMaswas then sold to a unit of France Telecoma week later for $250 million dollars. EresMas' new leadership of the Latin Internet (through the purchase of StarMedia the previous week) was cited by France Telecomas the reason of the acquisition.
In company announcements made in 2006, StarMedia, now part of
France Telecom, the company claimed to be the global leader in Spanish language Internet services. By 2008, the company stated, Starmediawas serving over 24 million unique users a month and continued to expand by launching new services, such as finance and entertainment channels, and opening offices across Latin America.
Espuelas writes in "
Life in Action[ [http://www.amazon.com/Life-Action-Principles-Happiness-Success/dp/B000C4SMVS/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1215394159&sr=1-1 Amazon.com: Life in Action: The 12 Voy Principles of True Happiness and Success: Fernando Espuelas: Books ] ] ": “Because I believed in our company and our mission, I had never sold a single StarMedia share or stock option. I personally lost close to $500 million.”
In 2006, the U.S. SEC sued Espuelas and the rest of StarMedia's senior executive team alleging in a civil lawsuit that the accounting treatment of a certain transaction relating to StarMedia's Mexican subsidiaries did not meet
GAAPaccounting standards. The civil lawsuit relates to accounting decisions made by StarMedia and its outside accounting firm Ernst & Young, and approved by the Starmedia Board of Director's Audit Committee in 1999 and 2000.
At the time of the filing, Espuelas, who cooperated with the SEC investigation over 5 years, told "
Adweek"'s " Marketing & Medios" magazine: "I know that I did nothing wrong.…It [the lawsuit] is related to accounting issues at the company. I personally was not involved in accounting at the company. I'm very confident that the company did things right. We had a rather elaborate control function, both internal and external, and to my knowledge that was undertaken correctly."
External links and references
* [http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=800166 Harvard Business School Cases] "StarMedia: Launching a Latin American Revolution"
* [http://www.espuelas.com/ espuelas.com] Fernando Espuelas' Official Site
*" [http://www.youtube.com/user/cafeespuelas Espuelas'Video Biography] " The Fernando Espuelas Story
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yu_2jeNoXLs TV Spot] Cafe Espuelas radio talkshow 2008
* [http://www.exonline.com.mx/diario/noticia/dinero/hacker/%C2%A1starmedia_vive!/306572 El Excelsior] ¡StarMedia vive!, August, 2008
* [http://www.thedeal.com/newsweekly/features/the-perils-of-nuevo-media.php The Deal Newsweekly] The Perils of Nuevo Media, July, 2008
* [http://www.internetretailer.com/article.asp?id=26591 Internet Retailer] ¿Se Habla Español?, June 2008
* [http://www.mediafly.com/Podcasts/Episodes/Fernando_Espuelas_VOYGroup Mediafly] Fernando Espuelas Speaks at University of Virginia
Darden School of Business' Latin America Business Conference, Podcast, February, 2008.
* [http://www2.nysun.com/real-estate/heres-a-classic-new-york-story-of-no-view-being/ The New York Sun] Here's a Classic New York Story of No View Being Permanent, January 2008
* [http://www.derbymanagement.com/knowledge/pages/lessons/ceo.html Derby Management] Starting Your Startup
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/sfgate/detail?blogid=19&entry_id=22253 The San Francisco Chronicle] Hispanics and Technology, November 2007
* [http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/266006/0/latinos/poderosos/hollywood/ 20 Minutos] ¿Quiénes son los 50 Latinos más poderosos de Hollywood?, July 2007
* [http://www.forrester.com/Research/Document/Excerpt/0,7211,42622,00.html Forrester Research] Hispanic Social Computing Takes Off, June 2007
* [http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/c.huLWJeMRKpH/b.2806495/k.D204/2007_Class.htm Aspen Institute] Fernando Espuelas Named Henry Crown Fellow at the Aspen Institute, May, 2007
* [http://www.nysun.com/article/55226 New York Sun] "Trade Policies May Help Stem Immigration Inflow" May, 2007
* [http://www.hispanicmpr.com/2007/04/02/ Hispanic Marketing & Public Relations] Fernando Espuelas Speaks About VOY, Reaching Latino Youth Online, April, 2007
* [http://www.multichannel.com/article/CA6429791.html MultiChannel News] Latino Providers Strike Up the Broadband, April, 2007
* [http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003559453 Media Week] "Hispanic Youths Embrace Next-Gen Web Plays" March, 2007
* [http://www.nysun.com/article/35300 New York Sun] “Hispanic Entrepreneur Places Bets On English-Speaking Medium”, June, 2006.
* [http://www.nycfuture.org/images_pdfs/pdfs/Full%20transcript%20of%20Creative%20New%20York%20Conference.pdf Creative New York] Transcript of Creative New York Conference, April, 2006
* [http://www.cultura.gov.br/programas_e_acoes/cultura_viva/noticias/index.php?p=13688&more=1&c=1&pb=1 Cultura] Favela Rising, do Ponto Afroreggae, o melhor documentário do mundo, January, 2006
* [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-140489103.html Latino Leaders] The list: 101 top movers & shakers in America, December 2005
* [http://articles.latimes.com/2005/dec/03/entertainment/et-latinmusic3 Los Angeles Times] Voy launches English-language Latin music website, December 2005
* [http://www.jornalavozdopovo.com/noticias/visualizar.asp?id=%7B2F6F5E27-BD52-4F0A-8C26-CD0B698ED4D6%7D Jornal A Voz do Povo] O troco da trupe, December, 2005
* [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2005-11-29-latin-music-site_x.htm USA Today] Voy launches English Internet site for Latin music November, 2005
* [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20051030/news_mz1e30navarr.html The San Diego Union-Tribune] Working to Change the Hispanic Narrative October, 2005
* [http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001096293 The Hollywood Reporter] The Future of Entertainment: Postcards from the Edge, September 2005
* [http://www.brazzilmag.com/content/view/2271/54/ Brazzil Magazine] Brazilian Favela Becomes Film and Inspiration, May, 2005
* [http://www.elpais.com.uy/03/10/25/pecono_64109.asp El Pais] Espuelas lanzó nuevo y ambicioso emprendimiento, March 2005
* [http://www.pbs.org/kcet/tavissmiley/archive/200412/20041210.html The Tavis Smiley Show] ,
PBS“Fernando Espuelas Interview”, December 10 2004
* [http://latinoleaders.com/articulos.php?id_sec=1&id_art=97&num_page=303 Latino Leaders Magazine] Fernando Espuelas: The List - Latino Leaders, May, 2004
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1893684 The Tavis Smiley Show] ,
NPR, “VOY CEO Fernando Espuelas on Hispanic Market”, May 12 2004
* [http://www.latinoleaders.com/articulos.php?id_sec=2&id_art=79&id_ejemplar= Latino Leaders] 'The Fernando Espuelas Story', June-July, 2004 by Susan Hornik
* [http://www.hispaniconline.com/magazine/2004/may/CoverStory/index.html Hispanic Magazine] 'Fernando Espuelas Makes His Comeback', Cover story, May, 2004
* [http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/news_print.asp?id=16003 Hispanic Business Magazine] . “The Kings of Comeback.”, Cover story, May 2004
* [http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Bill-Gates-Hes-The-Anglo-Fernando-Espuelas/104706/ The Financial Express] Bill Gates? He’s The Anglo Fernando Espuelas, May 2004
* [http://veja.abril.com.br/especiais/Digital3/capa03.html Veja] No olho do furacão, December, 2003
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1433802 The Tavis Smiley Show] ,
NPR'The Hispanic Bill Gates', September 17 2003
* [http://www.gilardi.com/pdf/smnnot.pdf Class Action notice of settlement] in re Starmedia Network, Inc. securities litigation, July 29 2002
* [http://www.secinfo.com/dRqWm.3QAm.htm Starmedia Network Inc form 10-Q/A] , filed 7/11/02
* [http://www.atnewyork.com/news/article.php/8471_925911 atnewyork.com] 'StarMedia Launches Earnings Probe; CFO Departs', November 19 2001
* [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/economia/retiro/Gates/latino/elpepieco/20010809elpepieco_6/Tes/ El Pais] El retiro del 'Gates Latino', August, 2001
* [http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,28022,00.html The Industry Standard] Fernando Espuelas July, 2001
* [http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Internet-Business-Models/Thomas-R-R-Eisenmann/e/9780072508345/?itm=27 Internet Business Models: Text and Cases] Internet Business Models: Text and Cases with Teledesic Case CD-ROM, June 2001
* [http://www.baquia.com/noticias.php?id=8993 Baquia] El esquivo internauta hispano de EE UU, May, 2001
* [http://www.pc-news.com/detalle.asp?sid=&id=5&Ida=271 PC News] Nuevo canal de salud en Starmedia Network, May 2001
* [http://www.guardonline.com/?q=node/8825 Associated Press] Latin American Deals with Internet, Obstacles, April, 2001
* [http://info.abril.uol.com.br/aberto/infonews/042001/04042001-14.shl Info Exame] StarMedia arremata o Obsidiana, April, 2001
* [http://www.gestiopolis.com/canales/emprendedora/articulos/no%209/Fernando%20Espuelas.htm GestioPolis] La Historia de un gran emprendedor: FERNANDO ESPUELAS, March, 2001
* [http://www.iadb.org/sds/itdev/youth.htm Inter-American Development Bank] Youth and IDB in Latin America, December, 2000
* [http://www.marketwatch.com/News/Story/Story.aspx?guid=%7BD2BD3376-60D9-409A-8646-58405488E9B2%7D MarketWatch] StarMedia sees itself as Latin leader, December 2000
* [http://www.timewarner.com/corp/newsroom/pr/0,20812,668032,00.html CNN] Twenty Latin American Leaders of the Internet Named by CNN, November 2000
* [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2000/20001116.pi1306.doc.html United Nations] UNITED NATIONS TELEVISION FORUM 2000 OPENS AT HEADQUARTERS, November, 2000
* [http://www.elcolombiano.com.co/proyectos/grandes_entrevistas/febrero/febrero_25/fernando_espuelas.htm El Colombiano] Fernando Espuelas, creador de un imperio para la comunidad virtual, February, 2000
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1027228.stm BBC News] Annan wants 'information for all', November, 2000
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9502E5DF1631F930A1575BC0A9669C8B63 The New York Times] INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: When Funds Abroad Fill a Void at Home; Financing Latin America's Start-Ups, August, 2000
* [http://www.city-journal.org/html/10_3_the_triumph.html CityJournal] The Triumph of Silicon Alley, August, 2000
* [http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/4448259-1.html AllBusiness] Crowd, August, 2000
* [http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?idx=1057&cat1=news Hispanic Business Magazine] Wrestling for Web Dominance, August 2000
* [http://www.computerworld.com.au/index.php/id;373201782;fp;;fpid;;pf;1 Computerworld Magazine] StarMedia to Wire Public Schools in LatAm to Net, May 2000
* [http://www.idg.es/iworld/impart.asp?id=107009 IDG] Los dos gigantes Latinos cruzan el charco, May, 2000
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OQC/is_5_1/ai_100409521 Latin CEO] E-Commerce progress - Internet, May 2000
* [http://www.lanacion.com.ar/Archivo/Nota.asp?nota_id=180701 La Nacion] Presente y futuro en la ruta de StarMedia, May 2000
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/archive/2000/05/09/STYLE9392.dtl&type=music The San Francisco Chronicle] Santana reaching out on Net via Hispanic StarMedia, Webcasts of upcoming concerts, online chats planned, May 2000
* [http://www.forbes.com/newmedia/asap/2000/0403/084_6.html Forbes] Ramp Champs, May 2000
* [http://www.computerworld.com.au/index.php/id;1191261862;fp;;fpid;;pf;1 Computerworld Magazine] Espuelas: StarMedia Leads LatAm Portal Market April, 2000
* [http://www.entrepreneur.com/magazine/entrepreneur/2000/april/24204.html Entrepreneur Magazine] So Close, Yet...It may seem like the Internet is everyone's formula for success, but are minorities being left out of the equation?, April, 2000
* [http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/starmedia-reports-531-jump-revenue/story.aspx?guid=%7BF632258C-B69F-4B1C-BDB7-FF3BE74D4412%7D MarketWatch] StarMedia reports 531% jump in revenue, April 2000
* [http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/people/features/2883/ New York Magazine] Profile: 35 Under 35, April 2000
* [http://www.atnewyork.com/news/article.php/321511 atnewyork.com] 'Questions for ... Fernando Espuelas', March 15 2000
* [http://info.abril.com.br/edicoes/168/arquivos/2780_1.shl Info Online] Reis da audiência, March, 2000
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E02E5DD1F3DF93AA15756C0A9669C8B63 The New York Times] StarMedia Faces New Challenges in Latin America, May, 2000
* [http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/2000/5/4/hispanic_ecommerce_market_expands.htm Hispanic Business Magazine] Hispanic E-commerce Market Expands, May 2000
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,42829,00.html Time Magazine] The Big And Little Fish Of The Web, April 2000
* [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2000/04/03/277174/index.htm Fortune Magazine] Going Global With StarMedia Chief Fernando Espuelas, April 2000
* [http://www.iadb.org/exr/PRENSA/2000/cp4700e.htm Inter-American Development Bank] Uruguayan Entrepreneur Urges that all Schools and Towns in Latin America be Connected to Internet in Two Years, March, 2000
* [http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/media/internet/2285/ New York Magazine] Silicon Alley 10003:Long before the suits logged on, a small group of prep-school slackers had faith in the Web. Now they're the alley's establishment, February 2000
* [http://www.terra.com.br/istoe/1586/economia/1586mudanca.htm Istoe Magazine] Mudança de hábito: O empresário Fernando Espuelas radicaliza e deixa de cobrar acesso de todos os clientes da StarMedia February, 2000
* [http://www.elmundo.es/navegante/2000/02/25/espuelas.html El Mundo] El contenido es sólo una mercancía, February, 2000
* [http://news.cnet.com/CMGI,-StarMedia-join-on-free-Latin-American-ISP/2100-1023_3-237006.html CNet News] CMGI, StarMedia join on free Latin American ISP, February, 2000
* [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-58736200.html Newsweek] Latin America's Internet Star: Fernando Espuelas, January 2000
* [http://www.dynamicdata.com.ar/entrevista_espuelas.htm DynamicData] Entrevista a Fernando Espuelas, January, 2000
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A07E2DC1E39F932A35752C0A9669C8B63 The New York Times] VISIONS: CITIES - Manifestoes To Give City A New Edge; Cooper Union for Technology, January 2000
* [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2000/02/07/272807/index.htm Fortune Magazine] Chase's Venture Capital Elite They're not rock stars; they're more like a hot studio band. Chase Capital Partners keeps the hits coming, January 2000
* [http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/influentials/details.asp?id=133&year=2000 Hispanic Business Magazine] 2000 Influentials List
* [http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-2510147_ITM Latin CEO Magazine] Architect of the Internet: The Internet in Latin America is now flush with capital-and promise. But who will carve out the winning niches and define the look and feel of the new medium?, January 2000
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BEK/is_9_7/ai_55548152 Latin Trade Magazine] Rocket Man - Internet Entrepreneur Fernando Espuelas, StarMedia, December 1999
* [http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Silicon-Alley NationMaster] Silicon Alley, 2000
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DEEDB143CF932A15752C1A96F958260 The New York Times] C.E.O ROUND TABLE; Online Pioneers: The Buzz Never Stops, November 1999
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BDW/is_42_40/ai_58251847 BrandWeek] Launching StarMedia in Latin America posed many challenges, including fighting a lot of misperceptions, November 1999
* [http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/marketing-techniques/6767949-1.html allbusiness.com] StarMedia Network and Visa International Announce Strategic E-Commerce Alliance, November 1999
* [http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_43/b3652019.htm BusinessWeek] La Vida Loca of a Latin Web Star (international edition cover story), October 1999
* [http://www.newsweek.com/id/89743 Newsweek] A Regional Race Into Cyberspace -- So What If Many Latins Still Await Their First Phone? Big Money Is Mobilizing To Bring The Continent Online In A Hurry, November, 1999
* [http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/informatica/1999/11/24/t-00701i.htm Clarin] Fernando Espuelas: a los golpes, y desde abajo, November 1999
* [http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_43/b3652015.htm BusinessWeek] Battle for the Net: The rush is on to cash in on Latin America's fast-growing market, October 1999
* [http://www.infoworld.com/articles/en/xml/99/10/11/991011enlatinwireless.html InfoWorld] StarMedia: Latin American provider to offer wireless services to Spanish-speaking users, October 1999
* [http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/193701/StarMedia+Network+Launches+Latin+America+Internet+.htm InternetNews.com] StarMedia Network Launches Latin America Internet Service, September 1999
* [http://www.analitica.com/vas/1999.09.4/cyber/03.htm Analitica] La Primera Iniciativa Inalámbrica que Permitirá a los Usuarios de la Web de Habla Hispana y Portuguesa Llevar el Poder de Internet a Todas Partes, September, 1999
* [http://www.eservicesworld.com/siteEservices/press/hpstarmedia.htm E-ServicesWorld] STARMEDIA AND HP TO FORM STRATEGIC E-COMMERCE ALLIANCE FOR LATIN AMERICA, September 1999
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE1DB1E38F937A1575BC0A96F958260 The New York Times] On-Line Network Expands, August, 1999
* [http://www.lanacion.com.ar/herramientas/printfriendly/printfriendly.asp?nota_id=187561 La Nacion] Comercio electrónico: En el 2003 habrá 19 millones de clientes en América Latina, August 1999
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990DE6DD153CF93AA35754C0A96F958260&st=cse&sq=%22fernando+espuelas%22&scp=6 The New York Times] Treasury Chief Urges Inner-City Investment, July 1999
* [http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/economico/1999/07/18/o-00401e.htm Clarin] El capital de riesgo entra en el juego, July 1999
* [http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/economico/1999/11/07/o-00401e.htm Clarin] La fiebre del oro llegó al negocio de Internet, July 1999
* [http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/nyawards/1710/ New York Magazine] The 1999 New York Awards: Fernando Espuelas, 1999
* [http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/influentials/details.asp?id=18&year=1999 Hispanic Business Magazine] 1999 Influentials List
* [http://www.el-mundo.es/navegante/99/marzo/02/silicon2.html El Mundo] Nueva York se moviliza para impulsar Silicon Alley (II) March, 1999
* [http://www.espectador.com/text/empresas/emp12013.htm El Espectador] “StarMedia abre en Montevideo su sede para América Latina”, January, 1999.
* [http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9812/23/latinit.idg/ Computerworld] Latin America booming with IT skills, infrastructure problems, December 1998
* [http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/1998/11/16124 Wired Magazine] StarMedia Wants US Hispanics, November, 1998
* [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.09/newmedia.html?pg=3 Wired Magazine] Yo Quiero StarMedia, September, 1998
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/archive/1998/10/13/BUSINESS12045.dtl San Francisco Chronicle] Viva Internet StarMedia Inc. lands $80 million to fund Latin American Web community, October 1998
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5254/is_199808/ai_n20221078 Crain's New York Business] Star Attraction in Latin America: On-Line Firm's Edge in Exploding Market Draws Megafunding; Rivals Entering Ring, August, 1998
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950CE3D8103DF93BA25755C0A96E958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=3 The New York Times] The Web Reflects a Wider World, June 1998
* [http://www.businessweek.com/1997/52/b3559159.htm BusinessWeek] Welcoming Spanish Speakers to the Web: Fast-growing StarMedia is racing to fill the niche first, December 1997
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9805E1DA1139F932A25752C1A961958260&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss The New York Times] Media Company Arrives, November 1997
* [http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/1997/09/6563 Wired Magazine] New York Dream Job: Director of Community, September 1997
* [http://www.conncoll.edu/news/articles/buildarticle.cgi?957461711.txt Connecticut College] 'Board of Trustees Welcomes Four New Members'
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