Chazal


Chazal
Rabbinical Eras
For the 20th Century writer, see Malcolm de Chazal.

Chazal or Ḥazal (Hebrew: חז"ל‎) is an acronym for the Hebrew "akhameinu Zikhronam Liv'rakha", (חכמינו זכרונם לברכה, literally "Our Sages, may their memory be blessed"). In rabbinic writings this is a general term that refers to all sages of the Mishna, Talmud, and other rabbinic literature commentators, and their authoritative opinion, from the times of the Second Temple of Jerusalem until the 6th century CE.

Contents

Rabbinical eras, Eras of the Halakha

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Chazal are generally divided according to their era and the main writing done in that era:

  • Soferim ("scribes"): The most common rooted[clarification needed] term used for all sages from before the era of Ezra the scribe until the Zugot era, including the men of the Great Assembly. This era stretches from the Matan Torah ("giving of the Law"; Moses receiving the Torah on Biblical Mount Sinai), to the Halakha ("traditions") era, including the times of Simeon the Just; either Simon I (c.300 BCE) or Simon II (c.210 BCE).
  • Zugot ("pairs"): Five pairs (zugot) of Tannaim from consecutive generations, who had lived during a period of around 100 years towards the end of the Second Temple era. (142 BCE – ca. 40 BCE)
  • Tannaim ("teachers"): Refers to the sages of the Mishnah, who lived in the Land of Israel until 220 CE. In addition to the Mishnah, their writings were also preserved in the Midrash. Key figures among the Tannaim include Hillel the Elder, Akiva ben Joseph, and Judah haNasi.
  • Amoraim ("expounders"): Refers to the sages of the Talmud who were active during the end of the era of the sealing of the Mishnah, and until the times of the sealing of the Talmud (220CE – 500CE). The Amoraim sages were active in two areas, the Land of Israel, and Babylon. In addition to the Babylonian Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud, their writings were also preserved in midrashs such as Midrash Rabba.
  • Savoraim ("reasoners"): Refers to the sages of Beth midrash (Torah study places) in Babylon from the end of the era of the Amoraim (5th century) and until the beginning of the era of the Geonim (From the end of the 6th century or the midst of the 7th century).

Chazal's authority

Until the end of the Savoraim era, the Chazal had the authority to commentate the Torah according to the Talmudical hermeneutics standards required by the law given to Moses at Sinai [1] (The non written laws handed to Moses at Sinai). Nowadays, this authority is not delegated to the current generation's sages, and thus the Torah can not be commentated on, in matters concerning the halakha ("tradition"), if it contradicts the Chazal's commentary.

Until the midst of the Tannaim era, when there was a Sanhedrin (a Jewish religious law court), Chazal had also the authority to decree predestinations and to enact new religious regulations, in any matter they saw fit, concerning issues that were not included in the written Torah, or were not handed in Biblical Mount Sinai. These rabbinical mitzvot ("commandments") include the holidays of Purim and Hanukkah, the laws of muktzah ("separation") on Shabbat, the ritual washing of one's hands (netilat yadayim) before eating bread, the construction of eruvim (liminal gateways), and the institution of the current schedule of daily prayer services - shacharit (morning prayer), mincha (afternoon prayer), and ma'ariv (evening prayer, Kol Nidrei).

See also

References

  1. ^ "הלכה למשה מסיני" [1] (Hebrew wikipedia); HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI, Jewish Virtual Library

External links



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • CHAZAL (M. de) — CHAZAL MALCOLM DE (1902 1981) Né à Vacoas (île Maurice), dans une famille franco mauricienne d’origine forézienne, Malcolm de Chazal n’a quitté son île natale que pour acquérir une formation d’ingénieur à l’université de Baton Rouge, en Louisiane …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chazal — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: André Chazal (1793–1854), französischer Maler und Ehemann von Flora Tristan Claire Chazal (* 1956), französische Journalistin Pierre Chazal (1808–1892), belgischer General Diese Se …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chazal — (spr. Schasal), Baron Ch., geb. 1808 in NFrankreich, kam nach dem Sturze des. Kaiserreichs 1815 mit nach Belgien u. wurde zum Kaufmannsstande bestimmt. 1830 leitete er in Brüssel ein Tuchgeschäft, das er jedoch, von der Revolution mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Chazal — (spr. schasáll), Pierre Emanuel Félix, Baron de, belg. Militär, geb. 1808 zu Tarbes (Südfrankreich), gest. 25. Jan. 1892 in Pau, Sohn eines in Belgien verstorbenen frühern Konventmitgliedes, anfangs Kaufmann in Brüssel, 1830 Teilnehmer an der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chazal — (Schahsal). Baron de, Franzose, geb. 1808, Tuchhändler in Brüssel, seit der Septemberrevolution von 1830 Soldat, stieg zum Generallieutenant und wurde 1847 belg. Kriegsminister, 1850 als solcher entlassen …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Chazal — (Malcolm de) (1902 1981) écrivain mauricien d expression française et peintre: Pensées (7 vol., 1940 1945), Sens plastique (1947), la Vie filtrée (1949), Pétrusmok (1951), Sens magique (1957). à partir de 1952, il s adonna à la peinture naïve …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chazal — Voir Casals pour le sens. C est dans la Corrèze que le nom est le plus fréquent, mais on le rencontre aussi dans toutes les régions appartenant au domaine nord occitan (où ca devient cha ). Diminutifs : Chazalet, Chazallet (26, 43, 42, 84, 69),… …   Noms de famille

  • Chazal — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Patronyme André Camille Chazal, (1875 1939), député français Antoine Chazal, (1793 1854), peintre français Arthur Chazal, acteur français Astrid Chazal,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chazal — noun The sages from the time of the Second Temple and afterward, through the sixth century C.E …   Wiktionary

  • chazal — (entrée créée par le supplément) (cha zal) s. m. Petite grange (Dauphiné), Inventaire de 1717. ÉTYMOLOGIE    Bas lat. casale, du lat. casa, maison …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré


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