Fidel V. Ramos
name = Fidel V. Ramos
order = 12th
President of the Philippines"2nd President of the 5th Republic"
June 30, 1992
June 30, 1998
vicepresident = Joseph E. Estrada
predecessor = Corazon C. Aquino
successor = Joseph E. Estrada
birth_date = Birth date and age|1928|3|18|mf=y
birth_place = Lingayen,
dead = alive
party = Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats
Soldier, Civil Engineer Statesman
spouse = Amelita Martinez
United States Military Academy University of Illinois U.S. Army Infantry SchoolNational Defense College Ateneo de Manila University
religion = United Methodist
order2 = Secretary of National Defense
January 22, 1988
July 18, 1991
predecessor2 = Rafael Ileto
Renato de Villa
Chief of Staffof the Armed Forces of the Philippines
term_start3 = 1986
term_end3 = 1988
Ferdinand Marcos Corazon Aquino
Renato de Villa
Infobox Military Person
name= Fidel V. Ramos
nickname= Eddie, FVR
Republic of the Philippines
serviceyears= 1951 - 1988
*Platoon Leader, 20th Battalion Combat Troops of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to
Korea, United Nations Command (PEFTOK-UNC), Korean War, 1951-1952
*Duty, Personnel Research Group, G1 Division, General Headquarters,
Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1952-1954
*Senior Aide de Camp to Chief of Staff,
Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1958-1960
*Associate Infantry Company Officer at
Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 1960
*Founder and Commanding Officer of the elite
Special Forcesof the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1962-1965
*Chief of Staff of the Philippine Military Contingent-Philippine Civil Action Group to
Vietnam(AFP-PHILCAG), Vietnam War, 1965-1968
*Presidential Assistant on Military Affairs, 1968-1969
*Commander, 3rd Infantry Brigade
Philippine Army, 1970
*Chief of the
Philippine Constabulary, 1970-1986
*Command and General Staff of the
Philippine Army, 1985
*Acting Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1984-1985
*Vice Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1985-1986
*Military Reformist during the
People Power EDSA Revolution, 1986
*Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1986-1988
*Secretary of National Defense, 1988-1991
Commander in Chiefof the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1992-1998
Korean War, 1951-1952 (Hero of the Battle of Hill Eerie, May 1952)
Vietnam War, 1965 to 1968
*Battle of Marawi, 1972
Philippine Legion of Honor(Commander)
Legion of Merit(Commander)
Military Merit Medal
United Nations Service Medal
Vietnam Service Medal
Distinguished Conduct Star
United States Military AcademyDistinguished Award
Korean Service Medal
*Order of Dato Laila Utama, The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of
*Order of Dharma Pratana (Commander) of
*Grand Order of Mugunghwa of
*Collar, Order of Civil Merit of
Spain(Orden del Merito Civil)
*Knight Grand Cross (GCMG), The Most Distinguished
Order of Saint Michael and Saint Georgeof the United Kingdom
*Collar, Order of Isabela Catolica of
Order of the Crown of Malaysia
*Knight Grand Cordon (1st Class), Knight Grand Cordon (Special Class), Most Exalted
Order of the White Elephantof Thailand
*Order of Nishan-I-Pakistan
*Collar, Royal and Distinguished Order of Carlos III of
Spain(Real y Muy Distinguida Orden de Carlos III)
Order of Meritof Chile
laterwork= Secretary of National Defense (1988-1991),
President of the Philippines(1992-1998)
Fidel Valdez Ramos (born
March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. He succeeded Corazon Aquinoand governed until 1998, when he was succeeded by Joseph Estrada. He was the first, and to date the only, non-Roman Catholic president of the Philippines.
authoritarianregime of President Ferdinand Marcos, Ramos was head of the Philippine Constabulary, implementing Marcos' declaration of martial law. In the 1986 People Power Revolution, Ramos defected from the government and was a key figure in the civilian demonstrations that forced Marcos into exile.
The first half of Ramos' six-year term as President was characterized by rapid economic growth and political stability in the country despite facing communist insurgencies, an Islamic separatist movement in
Mindanao, and the onslaught of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Early life and education
Fidel Ramos was born on
March 18, 1928in Lingayen, Pangasinan. His father, Narciso Ramos (1900-1986), was a lawyer, crusading journalist and 5-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEANdeclaration forged in Bangkokin 1967 and was one of the founding fathers of the Liberal Party. His mother, Angela Valdez-Ramos (1905-1977), was an educator, woman suffragette and daughter of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Nortemaking him a second degree cousin to Ferdinand Marcos. He took his elementary education in Lingayen and secondary education at the University of the Philippines Integrated School and Centro Escolar University Integrated School.
In 1946, Ramos, barely months after enrolling in the Philippines' National University, joined the
Philippine Military Academyas cadet and won a government scholarship to the United States Military Academyin West Point. He pursued further studies in engineering following his graduation from West Point in 1950, obtaining a Masters Degree in Civil Engineeringin the University of Illinois, where he was also a government scholar in 1951. He is a licensed civil engineer in the Philippines, passing the board exams in 1953 and finishing in the top 10. In 1960, he topped Special Forces-Psy Operations-Airborne course at the United States Army Infantry Schoolat Fort Benning.
Ramos also holds a Master's Degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a Master's in Business Administration (MBA) from the
Ateneo de Manila University.
In his military career, Ramos rose from 2nd Lieutenant infantry platoon leader in the Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea (PEFTOK) in 1952 during the
Korean Warto Chief of Staff of the Philippine Civil Action Group to Vietnamfrom 1966 to 1968. He is instrumental in founding the Philippine Army Special Forces, an elite paratroop unit skilled in community development as well as fighting communist insurgents.
Ramos, along with the Philippines' 20th Battalion Combat Team and his fellow West Point graduates of the 1950s, fought in the Korean War. Ramos was one of the heroes of the
Battle of Hill Eerie[cite web|title=PEFTOK Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea|url=http://www.geocities.com/peftok/20thbct.html] , where he led his platoon to sabotage the enemy in Hill Eerie. He was also present in the Vietnam Waras a non-combat civil military engineer.
Ramos has received several military awards including the
Philippine Legion of Honor, the Gold Cross, Philippine Military Merit Medal, the United States Legion of Merit, the French Legion of Honor and the U.S. Military Academy Distinguished Award.
Ramos served the Marcos regime for more than 20 years — in the military, as head of the
Philippine Constabulary, the country's national police force, and as a trusted advisor. He was a member of the infamous Rolex 12, a group of conspirators loyal to Marcos himself.
Ramos, together with
Juan Ponce Enrile, the secretary of Defense, changed allegiance and sided with Aquino when the People Power Revolutionerupted in 1986 and became the living symbol of military defiance against Marcos. The military followed his lead and swung the pendulum in her favor.
After Aquino assumed the Presidency, she appointed Ramos Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, and later Secretary of National Defense, foiling seven coup attempts against the Aquino administration.
1992 Presidential Elections
In December 1991, Ramos declared his candidacy for President. He however, lost the nomination of the dominant party
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino(LDP) to House Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr.. Days later, he bolted LDP and founded the Partido Lakas ng Tao (People Power Party), inviting CebuGovernor Emilio Mario Osmeñaas his Vice President. The party formed a coalition with the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) of Congressman Jose de Venecia and the United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (UMDP) of Simeon Datumanong. Ramos and Osmeña campaigned for economic reforms and improved national security and unity. He was nicknamed as "Steady Eddie" as he campaigned well and gained a steady popularity during the campaign with popular support from President Aquino.
He won the seven-way race on
May 11, 1992, narrowly defeating populist Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor Santiago. Despite winning, he garnered only 23.58% of the vote, the lowest plurality in the country's history. The election results were marred by allegations of fraud, though cheating on a large scale has not been proven. However, his running mate, Governor Osmeña, lost to Senator Joseph Estradaas Vice President.
At the time of his assumption into power, Ramos was the oldest person to become president of the Philippines at the age of 64. He is also the first Protestant president of the country. The first few years of his administration (1992-1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. As in his case, he was the first
Christian Democratto be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian Democratic Party). He was the one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracyin Asia.Fact|date=February 2007
The Philippines then was experiencing widespread brownouts due to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants. During his State of the Nation address on
July 27, 1992, he requested Congress to enact a law that would create an energy department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands. Congress not only created an energy department but gave him special constitutional powers to resolve the power crisis. Using the powers given to him, Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plants within 24 months. The power crisis was resolved in 1994.
Unfortunately, Ramos issued supply contracts that guaranteed the government would buy whatever power the IPPs produced under the contract in
U.S. dollarsto entice investments in power plants. This became a problem during the East Asian Financial Crisis when the demand for electricity contracted and the Philippine Pesolost half of its value. This caused the Philippine price of electricity to become the second-highest in Asia, after Japan.
The country was considered risky by investors due to previous coup attempts by military adventurists led by
Gregorio Honasan, and experienced brownouts at an almost daily basis lasting 4-12 hours before he issued IPP licences. The low supply of power and perceived instability held back investments and modernization in the country. In addition, the Philippines was a pioneer in the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme where private investors are invited to build certain government projects (i.e. tollways, powerplants, railways, etc.), make money by charging users, and transfer operation to the government after a set amount of time. As there was no literature or previous experience to such a scheme, most early contracts put a large and undue amount of risk on the government in cases of unfavorable changes in the business environment. Even given this context, Ramos' real intention behind the IPP contracts appears murkier than what he or his publicists want the people to believe. A 2002 investigative report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed that Ramos personally saw to it that a number of the costliest power deals be quickly approved, and even provided justifications to effect the signing of additional power contracts despite having been warned by the World Bank and from within the Philippine government that an impending electricity oversupply could jack up prices.
During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Ramos was also known as the most-traveled Philippine President in recent history with numerous foreign trips abroad, generating about US$ 20 billion worth of foreign investments to the Philippines. To ensure a positive financial outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th
Asia Pacific Economic CooperationLeaders' Summit in the Philippines on November 1996. He also instituted reforms in the tax system which includes a forced increase on VAT (E-VAT law) from 4% to 10% mandated by World Bankand the International Monetary Fund. Under his administration, the Philippines enjoyed economic growth and stability. The Philippine Stock Exchangein the mid-1990s was among the best in the worldFact|date=February 2007 and his visions of ' Philippines 2000' that leads the country into a newly industrialized country in the world and the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia". [cite |author= Gregorio F. Zaide, Sonia M. Zaide|title=Philippine History and Government, Sixth Edition|publisher=All-Nations Publishing Co. (Quezon City)|date=2004|p. 180] Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program:
*Peace and Stability
*Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
*Energy and Power Generation
Peace with separatists
Ramos, a military general himself, made peace with the rebel panels. One of the contributions was his, being instrumental in the signing of the final peace agreement between the government and the
Moro National Liberation Front(MNLF) led by Nur Misuariin 1996. He also ordered the resumption of peace negotiations with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front(MILF) led by Salamat Hashimand the Communist Party of the Philippines- National Democratic Front, which operates the New People's Army, led by Jose Maria Sison. Ramos created the National Unification Commission and appointed Haydee Yoracas its chairman. He granted the commission's request for amnesty to rebel military officers of the Reform the Armed forces Movement (RAM), led by Col. Gregorio (Gringo) Honasan, who led the 1989 coup d' etatthat threatened to oust the Aquino administration (rumors said that he made 50 push-ups for the mutineers before the amnesty).
In early 1995, the Philippines discovered a primitive
Chinese militarystructure on Mischief Reef in the Spratly Island, one hundred and thirty nautical miles off the coast of Palawan. The Philippine government issued a formal protest over China’s occupation of the reef and the Philippine Navyarrested sixty-two Chinese fishermen at Half Moon Shoal, eighty kilometers from Palawan. A week later, following confirmation from surveillance pictures that the structures were of military design, President Fidel Ramos had the military forces in the region strengthened. He ordered the Philippine Air Forceto dispatch five F-5 fighters backed by four jet trainers and two helicopters, while the navy sent two additional ships. The People’s Republic of Chinahad claimed that the structures were shelters for fishermen but these small incidents could have triggered a war in the South China Sea.
Migrant Workers Protection
One of the downturns of his administration was his experience in handling migrant workers protection. On the eve of his 67th birthday on
March 17, 1995, Ramos was on a foreign trip when Flor Contemplaciónwas hanged in Singapore. His last minute effort to negotiate with Prime Minister Goh Chok Tongnever succeeded and he was marred with protests after his return to Manila. The protests also caused the resignation of Foreign Affairs Secretary Roberto Romulo and Labor Secretary Nieves Confesor from the Cabinet. He immediately recalled Philippine ambassador to Singapore Alicia Ramos and suspended diplomatic relations to Singapore. He created a special commission to look into the case and to try and rescue his sagging popularity. The commission was led by retired justice Emilio Gancayco. The Commission recommended the forced resignation of then Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) head David Corpin and 13 other government officials, including two labor attachés.
President Ramos also facilitated the enactment of
Republic Act8042, better known as the Magna Cartafor Overseas Workers or the Migrant Workers Act. The Migrant Workers Act was signed into law on June 7, 1995. Learning from the lessons of Contemplación case, Ramos immediately ordered UAE Ambassador Roy Señeres to facilitate negotiations after learning the death penalty verdict of Sarah Balabaganon September 1995. Balabagan's sentence was lowered and she was released August 1996. After tensions cooled off, Ramos restored diplomatic relations with Singaporeafter meeting Prime Minister Goh Chok Tongduring the sidelines of the 50th anniversary of the United Nationsin New York City.
Final Years as President
Apparently, one of his notable contributions to the Philippines was the revival of nationalistic spirit by embarking on a massive promotion campaign for the centennial of Philippine Independence. It was celebrated on
June 12, 1998. One of his pet projects was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Basein Angeles City, Pampanga. However, the resulting commemorative projects, particularly those undertaken at the former Clark Air Base, were hounded by illegal electioneering and corruption controversies even years after the Centennial celebrations. A special report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed how the projects relating to the Expo site not only revealed the extravagance and inefficiency of the administration, but also served as convenient vehicle to effect election fund-raising for the LAKAS political party of Ramos at the expense of the tax-paying Filipinos and in violation of the Election Code. The Centennial Expo Pilipino project, intended to be the centerpiece for the celebrations for the 100th anniversary of the country's independence from Spain, also earned extensive criticisms for being an expensive white elephant project that disadvantaged the government at the cost of P9 billion, or 1.7 percent of the country's 1998 national budget.
During his final years in office, Ramos tried to amend the country's 1987 constitution; a process popularly known to many Filipinos as
Charter Changeor " Cha-Cha." Widespread protests led by his predecessor, President Aquino, and the Catholic Church seemed to have stopped him from pushing through with the plan. Political analysts were divided as to whether Ramos really wanted to use Cha-Cha to extend his presidency or merely to imbalance his opponents and prevent his becoming a lame duck leader, as the next presidential election neared. However, if the Centennial Expo scam testimony made by Joseph Ocol, former Clark Development Corporation head executive assistant, were to be believed, it would seem that Ramos at least wanted to influence who the country's next president would be. Ocol testified before a Senate blue ribbon committee that people in the former Clark Air Base during the Centennial Expo preparations desperately tried to produce all ways and money to prevent Estrada from winning in the coming May 1998 elections. It was no secret that Ramos hated the idea that then Vice-President Estrada could succeed him as the next Chief Executive.
The Death Penalty
While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel Ramos declared his support for reinstating the death penalty. Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so. In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the
electric chair(method used from 1923 to 1976, making Philippines the only country to do so outside U.S.) "until the gas chambercould be installed" [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/3337273.stm BBC NEWS | Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Philippines 'restores' death penalty ] ] . However, no one was electrocuted nor gassed, because the previously-used chair was destroyed earlier and the Philippines adopted the lethal injection. Some people were put to death by this means, until the death penalty was reabolished again in 2006.
After his presidency, Ramos remained one of the many influential political leaders in the Philippines, amidst rumors of his alleged involvement in coup attempts and his alleged desire to perpetuate himself in power. He served as the
Carlyle GroupAsia Advisor Board Member until the board was disbanded in February 2004.
In January 2001, Ramos was instrumental in the success of the so-called second EDSA Revolution that deposed the properly elected Philippine president
Joseph Estradaand placed then-Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in the presidential seat. Dubbed by advocates as a four-day peaceful revolt, EDSA 2 was reported by the international media--such as the International Herald Tribune and New York Times--as an undemocratic coup made possible by the encouragement of Ramos and Cory Aquino, along with the opportunist coalition of business elites, Roman Catholic Cardinal Jaime Sin and leftist groups. Estrada also later accused Ramos of conspiring to oust him after the former set up a fact-finding body tasked to investigate Ramos' role in the Centennial Expo scandal. Arroyo repaid Ramos by appointing him as the Philippines Goodwill Ambassador to the World Economic Forum.
He is currently the Chairman Emeritus of the
Lakas CMD(Christian-Muslim Democrats) Party, formerly known as Lakas NUCD-UMDP or the Partido Lakas Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats-Union of Muslim Democrats of the Philippines.
Expressing his belief in continued economic progress, governance and stability, Ramos successfully convinced President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo not to resign from office at the height of the election-rigging scandal in July 2005. Ramos repeatedly stated that the scandal is nowhere as grave as that of People Power Revolutions of 1986 and 2001, citing factors such as the stagnant Philippine economy in the final years of the Marcos regime as well as the allegedly massive corruption of the Estrada administration. He did, however, push Arroyo into explaining her vocal involvement in the wiretapped conversation with an election official.
Ramos also unveiled his proposals for constitutional change of the country. Citing the need to be more economically competitive, globalization and the need to improve governance for all Filipinos, Ramos suggested that government should start the process of
charter changewith a set deadline in 2007 (by which time the new charter and new government will take effect). Ramos supports the transformation of the country's political system from the Philippine presidential-bicameral-system into a unicameral parliament in transition to a federal form.
Maintained Political Clout
Recently, Fidel V. Ramos had separate meetings with politicians. The first was held at his Makati City office with the presence of Senate President
Franklin Drilonand former Senator Tito Sotto. Afterwards, another private meeting followed, this time with President Arroyo.
In relation to the meetings, Ramos rejected invitations from the political opposition and stressed that his support is with the administration. He admitted however that Arroyo and her team has been sluggish in implementing the much-needed reforms which he suggested (including the need for Arroyo to step down from power in 2007). Political adviser Gabriel Claudio confirmed the Ramos-Arroyo meeting and said that a compromise over reforms has been reached.
At a high-profile summit of the Lakas-CMD held January 15, 2006, delegates of the party rejected his proposals and favored Arroyo's initiative.
He is currently representing the Philippines in the
ASEAN Eminent Persons Group, task to draft the Charter of the Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN). He was also a member of numerous international groups and fora, and is currently the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Boao Forum for Asia(also one of the co-founders of BFA) and Co-Chairman of the Global Meeting of the Emerging Markets Forum(EMF). Ramos was heavily recommended for the position of the United Nations envoy to Myanmar(formerly known as Burma) in June 2006. He is a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to promote good governance around the world. [ [http://www.g-l-f.org/pagebuilder.asp?id=239 Welcome to GLF Global Leadership Foundation ] ]
He founded the "Ramos Foundation for Peace and Development" (RPDEV) with offices located in the Urban Bank Building (now ExportBank Plaza).
In May 2007, Ramos and Corazon Aquino joined nearly 60 former world leaders including former United States Presidents
Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, and former British Prime Minister Margaret Tatcher, asking the Myanmar's military government for the release of detained Myanmar opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi.
On August 18, 2007, 24th anniversary of the death of
Benigno Aquino, Jr.Ramos received a Benigno S. Aquino Jr. (BSA) Award for Nationalism from the Federation of Catholic Schools’ Alumni/Alumnae Associations during the Good Citizenship Congress at the University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance (UPNCPAG) in Quezon City. Ramos was among the 6 recipients which include former Senators Rene V. Saguisag and Wigberto Tanada, Raul Concepcion, Henrietta de Villa, and Lourdes Quezon. [ [http://www.mb.com.ph/MAIN20070821100868.html Manila Bulletin, Ramos hails Ninoy’s sacrifice, urges moral integrity among leaders] ]
*His father, Narciso Ramos, was a lawyer, crusading journalist and a five-term legislator (representing Pangasinan) in the House of Representatives. He served eight Philippine Presidents as a Congressman, as a Secretary of National Defense, as a Secretary of Foreign Affairs, as an Ambassador/Diplomat and as a Philippine Delegate in several international meetings. Historically, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine founding signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok, Thailand on 1967.
Ferdinand Edralin Marcoswas his second cousin, whom he eventually ousted in the People Power Revolutionon February 1986, becoming the living symbol of military defiance against Marcos dictatorship.
*His sister, Leticia Ramos-Shahani, was a politician and a writer. She had represented the Philippines in the United Nations becoming the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Social and Humanitarian Affairs; she was later elected Senator in the Philippines, and rose to Senate President Pro-Tempore position during her brother’s presidency.
*In 2000, Fidel Ramos (Class 1950) alongside fellow members of the Long Gray Line and West Pointers - fellow Korean War veteran U.S. Air Force Colonel/Astronaut
Edwin Aldrin(Class 1951) and American General Frederick M. Franks, Jr.(1959), were awarded Distinguished Graduate Award from the Association of Graduates of the United States Military Academy in the West Point, USA.
*In the Korean War, Fidel Ramos, a lieutenant West Pointer, lead a United Nations Filipino Platoon (20th BCT PEFTOK-UNC) on May 21, 1951 to victory at the
Battle of Hill Eerieand established a United Nation post in the infamous hill.
*Fidel Ramos belongs to the modern generation of Asian leaders in the 20th Century -
Mahathir bin Muhammad( Malaysia), Lee Kuan Yew( Singapore), Bhumibol Adulyadej(King Rama IX of Thailand), King Norodom Sihanouk( Cambodia), Lee Teng-hui( Taiwan), Soeharto( Indonesia) and Jiang Zemin( China), all were born in the decade of 1920s.
*During his presidency, Ramos was featured in the main and cover story of
TIMEMagazine, May 15, 1995, lauding him for his "no-nonsense leadership" after years of misrule by his predecessors, showing that "democracy is no enemy of development." While NEWSWEEKMagazine christened the Philippines as "Asia's New Tiger" in its cover story on November 25, 1996. It details how President Ramos transformed the country from the "Sickman of Asia" to an Economic Tiger. Ramos was also featured in Readers' DigestCover Story in mid-1996, "The man atop Asia next Economic Tiger".
*He is currently the only man in Philippine history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief.
Ramos was accused of human rights violations for his role in the declaration of
Martial Lawduring the Marcos era; he was the commanding officer of the Philippine Constabularyduring Marcos time.
Like many presidents in the
Philippines, Ramos was also accused of corruption. The PEA-AMARI Manila Bayreclamation deal, the conversion of the military base in Fort Bonifaciofor private development, the Centennial Expo project and the Benpres-North Luzon Expressway have been tainted with alleged corruption. An inquiry by the Senate later produced testimonies showing how P1.7 billion in bribe money sealed the Amari deal with the Public Estates Authority and Malacañang under Ramos. Accusations were not proven to the level of Ramos but the Supreme Court ultimately voided the PEA-AMARI sale for being unconstitutional, and in early August 2008, the Sandiganbayan suspended four government auditors and five PEA officials for their role in the anomalous deal. In February 1999, the Senate Blue Ribbon Committee of the 11th Congress recommended the prosecution of ex-President Ramos and eight others for “technical malversation or misapplication of public funds” in connection with Centennial Expo scam. Ramos was eventually cleared by Ombudsman Aniano Desierto, a Ramos appointee who refused to inhibit himself from hearing the high-profile case.
Leftist groups have also criticised Ramos' economic reforms such as privatization, deregulation and trade liberalization, claiming that the economic growth posted during his presidency was "artificial." They blamed him for the slowdown of the Philippine economy during the
1997 East Asian financial crisis. [cite web |url=http://www.greenleft.org.au/1998/306/21970 |title=Philippines left confronts the economic crisis |accessdate=2007-01-20 |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=1998-02-18 |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher= |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=  ] The sale of Petron to Aramco is specifically criticized for resulting to the lost of the government's effective leverage on domestic oil prices. Along with the deregulation of the entire oil industry, Petron's privatization is blamed for the continuing surge in oil prices that has particularly proved to be deleterious to the masses amidst the obtaining high petroleum costs in the global market.
A longstanding criticism of Ramos was whether his role in the Estrada ouster was motivated by his fear of being prosecuted in connection with the Centenial Expo and other scams. When Estrada was given executive clemency after having been found guilty of plunder by the special Sandiganbayan court in September 2007, Ramos heavily criticized Arroyo's decision. Estrada's son, Sen. Jinggoy Estrada, retaliated by asking Ramos to first "come clean" on the alleged multi-billion-peso anomalies involved in the PEA-AMARI, IPP and other deals negotiated during his term.
*cite book |author=Zaide, Sonia M. |title=The Philippines: A Unique Nation|publisher=All Nations Publishing|year=1999|id=ISBN 971-642-071-4
*Bardos, Phil, "Cold War Warriors: The Story of the Achievements and Leadership of the Men of the West Point Class of 1950", (United States, 2000)
*Bowring, Philip. "Filipino Democracy Needs Stronger Institutions." 2001, January 22. "International Herald Tribune". Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://www.iht.com/articles/2001/01/22/edbow.t_3.php
*"Church, elite, Ramos ousted me, says Estrada." "SunStar Network Online". (2006, June 01). Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/net/2006/06/01/church.elite.ramos.ousted.me.says.estrada.html
*Fernandez, Butch. "Ramos told to come clean before hitting Palace pardon for Erap." (2007, November2-3). "Business Mirror". Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://www.businessmirror.com.ph/1102&032007/nation01.html.
*Florentino-Hofilena and Ian Sayson. C"entennial Expo: Convenient Cover for Election Fundraising". (1999, 14-16 June). Retrieved 24 August 2008 from the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism: http://www.pcij.org/stories/1999/expo.html.
*Johnson, Bryan, "Four Days of Courage: The Untold Story of the Fall of Ferdinand Marcos", (Toronto, Canada, 1987)
*Cal, Ben, "FVR Through the Years", (Washington D.C., USA, 1998)
*Hamilton-Paterson, James, "America's Boy: The Marcoses and the Philippines", (Granta Books, London, Great Britain, 1998)
*Lazaro, Isagani L., "Mga Dakilang Lider na Pilipino", 5th Edition, (National Book Store, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 2004)
*Mendoza, Jr., Amado. "Study 2a-The industrial anatomy of corruption: Government procurement, bidding and award of contracts". Retrieved August 24, 2008, from the Transparent Accountable Governance website: http://www.tag.org.ph/pdf/PCPS-Study2a.PDF
*"More electricity rate hikes to come: Sale of energy assets to have long-term shocking effects on the people – Bayan Muna". (2007, August 21). Bayan Muna.
*Mydans, Seth. "Expecting Praise, Filipinos Are Criticized for Ouster." "The New York Times". (2001, February 5). Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/05/world/05FILI.html?ex=1219723200&en=abf1881ac23d0c2e&ei=5070
*Mydans, Seth. "Manila Journal; People Power 2: A Sleeping Giant Is Awakened." "The New York Times". (1997, September 22). Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E06EED91F38F933A1575AC0A961958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all
*Rimban, Luz and Samonte-Pesayco, Sheila. "Trail of Power Mess Leads to Ramos." (2002, August 5-8). Retrieved August 24, 2008, from the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism website: http://www.pcij.org/stories/2002/ramos.html
*Chŏnsa Pʻyŏnchʻan Wiwŏnhoe, "The history of the United Nations forces in the Korean War", Volume I-VI, (Seoul, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of Korea, 1972-77)
*Ramos Presidential Center, Makati City
*Senate, Republic of the Philippines. "COMMITTEE REPORT NO. 30". Eleventh Congress. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from the Senator Aquilino "Nene" Pimentel official website: http://www.nenepimentel.org/cgi-bin/build.pl?section=bluerib;id=CRF-30
*Uy, Jocelyn. "9 in PEA-AMARI deal ordered suspended." "Philippine Daily Inquirer". (2008, August 13). Retrieved August 24, 2008: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view/20080813-154468/9-in-PEA-Amari-deal-ordered-suspended
*Villasanta, Johnny F., 20th Battalion Combat Team (Leaders), The Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea (1950-1955), http://www.geocities.com/peftok/20thbct.html, (August 26, 2006)
* [http://www.rpdev.org/ Fidel V. Ramos Official Website]
* [http://www.pangulo.ph/ The Philippine Presidency Project]
* [http://www.fidelramos.com/ Fidel Ramos Community Forum]
* [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/062.html Dark legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime]
* [http://www.gmanews.tv/story/78121/Woman-gets-wish-to-meet-boyfriend-FVR-in-the-flesh www.gmanews.tv/story, Woman gets wish to meet ‘boyfriend’ FVR in the flesh]
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Ramos, Fidel Valdez;Ramos, Eddie
SHORT DESCRIPTION=President of the
Philippinesfrom 1992 to 1998
DATE OF BIRTH=
March 18, 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
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Fidel V. Ramos — Fidel Ramos trägt sich am 7. November 2006 bei einem klassischen Konzert in der St.Marien Kirche in Berlin Spandau ins Gästebuch der Kirche ein Fidel Valdez Ramos (* 18. März 1928 in Asingan/ Lingayen/ Provinz Pangasinan/ Philippinen) war ein … Deutsch Wikipedia
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