Kamboj in Muslim and British Era

Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: کمبوہ ) are tribes of the Punjab region, said to be the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Persians, Jaina and Buddhists and are mostly confined to northern parts of India, Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. The original home of the Kambojas was Badakshan, southern parts of Tajikstan, including Pamirs and as far as Zeravshan in Central Asia [Dr J. C. Vidyalankara, Proceedings and Transactions of 6th A.I.O. Conference, 1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, Dr G. A. Grierson.] . From time to time, they are known to have entered South Asia and got assimilated into the local population.

Kamboj in Muslim Age

Prior to the advent of Islam to South Asia, Kambojs been followers of Zoroastrism, Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism in ancient times. With the advent of Islam in 5th/6th century AD and its later introduction into India, a section of Kamboj population switched to Islam. When the Muslim rule was established in India, the Kamboj people, like rest of the Indians, were also influenced by the new faith. The Ghaznavids period was marked by arrival in Punjab of the important spiritual figures like "Hazrat Shaikh Ismail" and "Hazrat Ali Bin Osman" popularly known as Data Ganj Baksh. They were successful in converting few of the Kamboj population to Islam ["Tarikh-i-Sindh", by Ijazul Haq Quddusi.] . But the great pioneers of 13th century of the Sufi movement in South Asia were four friends known as "Chahar Yaar", viz: (1) "Hazrat Fariduddin Masud Ganj Shakar of Pak Pattan" (1174-1266), (2) "Hazrat Sayed Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch-Bahawalpur" (1196-1294), (3) "Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria of Multan" (1170-1267) and (4) "Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar" of Sehwan (1177-1274). With their kind efforts, major sections of the numerous clans of Punjab like the Jats, Kamboj, Kharals, Tobians etc had embraced Islam. It is also notable that it were these Kamboj converts to Islam who had, "for the convenience of the tongue", transformed the usual ancient Sanskrit and Persian word Kamboj into its current form Kamboh.

These Muslim Kamboj had interacted very favorably with the Lodhi, Pashtun and the Mughal rulers of India and through their hard work and personal abilities, many of them rose to great heights in civil and the military fields and became an important part of the ruling elite while others shone in the field of education and scholarship. Besides Muslim Kamboj, the Hindu Kamboj are also known to have contributed their share in the Mughal administration and management.

Muslim Kambohs/Kambojs were very influential and powerful in the early days of Moghul rule. "General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh" was the most capable and trusted general of the Akbar [Islamic Thought and Movements in the Subcontinent, 711-1947, 1979, p 274, Syed Moinul Haq - Islam.] [Cf: The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.] . "Sheikh Gadai Kamboh" was the "Sadru-s-Sadur" or "Sadar-i-Jahan" in Akbar's reign. [Muntak̲h̲abu-t-tawārīk̲h̲, p 7, Abd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh Badāʼūnī.] [Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, 1990 ed., H. A. Rose] Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key civil and military positions through out the Mughal reign.

"The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Moghul rule" [See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993, p 70, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc., Robert McHenry; See also: Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.] [cf: Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 23, 59, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui.] [The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.] "The Indian Muslims, popularly known as Shaikhzadas, belonged largely to certain important clans like the Saiyids of Barha and the Kambohs" [ The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, p 21, M. Athar Ali]

A. L. Basham writes: "The administrative reforms of Akbar changed the structure of even the Muslim leadership. The state was no longer the monopoly of the Mughals, or even the Iranis; the Afghans, and Indian Muslims such as "Shaikhzadas", "Saiyids", and Kambohs shared in its management. The hereditary status of a new entrant was an important consideration in assigning his first mansab, but promotion depended mainly upon talents and loyalty" [Cultural History of India , July, 1999 - Oxford University Press, USA, p 261, A. L. Basham] .

Ain-i-Akbari of Abu-Al-Fazl Alami (Trans. H. Blochman) informs us that it was a matter of honor to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir etc [Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614. ] [The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.] [REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, fn, W. E. Purser, C. A. Roe.] [Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0Xhg370eSFhQz3ovu80XQq-&id=3L0MAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=Kambus] .] .

Saiyid Waris Shah had to say: "Although the rule of machines has depleted our feelings for one another, yet the Kamboh as a nation to this day is filled with passion" [Sayed Waris Shah]

The Kambohs have been proverbial in Hindustan for " 'their sagacity, sharpness of intellect and quickness of apprehension' " (perception or understanding). [See: Ref: The Ain-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl, Vol I, p 399, translated by Blochmann and Jarrett, Read under Shahbaz Khan.] [Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II - P 126, Satish Chandra.] [The Maāthir-ul-umarā: Being Biographies of the Muhammādan and Hindu Officers, 1952, p 732, Shāhnavāz Khān Awrangābādī, ʻAbd al-Ḥayy ibn Shāhnavāz, Baini Prashad - History.] [ Bibliotheca Indica, 1952, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India) - Indic literature.] . They were classed among the ruling elites during the Muslim rule. [Kamboj Chetna Manch, 1993, Dr. (Prof) Jaspaul K Dhanju] The Moslem rule was a golden period for the Indian Kambojs [These Kamboj People, 1979, p 196, K. S. Dardi.] .

There are numerous notable names of Muslim Kamboj in Indian history which can be mentioned here but more important of them are listed below and described for the knowledge of general readers.

List of Muslim Kambohs

;Hasan Mahmudi KambohHasan Mahmudi (or Mahdi) Kamboh was a Wazir (minister) of Mahmud of Ghazni (971 A.D. - 1030 A.D) and came to India during one of latter's war expeditions against the country during tenth/eleventh centuries. Hasan Mahmudi Kamboh captured the city of Meerut from its Raja Mai. Many Kamboh soldiers of his regiment are stated to have fallen during the attack. To perpetuate their memory, Husan Mahmudi erected "Jama Masjid" in 1019 AD, adjacent to where his Kamboh soldiers fell fighting during attack on Meerut. It was later repaired by Mughal Emperor Humayun in sixteenth century. Hasan Mahmudi’s descendants later built another important building called Sangi Mahal. Both these ancient buildings still exist in Meerut. In later times, the most notable members from Hasan Mahmudi’s family were"Nawab Mohammad Khan alias Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan" (q.v) and "Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan Sani" (q.v.). Nawab Mohammad Khan who flourished in the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb had built the famed Khairnagar gate, the Meerut fort and many other buildings in Meerut [District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1903, pp 86-88 [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0SoTEPAUKgIbli8Ibbht5L&id=eNxP7M4HRRAC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=Kambohs link] .] .

;Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin KambohHazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh was born in 1405 AD in Multan, now in Pakistan. His father Maulana Shaikh Fakhrudin was a venerable religious leader of that period. Makhdoom Shaikh Samayuddin was the royal spiritual adviser or Pir, first to emperor Behlol Lodhi, and later to Sikandar Lodhi. He commanded greatest respect amongst the entire Muslim spiritual and religious leaders of his time. The Mazar of Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin is located in Delhi where the Zubairies of Panipat used to assemble every year for offering Fateha in pre-independence days.

;Hazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani KambohHazrat Shaikh Abdullah Biyabani Kamboh was the son of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh. For some reason, he got disillusioned with the emperor of Delhi and retired to a life of seclusion. For eighty summers and eighty winters of his life, Shaikh Biyabani lived in seclusion, in the forests among the wild and ferocious animals, doing the bandagi of Allah. All these years he fed himself only on roots, fruits and leaves of the forest trees. He was dedicated Nimajee and performed five Nimaz (Salat) a day, without exception, and also did one complete reading of the holy Quran every day, but never without having taken showers. He lived over a hundred years of age. It is also stated that he got endowed with some supernatural powers.

;Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi Shaikh Nasiruddin Delhvi was second son of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh, he was a teacher, educationist and a distinguished scholar of the Shariyat. He occupied the office of "Shaikh-ul-Aslam" from the times of Sikandar Lodhi till Mughal emperor Babar.

;Shaikh Is-haaq KambohShaikh Is-haaq Kamboh was brother of Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh. Shaikh Is-haaq was "Malak-Alamsayakh v Alhalama" according to the evidence furnished by Shaikh Jamali. He was a great scholar of Islam and of "Asgar-i-Mahrfat".

;Shaikh Yahya Khan KambohShaikh Yahya Khan Kamboh was bestowed the ruler ship of Aligarh by the Delhi emperor which stayed with his descendants for long time. One of his descendants, Muhammad Sayeed Khan, a Jagirdar of Kol (Aligarh), held a high rank in the army under Shah Jahan. His son Muzzahar Khan remained deputy-governor of Kashmir and Agra. Many of his descendants also occupied very high civil and military ranks during the Mughal rule.

;General Bahadur KambohBahadur Kamboh was a very active and intelligent officer in Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan's army. He had participated in many difficult expeditions during Emperor’s reign. In 1633, he had joined Qasim Khan with five hundred horses and a large force of infantry, when the Emperor had ordered the latter to commence the siege and conquest of Hugli from the Portuguese. The expedition was a great success and the battle was won. On the eleventh of Muharram [in the year 1043 AH, 1633 AD] , Kasim Khan and Bahadur Kamboh brought four hundred Christian prisoners, male and female, young and old with idols of their worship to the presence of the “faith-defending” Emperor (Shah Jahan). Emperor had ordered the captives to embrace Islam whereby many followed his orders and joined the faith [History of India – 1907, P 279, Vincent Arthur Smith, Sir William Wilson Hunter, Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, Henry Miers Elliot, Stanley Lane-Poole, Romesh Chunder Dutt; History of the Portuguese in Bengal – 1979, P liii, Joachim Joseph A. Campos. ]

;Shaikh Abdul Gafoor alias Ladan KhanShaikh Abdul Gafoor was son of Shaikh Nasirudin Kamboh. A renowned scholar and philosopher himself, numerous of his students also turned out to be great scholars and educationists. ;Mufti Jamal Khan KambohMufti Jamal Khan Kamboh was second son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and brother of Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He remained Mufti (Judge) of Delhi during the reigns of Sikandar Lodhi, Babur, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and died in 1582 AD at the age of 90. He used to deliver Khutabas and never paid visits to the emperor or the nobles. Rather, he always kept company with the respectable magistrates, scholars and intellectuals. Numerous of his students also became great intellectuals and scholars (Muntakhabhu-I-Tawarikh, Al-Badaoni, Ed Wolseley Haig, Vol III, 1973, p 123-24)

;Shaikh Fateh AllahShaikh Fateh Allah was also a noted scholar and was greatly respected by the emperors from Sikandar Lodhi through Sher Shah Suri and the other high-ranking officers, courtiers and nobles. He was the son of Shaikh Nasiruddin and grandson of respected Hazrat Shaikh Alamsayakh Makhdoom Samayuddin Kamboh.

;Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan Nawab General Abu Muhammad Khan grandson of Shaikh Abdul Gafoor. He was an influential courtier of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and later of Aurangzeb. He held a mansab of 1400 and had conquered Hoogly Bandar for the Crown. He constructed one fort in Meerut which is still called after his name. He also established one village called Abu Muhammad Pur after his name. Besides, he also raised many works of public utility including the water pools, inns, mosques and irrigation canals.

;Nawab Saddullah Khan ChiniotiNawab Saddullah Khan Chinioti was the prime minister of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He had executed his office duties with great skill and responsibility.

;Shaikh Jamali KambohShaikh Jamali Kambohwas also known as Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah, Dervish Jamali Kamboh Dehlwi or Jalal Khan. Jamali came from a Sunni merchant family of Kamboh lineage but was initiated into Sufism by the respected teacher Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin Kamboh. Jamali was a noted Sufi of the Suhrawardiyya sect who died in AD 1536 while accompanying the Mughal Emperor Humayun in the latter’s expedition to Gujarat. He was married to the daughter of Hazrat Shaikh Samayuddin Kamboh and was the tutor of Sultan Sikandar Lodi. He lived at Mehrauli during the reign of Sultan Sikandar Lodi and later composed panegyrics to the first of the Mughal emperor, Babur and his successor Humayun. A great poet of Persian language, Jamali wrote "Siyar-l-Arifin" (completed between AD 1530 and 1536) in Persian which is an account of the "Chishti and Suhrawardi Sufis" of the period. Shaikh Jamai died in 1536 AD and his tomb and a mosque known as "Jamali-Kamali" is situated near the Qutab Minar opposite the Ahinsa Sthal on Mehrauli's bypass.

;Shaikh Abdul Gadai Kamboh Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was the son of Shaikh Jamali Kamboh. After the second defeat during the 'exile at Gujarat', Shaikh Gadai paid a visit to Khan-Khanan and through his influence was appointed the "Sadar-i-Sadur" or "Sadar-i-Jahan" (Administrator General) of Akbar in 1563 AD which office he held till death in 1574 AD. The office of 'Sadar-i-Jahan' had been very important before the times of Mughals and even during Akbar’s reign, he ranked as the third or fourth most powerful officer in the empire. It was his legal edict which legalized the accession of a new king. By the time of Akbar, the office had however, become corrupt especially so in the administration of grants & pensions and hence after assuming the office, the first thing Shaikh Gadai did was to draw the pen of obliteration through the grants and pensions of old servants of the crown so as to end the corruption ( Glossary of Tribes, p 499, H. A. Rose). Numerous old grantees and pensionees were affected by this action including probably chronicler Al-Badaonmi also and this seems to have earned the wrath of the latter. Al-Badaonmi, accordingly, makes very vitriolic and personal attacks on Shaikh Gadai, apparently annoyed of this drastic action. Emperor Akbar however, had a great respect for Shaikh. Everyone in the "Darbar-a-Akbari" was required to bow his head and shake his beard to pay obeisance to emperor as he entered the court, but Shaikh Gadai Kamboh was an exception. Rather, the emperor himself would come to the Shaikh to seek his blessings. Shaikh Gadai Kamboh wielded immense powers in the matters of general administration. He had unlimited powers to grant & take back the fiefs and pass on or remit death sentences. He was the highest law officer and it was his legal edict which legalized the accession of the king. He had undertaken numerous reforms including the land reforms during his office tenure. Al-Badaoni, the author of "Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh", also writes that Shaikh Gadai Kamboh had obtained the position of "Sadar-a-Sadur". In the religious matters, for many years Shaikh Gadai remained a very influential figure among the Pirs and great religious leaders of India, Khorasan, Iran and the Central Asian countries lying beyond the Oxus. He was a born poet and had written numerous poetry in Persian language in a traditional style which he used to sing in scholarly gatherings about which he was always very enthusiastic. The Khan-Khanan and Akbar himself attended these singing parties (Mehfils) at Shaikh Gadai’s palace which Al-Badaoni however, depreciates in severe terms. Shaikh Gadai would regularly visit the Dargahs of Saints, Pirs & religious philosophers and would arrange annual fairs on their ursa. Shaikh breathed his last in 976 Hijri (1574/75). [Muntakhbu-a-Twarikh, Trans W. H. Lowe, II, pp 22, 124; Maasiru-ul-Umara, II, pp 540-41.]

;Shaikh Bahawuddin KambohNot much is known about Bahawuddin Kamboh. He was however an important person in "Darbar-i-Akbari" since emperor Akbar had deputed him as his embassy to Yusuf Chak , the king of Kashmir, to persuade or force the latter to come to an understanding with Akbar. ;King Yusuf ChakChak is a well known clan among the modern Kamboj. The Chaks of Kashmir are not its original inhabitants but are known to have migrated there from Dardistan. Since in ancient times, the Daradas and Kambojas were next door neighbors in the cis-Hindukush region, [:DaradansahaKambojairajayatpakashasanih || :"(verse from Mahabharat 2.27.22)".] [:ete desha udichyastu :Kambojashchaiva Dardashchaiva Barbarashcha Angaukikah || :Chinashchaiva Tusharashcha Pahlavadhayata narah || :"(Puranic evidence)":................................................................................ :"(Extracts from Kirfel's Text of Bhuvanakosha countries)"] it is very likely that Yusuf Chak, the ruler of Kashmir and his dynasty, could be traceable to ancient clan of the Kambojas living as neighbors to the Daradas in/around Kashmir. It is a known fact of history that ancient Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir during and prior to epic times [Karana Rajapuram gatva Kamboja nirjita-stvaya, MBH VII.4.5 & MBH 7.91.39-40; See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132-135, Dr H. C. RayChaudhry. The Rajapura of MBH has been identified with Rajaori on the authority of Yuan Chawang] . So, it is very possible that the Chaks of Kashmir may not be of Daradic origin but rather may have come from Kamboja background

;Shaikh Abdul Aziz KambohAccording to Muslim historian Wahabuddin Kamboh, Shaikh Abdul Aziz was Prime Minister of emperor Ibrahim Lodhi [Tarikh-i-Kambohan, Chauhdri Wahhab ud-din Kamboh Amritsari, Nurpur ( Layalpur), p 202] . But Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan advises further research to confirm that Abdul Aziz indeed held the office of Prime Ministership (Tarikh-i-Quam Kamboh, p 309). Historian H. S. Thind, S Kirpal Singh and other scholars write that Abdul Aziz held the office of "Prime Minishtership" under emperor Ibrahim Lodhi.

;Shaikh Abdulhaie HyatiHe was younger son of Shaikh Jamali and brother of Shaikh Gadai Kamboh. He was the Musahib of emperor Salim Shah Suri (1550-1560 AD) which fact is also confirmed by Al-Badaoni. Shaikh Hyati had very good relations both with Salim Shah Suri as well as his father Sher Shah Suri. Shaikh Hyati was a pastmaster in the arts of reciting latifas (titbits) and also wrote many Qasidas in praise of the emperor. He is best known for his hospitality and always played a host to students, poets and qulandaras from Iran, Turan and other trans-Oxian countries who visited Delhi in India. He died at the young age of 36.

;Khan Jahan Amad-ul-MalikHe was Mir Adal (Judge) of emperor Sikandar Lodhi.

;Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal In the struggle between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri, Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had sided with the latter and supported him with all his resources. Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik had lost his brother in the battle and later when Sher Suri ascended the throne of Delhi, he appointed Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik as his Mashir but soon promoted him to Prime Minister. Sher Shah Suri and Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik are both responsible for the rehabilitation/constriction of the Grand Trunk Road running between Peshawar and Calcutta. The duo is also responsible for the construction of numerous wells, water pools, hospitals and inns for the benefit of the general public. The well-to-do Muslim Kambohj families of Sambhal trace their lineage from Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik. He died at Sambhal and his tomb is still located there (Silsila Aliya, Anayat Hussain Mahravi & Tarikh-i-quam Kamboh, Muhammad Yusuf Hasan, p 309).

;Maulana Jaman KhanHe was the Hajab of emperor Sikandar Lodhi whom he had accompanied during his campaign of Awgantar. The fort was reduced fort in 1511 AD and emperor Sikandar appointed General Mujahid Khan as in charge of the fort. But later a conspiracy came to light which involved both general Mujahid Khan and Maulana Jaman Kamboh. Both were arrested on orders of the emperor and the charge of the fort handed over to Tajuddin Kamboh.

;Shaikh Khawaja Hasan Multani Kamboh He originally belonged to Multan (in Pakistan) but had moved to Marehra during reign of Sikandar Lodhi. Soon he drew the attention of the emperor and impressed him greatly with his abilities and competence. The emperor made Khawaja the ruler of Marehra. Muhammad Khan, the grandson of Khawaja Hasan was married to the daughter of general Shabaz Khan Kamboh, an illustrious General of emperor Akbar. ;General Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh Shaikh Hasham Khan was the grandson of Hazrat Shaikh Makhdoom Samayuddin. He held a mansab of 2500 during reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir.

;Nawab General Amadul Malik Kamboh Amadul Malik was grandson of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. In the later years of Aurangzeb, he was the chief judge of Lahore. During Bahadhur Shah’s reign, Amadul Malik was appointed the governor of Multan. Nawab Amadul Malik held a mansab of 5000 person.

;Muhammad Akram Khan Kamboh Was the chief justice of Delhi during the reign of emperor Aurangzeb.

;Shaikh Sharif KhanHe was a senior minister in the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (History of Lahore).

;Muhammad Husain KambohHe was a high ranking officer in the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

;Mufti Mabu-al-BarkatHe came from the lineage of Shaikh Hasham Khan Kamboh. Was Judge of Delhi.

;Nawab Dadan Khan He was from Kamboh family of Meerut. He remained Governor of Lahore for some time.

;Shaikh Lali Kamboh Was one of the famous nobles of Meerut. He was the author of "Lala Bazar" of Meerut.

;Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh Shahbaz Khan was one of the most trusted and ablest generals of Mughal emperor Akbar. His real name was Shahrullah and his sixth ancestor was Haji Ismail, a disciple of the renowned saint Bahauddin Zakariya of Multan. He had entered Mughal service during the time of Akbar, drew his attention and was elevated to the rank of Mir Tozak (Quarter-Master General) and later to an Amir. In 1572 he was appointed Mir Bakhshi (Paymaster-General) and the title of 'Shahbaz Khan' was conferred on him. As a Mir Bakshi, Shabaz Khabn introduced the system of "Dag-o-mahali" which had considerably cut down the over-heads as well as the corruption in the military departments of the Crownr. During 21ist year of his service, Shahbaz Khan proceeded against Kalah Rai and Maldeo Rai, the rebel Rathod Rajputs of Jodhpur and brought them under control. He also attacked the fort of Daigur which resulted in the deaths of numerous Rathods. Later, he also reduced the forts of Dunar and Siwanah and was made commandant of these forts by the Crown. During 23rd year of his service, Shahbaz Khan invaded Komelmer and subdued the pride of Rana Partap. Rana Partap escaped in the disguise of an ascetic to avoid the further wrath of Shabaz Khan. Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani and his brother Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani were Amir Viziers in the court of Akbar and both were holding big Jagirs. But they rose in rebellion against the crown. With the help of Shabaz Khan Khan, Akbar crushed the rebellion with iron hand. General Khan Zanan-i-Shaibani was killed in the battle but Bahadhur Khan was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh on orders of the Crown [Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazl Alami, Trans H. Blochman, 1965, Part I, p 347.] . The princes of Goganda, and Udepore also submitted to him. Shahbaz Khan setup 50 police posts in mountainous regions and 30 in the plains to keep control over the rebellious Rajputs. On 18 May 1583, he was appointed Governor of Bengal. Initially, he had commanded 5000 men and had distinguished himself greatly in Bengal, but later when operating in Brahmputra, he had commanded 9000 strong cavalry [Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402.] . On 15 November 1583, he defeated Masum Khan Kabuli and compelled him to flee to Bhati while Jabbari, an ally of Masum Khan, fled to Kooch Bihar. In 1584, he led an expedition against Isa Khan, initially achieved a considerable success and even ravaged Katrabo, Khizirpur, Sonargaon and Egarasindhur but finally suffered a defeat in the battle of Egarasindur and Bhawal and was forced to turn back to Tanda. With reinforcements sent by Akbar, Shahbaz Khan again marched towards Bhati in 1586 and defeated Isa Khan and forced him to come to an understanding with the Crown. In November 1586, Shahbaz Khan was appointed Bakhshi (Paymaster) of Bengal in which capacity he served for two years before leaving Bengal in 1588. Shahbaz Khan Kamboh had also subdued the pride of Raja Ram Chander Sain, Rai Surjan Handa & Dauda, Raja Gajpati, Rana Sangram and the officers of Surat. He had participated in some of the most difficult expeditions of emperor Akbar and much of the territorial expansion of Akbar was due to General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh. Shahbaz Khan was a very able and efficient General and his military division was always found in excellent conditions. Shahbaz Khan died of illness on 11 November 1606 at Ajmer at the age of over 70 years. He was then on a military expedition against the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Historian Abu-L-Fazl Alami, the author of "Aiana-i-Akbari", attests that Shahbaz Khan was a very competent and capable General but Abu-L-Fazal also accuses him of his "Sunni" fanaticism and arrogance. Many a times, he strongly opposed the emperor, but Akbar had a great regard for Shahbaz Khan and took it lightly. But once, the defiant Shabaz Khan had to be imprisoned and was released only after two years. Emperor Akbar tried his best to bring Shahbaz Khan and another General Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Khan Koka into his new faith known as "Din-i-Ilahi" but the move was vehemently criticized both by Shabaz Khan Kamboh as well as General Qutb-ud-din Khan. [Muslim Civilizatiuon in India, New York, Columbia University Press, 1964 , XII. Religion at Akbar's Court, S. M. Ikram, (Ed) Ainslie T. Embree.] This had created obstacles in his promotion upwards. On the other hand, many incompetent and junior officers got promoted which they did not deserve. The 9000 strong cavalry of General Shabaz Khan is said to have comprised mostly the Kamboj horsemen which included both the Muslim as well as the Hindu Kamboj soldiers. The total annual expenses on his division was over 30 Lakh Indian Ruppees during those times. Shahbaz Khan so much helped the Kamboj that no Kamboh was in economically bad condition at that time (Abu-L-Fazl Alami). He left behind a huge Jagir and treasure which was seized by Jahangir (Salim), son of Emperor Akbar.

;General Karam AllahGeneral Karam Allah was younger brother of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and held a mansab of 2000 during Akbar and Jahangir’s reign. He was very religious, pure and clean person. He died in 1600 AD

;General Ilham Allah He was the son of Shahbaz Khan. Was "Wasika Nawees" at Baglana where he died after some time.

;General Ranbaz KhanWas second son of Shahbaz Khan. According to "Tozik-i-Jahangiri", (p 248), Ranbaz Khan held a mansab of 1200 person. During the thirteenth year of his service, he was promoted as "Wasika Nawees" and "Bakhshi" (General) when he held a Mansab of 5000 persons. He continued to hold this position till 20th year of his service.

;General Zainuddin KambohGeneral Zainuddin Kamboh son-in-law of Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and was a sub-general under Amir Kutabbulla Khan (a 5000 mansabdar) which division had fought against Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati. General Kutabbulla Khan was killed in the battle and general Zainuddin Kamboh was arrested and tied to the feet of a wild elephant and crushed to death on orders from Sultan Muzaffar Gujarati.

;Shaikh Abdul Moman KambohShaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh a noble from Sambhal. He held the office of Dewan-e-tan (Accountant General) under Shah Jahan. He performed the duties of granting and taking back the grants and pensions and promoting or demoting the officers of the Crown. Two of his sons also held the offices of Dewan-e-tan and Dewan-e-Khals under Nawab Saddula Khan Chanyoti (Kamboh). The Muslim nobles of Meerut trace their lineage to Dewan-e-tan Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh (Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, pp 313-314). Nawab Vakar Almalik Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh), a well-known Muslim leader of pre-independence days, the founding father of "Muslim League" was also from the lineage of Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh.

;Abu Muhammad Multani Was son of Shaikh Amad Multani. He was Amir Vizier in the court of Shah Jahan.

;Nawab Bahadhur Khan MeerutiWas also an Amir Vizier in the court of Shah Jahan. ;Muhammad Saleh Kamboh LahoriWas official biographer of the Emperor Shah Jahan and the teacher of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Little is known of the life of Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Lahori other than the works he composed. He is stated to be younger brother of "Inayat-Allah Kamboh" and worked as "Shahi Dewan" with Governor of Lahore. Muhammad Salih is best remembered for his work "Amal-i Salih", also referred to as "Shah Jahan Namah" (The History of Shah Jahan), which work he completed in 1659-60 AD. "Amal-i-Salih" is an account of the life and reign of Shah Jahan. However, the work also includes information on Shah Jahan’s predecessors (particularly Akbar and Jahangir) and a compendium of biographies of the Shaikhs, poets, and other notables who were contemporaries with Shah Jahan. Muhammad Saleh Kamboh died in 1674 AD.

;Shaikh Inayat-Allah Kamboh(1608-1671): Shaikh Inayat was a historian. He spent his early life in the service of the Mughals and was a "Mir Munshi" (General) of Shah Jahan, but later retired from the world and lived as a recluse beside a shrine in Delhi. Inayat-Allah Kamboh wrote several historical works, but it was his collection of tales entitled "Bahar-i-Danish" (completed in 1651 AD), one of the most popular textbooks of Persian, which had brought him the most fame. He died in 1671 AD at Delhi. Historian Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, younger brother of Inayat-Allah Kamboh, has praised "Bahar-i-Danish"(Springtime of Knowledge) as a model of sophisticated workmanship (See: Muhammad Saleh Kamboh, Vol. 2, 1660: 862). It became part of the syllabi of the Persian schools because it is mentioned in a manuscript-copy of "Khulasatul Makatib", written in 1688. Thus it was used in all the Persian schools, and by all educated men and women, both Muslims and Hindus, were acquainted with it in Mughal India. During British rule too, according to the education reports, it was taught in nearly all the schools and its "style and idiom" were "regarded as the best models of composition" (Reid 1852: 54) [See: Language, Ideology and Power : Language-Learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India , p 127, Tariq Rahman (02 May, 2002) - Oxford University Press, USA] . "Bahar-i Danis" is a "collection of romantic and lascivious tales dealing with the tricks employed by faithless wives to deceive their doting husbands", freely adapted from an earlier Indian source Shuka Saptati into Persian. His another important work is "Takmilah-yi-Akbar-Namah" which is a continuation of Abu-al-Fazl’s "Akbar-Namah" as Kamboh narrates the last four years of emperor Akbar’s reign.

;Nawab Mohabbat Khan Kamboh Nawab Mohabbat Khan was governor of Peshawar and was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan, who remained for some time the governor of Lahore.

;Mian Ahmed Khan Ban Bhabal Ban Jamal
Mian Jamal belonged to Jahangir's era. He was a noted scholar of Persian and Arabic languages. The "Tarikh-i Khan Jehani wa Makhzan-i Afghani" addresses him as "Fazal-i-Rozgar Janab Mian Ahmed Kamboh Dehlvi" (p 516). Around 1614 A.D, Jamal wrote a famous book called "Madan-e Akhbar-e Ahmadi" in Persian language. The author of "Makhzan Afghani" pays very glowing tributes to his book. The original draft of the book is said to lie at British Museum London.

;Khawaja Hasan Kamboh Khawaja Hasan originally belonged to Multan but moved to Marehra (UP) where he was conferred a big fief and the rulership of Marehra by Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri. (Ref: Kamboj Itihaas, (Draft), Roshan Din, Nizampur, p 225).

;Muhammad Khan KambohHe was grandson of Khawaja Hasan and was the ruler of Marehra during Akbar’s reign. He was the son-in-law of famous general of Akbar, Nawab Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.

;Shaikh Abdul Jalil and Shaikh Ali AhmedThey both belonged to Multan (Pakistan). At the end of nineteenth century, they held the offices of Deputy Collectors in British rule. ;Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan (Meerut)He was the son of Nawab Mohabbat Khan. After Dara Shikoh was assassinated, he joined Aurangzeb's administration. With competency and his loyalty to the Crown, he was given a mansab of 5000 and was also awarded the title of "Kheir Andesh Khan". He was also given an award of 0.7 million Darham for his meritorious military service as Faujdar at Etawa. During Bahadhur Shah’s reign, his mansab was upgraded to 6000 men.

;Nawab General Kheir Andesh Khan SaniWas from Meerut line of Muslim Kamboh. His earlier name was Muhammad Massih. He was the grandson of Kheir Andesh Khan. Under Aurangzeb, Kheir Andesh Khan held a mansab of 1000 which was soon upgraded to 3000. He was also conferred the title of "Nek Andesh Khan". During reign of Bahadhur Shah, Kheir Andesh Khan held a Mansab of 5000 which was later upgraded to 6000 men. He was also conferred the title of "Kheir Andesh Khan". Kheir Andesh Khan had constructed one fort called Kheir Nagar at meerut. He also constructed one Eid-gah and Mubark Mahil in meerut. The ruler of Bundhel Khand was also reduced by this general. One of his sons also got the title of "Nek Andesh Khan" and was also awarded a Jagir of several villages near meerut.

;Nawab General Kharyat Andesh KhanWas the second son of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan. He held a mansab of 5000 men. He was the governor of Kashmir and had constructed the "Nawab Bazar" there. One of his brothers also got the title of "Kheir Andesh Khan Salas" during the reign of emperor Ahmed Shah Durani. Nawab Kharyat Andesh Khan also held the governorship of Kashmir. ;General Afit Andesh Khan KambohHe was son of Kharyat Andesh Khan. In the final years of Mughal rule, he was the Faujdar of Etawa and held a mansab of 2000 men.

;Nawab Suvab Andesh KhanA Kamboh noble during the last days of Mughal Empire. His grandson Fateh Ali Khan rose to very prestigious position during British rule.

;General Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin KhanHe held a mansab of 1500 during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani's reign.

;General Ramzan AliSon of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. He also held a mansab of 1200 during emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani.

;General Hakim Ghulam Ali KhanHeld a mansab of 1000 during emperor Muhammad Shah. He also got the title of "Hussain Ali Khan".

;Hakim Salamat Aliwas Royal Physician of emperor Bahadhur Shah Alam Sani. Was conferred the title of "Hazakat Khan".

;Hakim Hazur Aliheld a Jagir of seven village in Bijnor and Muradabad. He was Royal Physician of Nawab Asaf Aldaulla.

;Hakim Abu Ali Khanwas an Alam Fazal (scholar). He was Kotwal at Banda (Uttar Pradesh), then Tehsildar and later became Advocate of Meerut.

;Amjad Ali KhanHe was son of Hakim Abu Ali Khan. Was a Deputy Collector.

;Hamad Ali KhanHe was son of Amjad Ali Khan. He did his Bar-at-Law from England in 1885 AD and was a famous Advocate of Meerut.

;Aga Ali Khan and Altaf HussainWere sons of Hakim Al-mulak Imamuddin Khan. They both were conferred titles of "Khan Bahadurs" by British government. Were also honorary Magistrates of Kanpur [See: Kamboj Itihas (Draft), Roshan Din Nizampur, p 226.] .

;Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi alias Inayat Husain b. Fath AllahHakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi was a good scholar and writer. Wrote many books including "Silsilah-i-Aliyah", which treats of the history of the Muslim Kambohs i.e the Shaikh Kambohs. The book contains supplements from Faid Ahmad b. Dildar Ahmad (Meerut).

;Hakim Dayam Khan and Hakim Hazulr Ali Khanwere nobles in the court of Nawab Asaf Aldaula of Oudh. Their descendants currently live a Bijnor and Muradabad in UP.

;Shaikh Tajjuddin KambohShaikh Tajjuddin Kamboh of Muradabad was first Tehsildar and then retired as Deputy Collector.

;Nawab Farhat Andesh KhanHe had participated in the 1819 British war against the Gurkhas and was honored by the British Government. He was appointed Revenue Officer and was awarded a large Jagir.

;Mubarak Ali KhanHe was son of Nawab Farhat Andesh Khan. He was Deputy Collector and retired in 1857. Later, he was made Honorary Magistrate of Meerut.

;Ahmed Allah KhanHe was son of Mubarak Ali Khan. He was Special Honorary Magistrate in 1877 and was conferred the title of "Nawab" by the English Government.

;Asadaulla KhanHe was son of Ahmed Allah Khan. He was an honorary Magistrate and was conferred the titles of "Khan Bahadur" and later of "Nawab", by Queen Victoria.

;Islam allah KhanHe was brother Asadaulla Khan and son of Ahmed Alla Khan. He was the first Indian to occupy the position Deputy Superintendent of Police and was also conferred the title of "Nawab" by the English Government.

;Saif Allah KhanHe was the second brother of Asadaulla Khan. He retired as Deputy Collector.

;Suvab Andesh Khanof Meerut was awarded a Jagir by British Government of India. He was a very much respected by the English.

;Haji Mumtaz AliHaji Mumtaz Ali was son of Suvab Andesh Khan. He was an Ambassador from Wajid Ali Shah the ruler of Oudh to the court of English Governor General of India. After English occupation of Etawa, he was appointed special Magistrate of Etawa.

;Muhammad SadiqHe was son of Aji Mumtaz Ali Khan. Was Deputy Magistrate and Engineer. He was also conferred the title of "Khan Bahadhur" by the English Government. Later he became Chief Engineer of Hydrabad State.

;Muhammad Ruh Allahwas second son of Haji Mumtaz Ali. He was also the Magistrate of Etawa and was conferred the title of "Khan Bahadhur" by the British Government.

;Hafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain KhanHafaz Zahur Alslam, Muhammad Sahib Ali Khan, and Gaziuddin Hussain Khan from this family were other important persons who held the offices of Deputy Collectors in Uttar Pradesh.

;Amam-ud-dinAmam-ud-din held a Jagir of several villages in UP. He was Deputy Collector of Muradabad.

;Maulvi Mazhar AllahMaulvi Mazhar Allah remained home Secretary of Nizam of State of Hydrabad.

;Altaf Ali KhanAltaf Ali Khan was a Jagirdar and well known noble from Bareilly. He belonged to the lineage of Nawab Kheir Andesh Khan Sani who held a 6000 mansab in the reign of Aurangzeb and later that of Bahadhur Shah. The annual income of his Jagir was over 80000 rupees in those days. ;Izhar Hussain KambohHe was minister at the court of ruler of Oudh. Was knighted and ennobled (Indo Aryans, Contribution Towards The Elucidation of Their ancient and Mediaeval History, Vol II, 1969, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)

;Muzaffar Hussain KambohHe was also minister at the court of Oudh. Was also knighted and ennobled (Ibid, p 188, fn, Rajendrar Lal Mitra)

;Subhan Ali Khan KambohSubhan Ali Khan was the Deputy Viceregent of Ghaziuddin Hyder, the ruler of Lucknow. Mirza Ghalib received an invitation to a reception in audience by the ruler's viceregent and was received splendidly in Lucknow through the mediation of Subhan Ali Khan Kamboh.

;Ghulam Husain KambohHe was a noted scholar and historian of eighteenth century. He is the author of a very useful book known as "Tarikh-i-Banaras".

;Khan Bahaddur Muhammad Sadik MunshiMuhammad Sadik Munshi was born on July 13, 1833 in the lineage of Nawab Asad Khan who ruled at Meerut three centuries ago and was a Wazier in the time of Mughal Empire. His father, Haji Muhammad Mumtaz Ali Khan, served the Imperial Government as Revenue Officer and Honorary Magistrate. Sadik had been a Deputy Magisdtrate in the Irrigation department of the Imperial Government. He received a "Sanad" in "Darbar" from Lord Canning and a "Khilat" for a loyal service; also a Certificate of Honuor at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi on first January 1877 on the occasion of proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India; and the title of Khan Bahaddur on 16th February, 1887 on the occasion of Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign [The Golden Book of India, 2001, p p 349, Roper Lethbridge - Biography & Autobiography.] .

;Nawab Waqarul Mulq Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh)He was born in the Meerut in 24 March 1841 [ According to Nizami Badayuni, he was born in 1837 but according to Saksena in 1839...see Persian Literature, Vol 3, Part II, p 383, C. A. Storey.] and came of lineage of Shaikh Abdul Momin Kamboh who held the office of Dewan-e-Tun in Shah Jahan's reign. Vaqar Mulq did his engineering from Engineering College Roorki. He served as a Law Secretary in the Government of Hyderabad Daccan for some time and then joined Revenue Department. Later he was appointed Governor of the newly established State "VRARANGLE" and with his untiring efforts, the state soon became very prosperous. Vaqar Mulq received the title of "Nawab Intezar Jung" from the Government of Hydrabad. Then he was appointed Revenue Secretary with the orders of Nizam of Daccan. He served as Secretary, Personal Secretary & Advisor to the Prime Minister Nawab Bashiral Daulla and eventually he became deputy Prime Minister of Hydrabad. [ Persian Literature, Vol 3, Part II, p 383, C. A. Storey.] . On December 9, 1890, he was conferred the title of "Nawab Waqarul Mulq". On October 1892, Nawab Waqarul Mulq joined M.A.O. college in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. In December 1906, the quartet Nawab Waqarul Mulq, Sir Agha Khan, Sir Shafi of Lahore and Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dhaka organised a Mohammdan Educational Conference in Calcutta and on the same occasion, they also launched a new party called "All India Muslim League" of which Nawab Waqarul Mulq became General Secretary. In 1907, he was appointed Honorary Secretary of M.A.O. College. In the same year he resigned from the Secretaryship of the All India Muslim League on health grounds. In 1908, the Government of India honored him with the title of "Nawab". It was the magnetising personality of Nawab Waqarul Mulq which had induced "Quaid-e-Azam" to join the All India Muslim League which fact changed the history of Indian subcontinent. The welcome address given by Nawab Waqarul Mulq on the occasion is an important document for the Muslims. Due to bad health, Nawab Waqarul Mulq gave up the Secretaryship of Aligarh in 1912 and after a prolonged illness, he died on January 27, 1917. Nawab Waqarul Mulq also remained a member of Scientific Society since 1866 [ Persian Literature, Vol 3, Part II, p 383, C. A. Storey.] .

;Nawab Dr. Sir Ziauddin AhmadWas born in 1877 at Meerut in the renowned Zuberi (Kamboh) family of India. He obtained his M.A. with distinction in Mathematics in 1898 from Aligarh and D.Sc also with distinction from Allahabad University in 1901. His brilliant academic career won him the scholarship to join the Cambridge University, England in 1901 from where he took his mathematical Tripos topping the University and became a Wrangler. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1905 from Gottengen University in Germany. For further education Dr Ziauddin joined Peris University and later Bologna University Italy and then on return to India, he joined the alma mater as a Professor of Mathematics. It was due to his untiring efforts that a Medical and Engineering colleges were founded and the Aligarh Muslim College was converted to Aligarh Muslim University where Dr Ziauddin Ahmad worked as a Lecturer, Professor, Principle, Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Rector respectively. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad can be reckoned as next to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the spread of education among the Muslims who owe him a profound sense of gratitude. Dr Ziauddin played a dominant role in the renaissance of Muslim education in the sub-continent after Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and faithfully carried on the torch of education right to the rank and file of the Muslims throughout the sub-continent. As a very faithful successor of Sir Syed, he carried on the task of educating the people in the teeth of opposition when he proceeded to England to receive the coveted Sir Isaac Newton Scholarship. In 1917 Dr. Ziauddin was also appointed member of the Calcutta University Commission of which Sir Michael Saddler was the President. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad rendered yeoman's services to the Muslims of the sub-continent, worked for their progress and welfare and devoted all his life to the eradication of ignorance and illiteracy. He became member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) of UP in 1991 and 1922. The second Muslim Kamboh Conference held at Marehra (District Etha U.P) on 21st & 22nd April 1935 in Marison Islamia School was presided over by Dr Ziauddin Ahmed. He was one of the earliest members of the All-India Muslim League and stuck to the organization till the end of his life. As desired by "Quaid-e-Azam", Dr Ziauddin became Parliamentary Secretary of the Muslim League in the Central Assembly of India in 1938. Dr Ziaddun remained member (M.P.) of Central Assembly of India from 1930 till 1947. In 1946, he was the chief whip of the Muslim League in the Central Assembly. He was awarded the title of "Sir" by the Government of India. Dr Ziauddin did an outstanding job in Budget-making for the Indian Railways and later also worked with the Reserve Bank of India and he achieved the goals which the Indian National Congress had fought and lost. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad was a trusted Lieutenant and Associate of the Muslim pioneers like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Nawab Waqarul Mulk Kamboh, Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, Sir Sultan Muhammad Khan Aga Khan 111, Syedna Tahir Saifuddin, Quaid-e-Azam and Quaid-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan. After partition, the family of Dr Sir Ziauddin moved to Pakistan. In August 1947, he was appointed advisor to Government of Pakistan by "Quaid-e-Azam" Mr Muhammad Ali Jinah. Dr Sir Ziauddin died on December 23, 1947 and in compliance of his wishes, his body was brought to India and buried within the campus of Aligarh Muslim University. Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad’s daughter Dr Mrs Aijaz Fatima Tajammul, her husband Dr Tajammul Hussain, and Dr Asim Hussain have done a good job by establishing in Pakistan the important institutions viz: "Dr Sir Ziauddin Memorial Hospital", "Dr Sir Ziauddin Post-Graduate Medical Institute" and "Dr Sir Ziauddin Medical College" all running under "Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad University". This was an excellent step to perpetuate the memory of the great scholar and educationist of the Kamboj lineage. Dr Sir Ziaddun was the first Kamboj to have become a member of Indian Parliament (M.P.) and was also the first Kamboj to have been knighted as Sir [Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 347] .

;Nawab Sir Muhammad Yamin KhanHe is another very important Kamboh hero of the pre-independence days. Bar-at-law by training, Muhammad Yamin Khan belonged to Meerut and was a prominent legal luminary, statesman, politician, parliamentarian and one of the senior most members of the All India Muslim League. British Government recognized him for his outstanding social and legal services and had knighted him by with the titles of Sir and Nawab. A close confidant of "Quaid-e-Azam", Sir Yamin Khan was a member of the working committee of All India Muslim League. He also remained Deputy President of the Indian legislative council. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was also the President of the third "Kamboh Conference" held in Bareilly in 1936. His brother Chaudhry Muhammad Yamin Khan was also a highly educated person and a prominent Judge of pre-independence period. After partition, the family had moved to Karachi, Pakistan where Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan soon died. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was the second Kamboj member to be knighted as Sir and also was the second Kamboj member of the Indian Parliament (M.P.) [Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 385] .

;Maulvi BashiruddinMaulvi Bashiruddin was a great educationist and scholar. He was a close relative of Dr Sir Ziauddin Ahmad. He founded and owned the news paper called "Al-Bashir" published from Etawah, and also founded "The Islamic High School, Etawah". He was also the president of the first Muslim "Kamboh Conference" held at Meerut in December 1933.

;Babu Maula Bakhash KambohHe joined the State of Malerkotla as a revenue officer, but was soon promoted and worked as Justice, Collector, Accountant General and Police Chief. Later he was also appointed Revenue Minister of the State. After partition and on the merger of Malerkotla into "Patiala and East Punjab States Union" (PEPSU), Babu Maula Bakhash was appointed its Administrator.

;Sadiq Husain KambohSadiq Husain wrote "Arwah-i-thalathah", three tracts viz.: (1) "Risalah-i-manquit musamma ba-Jannat", a list of words consisting entirely of dotted letters, (2) "Risalah-i-ghir-i-manqut musamma ba-Iran", a list of words containing no dotted letters and, (3) "Risalah i-maqlub musamma ba-Qalb al-lughat", a list of words conveying meanings whether read forwards or backwards [Bareilly 1885, p 176; Persian Literature, Vol III, Part I, A biographic Survey, (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Leiden), 1984, p 52, C. A. Storey.] .

Hindu/Sikh Kambojs

;Rai Bansi Das KambohBansi Das kamboh was minister in the jury of Darbar-i-Akbari and was very close to Nawab General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh. Amir Alamara Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani and his brother Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani who held mansabs of 5000 under Akbar rose in rebellion against the Crown which move was crushed by Akbar with the help of Shahbaz Khan. Khan Zaman-i-Shaibani was killed in the fight. General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was arrested and was handed over to Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh. According to Aina-i-Akbari of Abu-al-Fazal Alami, General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani was executed by Shahbaz Khan Kamboh and Rai Bansi Das Kamboh in compliance of orders from emperor Akbar. But according to "Tarikh-i-Farishta" (Part I, p 710), General Bahadhur Khan-i-Shaibani, being considered a threat to the empire, was executed without waiting orders from the Emperor.

;Secretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh MultaniSecretary Harkaran Ibn Mathuradas Kamboh Multani (d 1631). Harkaran was son of Mathura Das Kamboh and belonged to Multan which was a great center of learning during Mughal reign. Harkaran Kamboh had profound knowledge of Persian [ Islam Culture, p 1, by Islam Culture Board.] . He was a noted scholar of Arabic and Persian languages. His father was also a good poet of Persian language. Harkaran is best known for his book "Insa-yi-Harkaran" written in Persian language (1625-1631) during the last days of Jahangir and early days of Shah Jehan. The work was compiled between 1625 AD and 1631 AD. It is stated that, one day in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan, Harkaran Kamboh had sat at "the seat of Empire in the city of Matura" and devoted himself to improving his skills as Munshi (Secretary). There followed a selection of letters to different classes of people indicating how 'princes write to princes', diplomatic (firmans, parwanahs), letters between notables and legal documents including certificate for the sale of a slave girl etc. The result was his famous "Insa-yi-Harkaran" ("The Form of Harkaran") in Persian language which soon became an established model of excellence. [ Empire and Information : Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society), Cambridge University Press 2000, p 285, C. A. Bayly, Rajnarayan Chandavarkar, Gordon Johnson, and C.A. Bayly; also: Language, Ideology and Power: Language-Learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India, 2002 - Oxford University Press, USA, p 126, Tariq Rahman.] "Insa-yi-Harkaran" is divided into seven sections and contains models of letters and other documents relating to the State. Furthermore, "Insa-yi-Harkaran" was also used as a "model for diplomatic correspondence with the native princes and potentates" by the British in India and also as a model for school children learning Persian-letter writing in the schools. Not much is known about his other works but "Insa-yi- Harkaran" was indeed considered an excellent book till British rule. It was translated into English language by Dr Francis Balfour M.D. The second edition of it was printed in England in 1804. In the beginning of his book, Harkaran introduces himself as "Faqir Haqir Hechamdan Azhaf Man Abdullah Al-Samad Harkaran Valad Mathuradas Kamboh Multani" [Aiana-i-Khemkaran, Lahore, 1925, p 283, S Partap Singh Nibber.] .

;Rai Jado RaiHe was a noble in the Mughal court during early days of Akbar and had wielded considerable influence. He founded a village called "Rai Pore".

;Rai Narayan DasHe was son of Rai Jado Rai and also was a noble in the Mughal court during Akbar.

;Rai Bidi ChandHe was son of Rai Narayan Das and grandson of Rai Jado. He also wielded a great influence in Jahangir’s court. He expanded the boundaries of his village Rai Pur which he renamed as "Raipore Bidi Chand". Rai Bidi Chand had two sons viz Rai Dalpat and Rai Khemkaran and one daughter named Bibi Ramo. The total Jagir in the name of Raipur Bid Chand at this time is said to be 52 villages. Rai Bidi Chand gave 8 villages of his Jagir in marriage to his daughter Bibi Ramo.

;Rai Dalpat RaiHe was an important noble in the Mughal court and held a mansab of 1000 men during reign of Shah Jahan. Two Kamboj colonies in Lahore known as Kambohwaras were founded by Rai Dalpat. He also founded another Kamboj colony in Sutar Mandi. Rai Dalpat Rai had five sons viz Haspat Rai, Bhupat Rai, Gajpat Rai, Raghupat Rai and Narpat Rai. Narpat Rai moved to Delhi and permanently settled there. Rai Gajpat Rai was a high ranking military officer but had embraced Islam during Aurangzeb’s rule. He was renamed as "Abdul Mahbud Khan Sajani". He was also conferred the title of "Nawab". Following the example of Rai Gajpat Rai, the entire Kamboj community of one of the two Kamboj colonies of Lahore also embraced Islam.

;Rai Raghupati Raiwas a great landlord from Nibber clan of the Kamboj and was a dedicated Sikh of Guru-Ghar. He had two sons viz: Mool Chand and Amar Chand. Mool Chand was a great warrior and had fought valiantly for the tenth Lord in the Battle of Nadaun on March 20, 1691 and achieved martyrdom (Ref: Aina-i-Khemkaran; also: Guru Kian Sakhian, Prof Piara Singh Padam, Index). Amar Chand took Amrit and became S. Amar Singh. He was a renowned Sikh warrior from the Khemkaran and would wield in the battles a double-edged sword (Kharasang or Khanda) said to be weighing over 20 Kilogram according to Sikh chronicler Giani Gian Singh ("Kharasang swa man ki, jang vich chalaai") [Panth Parkash, 1970, p 531-532, Giani Gian Singh] . After the martyrdom of Banda Singh Bahadhur, S Amar Singh succeeded him and became the chief of the Bandai Khalsa [op cit, p 531, Giani Gian Singh.] . In 1723 AD, a pernicious fight broke out between the Tat Khalsa and Bandai Khalsa in the "Prikarama" of Golden Temple. S. Amar Singh gave a memorable fight but finally achieved martyrdom after killing numerous of his adversaries (Ibid). Bhai Mool Chand had a son called Lakha, who took Amrit and became Bhai Lakha Singh. He was such an illustrious warrior that he was nicknamed Lakha Singh Wad-Partapi (i.e. "Lakha Singh, the great & illustrious"). With the strength of his own arms, he had greatly expanded the boundaries of Khemkaran. He was greatly respected by Maharaja Ranjit Singh who would always address him as Baba Ji. During Ranjit Singh's rule, many Sikh Kambohs of Khemkaran held high military ranks in the regiment of Dewan Sawan Mall (a Chopra Khatri) and later of his son Dewan Mool Raj, both Governors of Multan. But numerous other Kambohs from Punjab were, however, organized into a regiment under Akali Phula Singh (a Kamboj Sikh warrior). After Akali’s martyrdom in 1823 AD, most of these Kamboh soldiers are said to have joined the ranks of Dewan Sawan Mall's regiment and later that of Dewan Mool Raj.

;Rai KhemkaranHe held the office of Dewan in the court of Shah Jahan. He founded important town called Khemkaran near Kasur which was a very important town before the partition. It now lies on the Indo-Pak border in District Amritsar but has lost all its former prestige and glory. All the Hindu or Sikh Kamboj of Khem Karan referenced above belonged to "Nibber" clan of the Kamboj.

;Bibi Ramo’s lineageFrom the lineage of Bibi Ramo (Ram Kaur) came two illustrious personages viz. Raja Sangat Rai and Raja Roshan Rai. Raja Roshan Rai was Dewan of Karam-ud-Din, the Prime Minister of Mughal emperor Bahadhur Shah and was conferred the title of Raja. Raja Sangat Rai was Dewan of the Governor of Lahore and also held the title of Raja. They both belonged to the "Nepal" or "Naipal" clan of the Kamboj which is the second most important clan of the Khemkaran Kambojs.

;Raja Bhim Singh Kamboh (Kamboj) Raja Bhim Singh was a Kamboh (Kamboj) ruler [ Later Mughals – 1921, P 312, William Irvine [http://books.google.com/books?id=3HoBAAAAMAAJ&q=Bhim+Singh+kamboh&dq=Bhim+Singh+kamboh&pgis=1] .] [Asia Review: Journal of Royal Society for India, Pakistan and Ceylone, p 425, Woking (England), East India Association (London) [http://books.google.com/books?id=HLQCAAAAIAAJ&q=Bhim+Singh+Kamboh&dq=Bhim+Singh+Kamboh&pgis=1] .] [Panjab Under the Later Mughals, (1707-1759), 1972, p 79, By Bakhshish Singh Nijjar. See link: [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC00668315&id=RESzeNDCEuIC&q=Kamboj+Bhim+Singh&dq=Kamboj+Bhim+Singh&pgis=1] .] [Tarikh-i-Kambohan, Chouhdri Wahhab ud-din Kamboh Amritsari, Nurpur ( Layalpur ), 1938, Second Ed 1972, p 151] of "Sarkap" located south of Patti on river Satluj ("in district Amritsar") according to one view, but according to other, he ruled Sarkap in Rawalpindi (ancient Taxila). He was among the eight rajas or rulers who were mobilised by Abadullah Samad Khan, the Mughal Governor of Punjab against the Sikh warrior Banda Singh Bahadur. According to researcher/historian Kirpal Singh Dardi too, Bhim Singh Kamboh was the ruler of Sarkap located in Rawalpindi near ancient Taxila, and not of the Sarkap of Patti/Amritsar.

;The KambohsThe Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur [ Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180, William Wilson Hunter] and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left in Sohna show that they must have enjoyed considerable position [Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and north-West Frontier Province, Vol II, pp 444-446, H. A. Rose; Punjab Castes, by Ibbeston, 1885, p 148] .

References

Books and magazines

*A Cultural History of India, 1975, Arthur Llewellyn Basham - History
*Abu Al Fazl Alami, "The Aina-i-Akbari", Trans H Blochman, 1989 ed. D. C. Phillot.
*Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan, "Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh", 1996.
*S Kipal Singh, "The Kambojas Through the Ages", 2005
*S Kirpal Singh , "These Kamboj People", 1978.
*H. S. Thind, "Kamboj Itihas", 1972.
*"A Draft on Kamboj Itihaas", Roshan Din Nizampur (Pakistan) (yet to be published)
*Rajindraraja Mitra, "Indo-Aryans, Contribution Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and Mediaeval History", 1969.
*Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi, "Silsila Aliya"
*Al-Badauni, "Muntakhab al-Tawarikh" (trans. Wolseley)
*Denzil Charles Ibbetson, "Punjab Castes" (1970 Edition)
*H. A. Rose, "Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab & N.W.F Province", 1882
*Chaudhry Wahabuddin, "Tarikh-i-Kambohan" (Urdu), 1917, Amritsar.
*C. A. Storey, "Persian Literature", part II, 1999 edition
*Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, North-western provinces
*Leadership and Local Politics: A Study of Meerut District in Uttar Pradesh, 1979, Shree Nagesh Jha - Social Science
*Muslims in India: A Biographical Dictionary, 1983, Naresh Kumar Jain - Muslims
*Urban Politics in India, 1987, Mohamed Ahmad Hussain
*Aligarh Muslim University: Perfect Past and Precarious Present, 2001, Anil Maheshwari
*Indo-Aryans: Contributions Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and Mediaeval History, 1881, Rājendralāla Mitra
*Memoirs on the History, Folk-lore, and Distribution of the Races..., 1869, Henry Miers Elliot - Ethnology
*Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II, ISBN 8124110662, Satish Chandra
*The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, 1896, W. Crooke
*Leadership and Local Politics: A Study of Meerut District in Uttar Pradesh, 1979, Shree Nagesh Jha
*District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904, H. R. Nevill, I.C.S.
*Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers: Lucknow, 1959, Uttar Pradesh (India)
*The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Biography & Autobiography, 2001, Roper Lethbridge


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