Infobox_nrhp | name =Piedmont Park
caption =Piedmont Park.
Joseph Forsyth Johnson; John Charles Olmsted; Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.;
May 13, 1976
governing_body = Local
refnum=76000629 cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=
2007-01-23|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
Piedmont Park is the convert|189|acre|km2|sing=on "
Central Park" of Atlanta, Georgia, located in Midtown, north of the city center. Originally the land was owned by Dr. Benjamin Walker, who used it as his out-of-town gentleman's farm and residence. He sold the land in 1887 to the Gentlemen's Driving Club (later renamed the Piedmont Driving Club), who wanted to establish an exclusive club and racing ground for horse enthusiasts. The Driving Club entered an agreement with the Piedmont Exposition Company, headed by prominent Atlantan Charles A. Collier, to use the land for fairs and expositions and later gave the park its name.
The park was originally designed by
Joseph Forsyth Johnsonto host the first of two major expositions held in the park in the late 19th century. The Piedmont Expositionopened in October 1887 to great fanfare. The event was a success and set the stage for the World's Fair which was held in the park seven years later in 1895. Both exhibitions showcased the prosperity of the region that had occurred during and after the Reconstruction period. In the early 20th century, a redesign plan called the Olmsted plan, was begun by the sons of New York Central Park architect, Frederick Law Olmsted. The efforts led to the addition of scenic paths in the park and the joining of the park with the Ansley park system.
Over the years, the park has also served as an athletic center for the city. Atlanta's first professional baseball team, the
Atlanta Crackers, played in the park from 1902 to 1904. Several important intercollegiate rivalries were also forged in the park including the University of Georgia vs. Georgia Tech baseball rivalry and Georgia versus Auburn football which has been called the "Oldest Rivalry in the South".
Throughout the 20th century, many other improvements have been made in the park including the addition of covered picnic areas, tennis facilities, the Lake Clara Meer dock and visitors center, and two playgrounds. Today, the park is a popular place for gathering, grilling, swimming, fishing, playing and more. In 2008, a ground-breaking ceremony was held for a 53 acre extension to the park and complete renovation of the bathhouse and swimming pool. The renovation is expected to be completed in summer of 2009, although the expansion will take much longer.
Atlanta was a rapidly growing city in the years before Piedmont Park. From 1860 to 1890, the population had jumped from 9,554 to 65,533 residents.cite encyclopedia | editor-first=Hugh|editor-last=Chisholm|title=Atlanta|encyclopedia=The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information|year=1910|location=New York|publisher=
University Press|volume=2|pages=853] Those years saw the opening of many education institutions such as Clark University(1870), Morris Brown College(1882), Georgia School of Technology(1885), and Agnes Scott College(1890). John B. Gordon, a distinguished Confederate general, was Governor of Georgia.
The area soon to be known as Piedmont Park was owned by
Benjamin Walker, who purchased the convert|189|acre|km2 in the 1830s from the man who had won the land in the land lottery.cite book|last=Martin|first=Sara Hines|title=Walking Atlanta|publisher=Globe Pequot Press|year=2001|isbn=0762710152] Walker farmed the land until, in 1887, he sold the land to the Gentlemen's Driving Club, known today as the Piedmont Driving Club, who planned "to form exclusive club and racing ground for horse enthusiasts". The driving club entered into an agreement with the Piedmont Exposition Company to use the grounds around the track as exposition space. Charles A. Collier, a prominent Atlanta businessman and former lawyer, was president of the company. Soon after, a main building, grandstands, and club house were built for the track.
The 1887 Piedmont Exposition
The first exposition ever held in Piedmont Park, the
Piedmont Expositionof 1887, opened on October 10.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D04E0D91238E533A25752C1A9669D94669FD7CF|title=MR. RANDALL IN ATLANTA: At the Opening of the Piedmont Exhibition|publisher=The New York Times|work=New York Times Online|date=1887-10-11|accessdate=2008-06-05] The main building constructed for the Exposition was convert|570|ft|m long, convert|126|ft|m wide, and two stories high.cite web|url=http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-4603|title=1887 Piedmont Exposition Main Building|work=The New Georgia Encyclopedia|publisher=Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press|date=1887-10-15|accessdate=2008-06-05] The first day opened with 20,000 visitors.cite web|last=Newman|first=Harvey K|url=http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2913|title=Cotton Expositions in Atlanta|work=The New Georgia Encyclopedia|publisher=Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press|date=2006-08-24|accessdate=2008-06-05] Samuel J. Randallopened the Exposition with a speech on the success of the resurrected post-civil war south. When his speech concluded, General Pierce M. B. Youngand his men fired cannons to signal the opening of the events.
Exhibitors showed off a variety of items including works of art, local raw materials like manganese marble, and wood work. Many prominent figures of the day were in attendance to see the displays. Governor
David B. Hillof New York spoke at the event as well as President Grover Clevelandwho attended with his wife, Frances Folsom.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=940CEFDB1130E633A25750C1A9669D94689FD7CF|title=TO BID FOR VOTES IN GEORGIA|work=The New York Times Online|publisher=The New York Times|date=1889-10-13|accessdate=2008-06-05] cite web|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/gc2224.html|title=Grover Cleveland|publisher=The White House|accessdate=2008-06-05] Over 50,000 people were in attendance for Cleveland's speech. When the exposition was over, civic leaders said that it had successfully expanded Atlanta's reputation as a place to visit and to conduct business.
The Exposition was also a chance for Atlanta to prove that it was ready to host the
World's Fair. The Executive Committee of the Fair was invited to attend the event under the bidding of Charles Reynolds, Secretary of the Piedmont Exposition Company.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D06E7DB1130E633A2575BC0A9669D94689FD7CF&oref=login|title=WORLD'S FAIR SCHEMES: Proposed Financial Aid from the City|work=New York Times Online|publisher=The New York Times|date=1889-10-08|accessdate=2008-06-05]
The "oldest rivalry in the South"
Five years later, Piedmont Park was the location of the second football game and the beginning of the "oldest rivalry in the South" between
Auburn Universityand the University of Georgia.cite web | title = Georgia Football History | url = http://www.sicemdawgs.com/football/fb_his.php | accessdate = 2007-06-08 ] The game was arranged by form Johns Hopkinsclassmates, Dr. Charles Hertyof Georgia and Dr. George Petrie of Auburn.cite book|last=Stegeman|first=John F|title=The Ghosts of Herty Field: Early Days on a Southern Gridiron|year=1997|location=Atlanta|publisher= University of Georgia Press|pages=xii] Auburn won the game 10-0. It was rumored afterward that Georgia's mascot, a goat, was the main course at a barbecue held by Georgia fans after the game. (It wasn't until 1921 that Georgia officially became the Bulldogs).
The 1895 World's Fair
In 1894, the Piedmont Exposition Company offered to sell the land to the city of Atlanta for $165,000.00, but Mayor
John Goodwinrefused.cite web|url=http://www.atlantaga.gov/government/urbandesign_piedmontapts.aspx|title=PIEDMONT PARK APARTMENTS|publisher=City of Atlanta Online|accessdate=2008-06-05] Thus, The park remained in private hands and outside the city limits for another ten years.
The Cotton States and International Exposition which opened for 100 days beginning on September 18, 1895 and ending December 31, 1895, attracted visitors from the U.S. and 13 countries.cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/atlanta/text.htm#pie|title=Atlanta:Piedmont Park|work=Atlanta:A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary|publisher=National Park Service|accessdate=2008-06-05] Over $2,000,000 was spent on the transformation of Piedmont Park.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=950DE6D91039E033A25752C0A96E9C94649ED7CF|title=FOR ATLANTA'S BIG SHOW|publisher=The New York Times|work=New York Times Online|date=1895-08-01|accessdate=2008-06-05] The government allocated $250,000 for the construction of a government building and many states and countries such as
Argentinaalso had their own buildings.cite web|url=http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aapaddr.html|title=Session 3: Address to the Country|work=The Progress of a People: A Special Presentation of the Daniel A. P. Murray Pamphlet Collection|publisher=Library of Congress|date=1998-10-19|accessdate=2008-06-05] Also constructed for the fair were the Tropical gardens, now known as the Atlanta Botanical Garden, and Lake Clara Meer which was originally a pond but was expanded to convert|11.5|acre|m2 for the event.cite web | title = Park History | publisher = Piedmont Park Conservancy | url = http://www.piedmontpark.org/history/history.html | accessdate = 2007-05-30 ] Today, the stone balustradesscattered around the park are the only part of the enormous main building. The park remains largely as Joseph Forsyth Johnsondesigned it for the exposition although some changes were made during the Olmsted planning phase.cite web | title = History of Piedmont Park | work = MidtownAtlanta.us | publisher=Middle Bass on the Web, Inc|url = http://www.hiwassee.us/midtown/content/HistNarrPiedmontPark1.shtml | accessdate = 2007-05-30 ] However, most of the buildings that were constructed for the exposition were made of local Georgia granite and the buildings were dismantled after the event so that the granite could be sold to absolve the debt that the city incurred to hold the fair. Booker T. Washingtondelivered his famous Atlanta Compromisespeech at the Expo, which is "widely regarded as one of the most significant speeches in American history".cite web | title = Atlanta Compromise Speech | work = New Georgia Encyclopedia | publisher=Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press|url = http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2554 | accessdate = 2007-06-08 ] In his speech, Washington pushed for progress but not integration, a point that angered many other black leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois.
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, the Liberty Bell, and the first public demonstration of C. Francis Jenkinsand Thomas Armat's motion picture projection device which they called the Phantoscope.cite web | title = Atlanta History | publisher = City-Book.com | url = http://www.city-book.com/Overview/history/history4.htm | accessdate = 2007-06-08 ] cite web|url=http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edshift.html#T|title=History of Edison Motion Pictures:The Shift to Projectors and the Vitascope (1895-1896)] |publisher=Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress|date=1998-01-12|accessdate=2008-06-05] John Philip Sousa's "King Cotton" march was created for the expo and was performed at the ceremony, and was conducted by the composer himself.
After the Exposition, the park continued to be extremely popular and was a magnet for growth in the area. State fairs and holiday celebrations were held at the park. Street car lines to the park increased. It was a generally prosperous time.
The beginnings of Atlanta baseball
In March 1898, the baseball fields were finally completed. April 16, 1898, the first baseball game between Georgia and Georgia Tech, then known as the Georgia School of Technology was played.cite news|title=THE TECHS ARE BADLY BEATEN|work=The Atlanta Constitution|publisher=The Atlanta Constitution|date=1898-04-17|pages=9] From 1902 until 1904, the
Atlanta Crackers, the city's original professional baseballteam played ball on the fields of Piedmont Park before moving to a stadium on Ponce de Leon Avenue.
The Olmsted plan
The year 1904 for was a watershed time for the park. The preceding year prominent Atlantan
George Washington Collierdied. Collier had owned convert|202|acre|km2 of land to the west and north of the park that was sold for $300,000 to developers. The city bought the park for $98,000 in 1904, incorporating Piedmont Park into Atlanta's city limits. Mayor Evan Howellagreed to purchase the park, but only if it included those developed areas adjacent to the park which would add approximately $35,000 to $40,000 in tax revenues annually.
The main developer of Collier's land was Edwin Ansley, who created the
Ansley Parksubdivision under the guidelines set by the Olmsteds. The result was curvy streets surrounding "mini-parks" comprising a total of 25 acres. In 1912, these parks were deeded to the city in 1912.
In 1909, the sons of
Frederick Law Olmsted, landscape architectfor Central Parkin New York, Carey and Frederick, Jr. were asked to design the park's master plan while they were at work on Grant Park. The city agreed to pay $1,800 for the plan, but Olmsted was concerned that Atlanta might not have enough money for the necessary improvements.cite book|last=White|first=Dana F|coauthor=Victor A. Kramer|title=Olmsted South, Old South Critic, New South Planner|date=1979|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|pages=233|isbn=0313207240]
In 1910, the brothers submitted a plan for the park that was to include a convert|5|mi|km|sing=on scenic path and driveways that would like Piedmont Park to the streets of Ansley Park. Joining the parks was a success and thereafter, the parks were known as Twin Parks. Although never fully implemented, the Olmsted plan had a great effect on the development in the surrounding area.
20th century growth and development
The park's first
bathhousewas opened in 1911. Swimming in the lake was allowed until 1973, when the city opened a pool in the park.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/swimming.html|title=Swimming|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05]
On January 29, 1913, Calvin Shelverton applied for a building permit to construct the Piedmont Park Apartments. The apartments were designed by
Leila Ross Wilburnand were decidedly middle-class unlike some of the other developments in the area. The apartments remained middle-class up until about 1960 and residents included such prominent Atlantans as accounting company president T. C. Dunlap and lawyer J. B. Stewart. In 1913, seven clay courts were built where the 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition's Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building once was. Eight more courts were added in 1914 to accommodate the overwhelming demand.
Notable additions and buildings include the
bandstand, built in 1915;cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/picnic.html|title=Picnic Facilities|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05] a picnic shelter constructed by the WPAin 1936; the Noguchi "Playscape", completed in 1976 under the aegis of the High Museumand a grant from the National Endowment for the Artscite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/playgrounds.html|title=Playgrounds|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05] and designed by world-renown artist and sculptor Isamu Noguchi, noteworthy as the only public work by Noguchi in the U.S.cite web|last=Kornblit|first=Bobbi|url=http://www.atlantaintownpaper.com/features/Playscapes.php|title=IN Case You Were Wondering: Noguchi's Playscapes|publisher=Atlanta Intown Newspaper|date=2005|accessdate=2008-06-05] In 2002, the dog park was opened.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/dogpark.html|title=Piedmont Dog Park|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05]
The Noguchi "Playscapes" underwent restoration in 2005 under Eddie Granderson, public arts manager of the City of Atlanta. Jablonski Berkowitz Conservation Inc. was selected to do the restoration and assessments began in September of that year. The company was charged with bringing the playground up to safety codes and restoring the original paint.
Piedmont Park Conservancy
The Piedmont Park Conservancy is a 501(c) 3 non-profit organization that is in charge of park improvements and 90 percent of the Park's daily maintenance care and security. The Conservancy was founded in 1989 to revitalize the rapidly deteriorating park. Since then, it has raised and invested $23 million in private funds making the park, once again, the most visited green space in Atlanta.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/conservancy/mission.html|title=Piedmont Park Conservancy|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05]
Approximately 50 acres in the northwest portion of the convert|187|acre|km2|sing=on park have remained woodlands. As of 2007, the park expansion plan called for a new parking deck as well as "open green space, bicycle and walking trails, formal and community gardens, an interactive water feature, children's playgrounds, a skate park, athletic fields and woodlands."cite web | title = Northern Expansion | publisher = Piedmont Park Conservancy| url = http://www.piedmontpark.org/restoration/NW_reclamation.html | accessdate = 2007-05-30 ] The project is expected to cost $72 million and the completion date is set for early 2010.cite web | last = Pendered | first = David | title = Piedmont Park set for expansion | publisher = The Atlanta Journal-Constitution | url = http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/atlanta/stories/2007/04/13/0414metpiedmont.html | accessdate = 2007-05-30]
On April 23, 2008, a ground-breaking ceremony was held at the Bathhouse for the 53 acre expansion of the Park. The pool and bathhouse are part of a huge
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design(LEED) renovation that will cost around $7.8 million and be completed by summer 2009.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontparkconservancy.org/pdf/BatthouseFactsheet2.pdf|title=PIEDMONT PARK HISTORIC BATHHOUSE RENOVATION FACT SHEET|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05] The renovation will feature accessibility, a warming kitchen, WiFi, a pool with beach entry, bubblers, current channel, vortex, fountains, separate splash pad, lap lanes, landscaped deck environment, and concessions.
Activities and facilities
The park hosts several miles of paved paths suitable for walking, running, biking, and inline skating. Skate Escape across from the park at the 12th Street entrance rents both bikes and skates.cite web | title = Skate Escape Bike and Skate Rental | url = http://SkateEscape.com | accessdate = 2007-07-18 ] On weekend afternoons, skateboarders and inline skaters often share the open, paved area inside the 12th Street entrance.cite web | title = Atlanta Peachtree Road Rollers Group Skates | url = http://aprr.org/groupskates/ | accessdate = 2007-07-18 ]
Piedomont Park has picnic shelters located just to the East of the north soccer field. There are also various picnic tables and benches throughout the park. Many visitors choose to picnic on the expansive lawns as well. The first grill in Piedmont Park was erected for the 1895 World's Fair where the administrative offices now sit. There are 22 grills throughout the park. No portable grills are allowed.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/grilling.html|title=Grilling|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05]
The Noguchi "Playscape" is located near the 12th Street Gate. The geometrically shaped, modernist playground includes a soaring swing set, slide, sand pit, climbing dome and more made of bright and exciting colors.Also in the park is a new playground known as Mayor's Grove. It was designed as a Boundless Playgrounds and features a high level of accessibility and interactive play.
Piedmont Park is a popular place for organized sports. The Piedmont Tennis Center is a fully-staffed, public facility with 12 lighted hard courts, offering leagues, lessons, and supplies.cite web | title = Piedmont Tennis Center Official Site | url = http://PiedmontTennis.com | accessdate = 2007-07-18 ]
The Active Oval has two softball fields, two soccer fields, and two beach volleyball courts, all ringed by a dirt running path. Kickball leagues also use the softball fields.
Fishing and the lake
The lake is located in the south east park of the park. Fishing is permitted in the lake which is stocked with
Large Mouth Bass, Crappie, Breamand Catfish. In 2002 the lake was renovated with a bridge connecting the two bodies of water and three fishing piers located around the lake.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/do/fishing.html|title=Fishing|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05]
Clara Meer Dock is located at the west corner of the lake. Just above the Dock sits the historic Visitor Center building. Clara Meer Dock forms an amphitheater-like space nestled into the western end of the lake. Clara Meer Dock is often used for wedding ceremonies. Rental of the dock also includes the Visitor's Center. The Visitor's Center features a barrel ceiling with a painted mural called "A Day at the Park" by
Ralph Gilbert.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/facilities/visitor_center.html|title=Dock and Visitors Center|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2008|accessdate=2008-06-05] The center seats 40 persons inside and over 200 more on the adjoining lawn and dock. The Dock seats up to 120 for ceremony, or up to 100 for table dining or possible dance floor area.
The Noguchi "Playscape" is located near the 12th Street Gate. The geometrically shaped, modernist playground includes a soaring swing set, slide, sand pit, climbing dome and more made of bright and exciting colors.
With the exception of some festival weekends and special events, dogs are permitted in Piedmont Park, on leashes convert|6|ft|m or shorter for safety reasons. Owners must clean up after their dogs, and the park has a half-dozen plastic bag dispensing stations to facilitate this. Several of the park's water fountains also have a ground-level basin for dogs to use.
Just north of the Park Road entrance bridge is a separate, fenced-in Dog Park where friendly dogs (and their owners) can cavort with each other off-leash. There is also an additional fenced-in section exclusively for small dogs to play in.
Piedmont Park is a central focal point of Atlanta's Midtown community. The park is home to various annual celebrations and events, including Atlanta Pride Festival, the Atlanta Jazz Festival and the
Atlanta Dogwood Festival. A summer series of classic films, Screen on the Green, is also aired in the park for local residents.
On the weekend and holidays the park comes alive with music, intramural sports and fun festivities. In 2004,
Georgia Shakespeare Festivaladded an annual series of free performances entitled "Shake on the Lake" with Lake Clara Meer as a backdrop.cite web | title = Piedmont Park | publisher = VisitUSA.com| url = http://www.visitusa.com/georgia/atlanta/piedmont-park.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-30 ] A centennialcelebration was held for the park in June 2004. In 2007, the Allman Brothers Bandand Dave Matthews Bandplayed a concert with proceeds benefiting the planned expansion to the park. More recently the park has played host to local cross-dressing street performer Baton Bob.
In January 2008 city officials announced that the
Peachtree Road Race, Atlanta Pride Festival, the Atlanta Jazz Festival and the Dogwood Festival would not be held in the park due to extreme drought.cite web|title=Piedmont Park Drought Changes Major Events|first=Steve|last=Weaver|url=http://www.wrbl.com/index.php/news/article/piedmont-park-drought-changes-major-events/5029/|date=2008-01-14|publisher=Media General Communications Holdings, LLC.|accessdate=2008-06-11] The city is currently considering adding wellsto the park in order to save the trees.cite web|title=Can Wells Save Piedmont Park?|url=http://www.11alive.com/news/local/drought/story.aspx?storyid=116467&catid=219|first=Paul|last=Crawley|coauthor=Julie Wolfe|date=2008-05-28|accessdate=2008-06-11] Monica Thonton of the Piedmont Park Conservancy said, "Our number one priority is the trees... we have to find a way to save the trees" by operating outside of the city water supply and its watering restrictions. So far, the city and Fulton County have signed off on the plan. However, State Environmental Protection Division approval is still pending.
Some festivals which don't make use of green space are still allowed in the park. The Atlanta Arts Festival will run from September 12-14, 2008 and will utilize only paved areas.cite web|title=Artist Guidelines and Application|work=The Atlanta Arts Festival|date=2008|url=http://www.atlantaartsfestival.com/artistApp.php|accessdate=2008-06-11] Other festivals are relocating to other areas of Atlanta like this year's Screen on the Green which is being held in
Centennial Olympic Park.cite web|title=Peachtree TV presents Screen on the Green|url=http://www.peachtreetv.com/specials/screenonthegreen/|date=2008|publisher=Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.|accessdate=2008-06-11]
The park opens from 6:00AM to 11:00PM every day.cite web|url=http://www.piedmontpark.org/visit/park_map.html|title=Piedmont Park Map|publisher=Piedmont Park Conservancy|date=2007|accessdate=2008-07-02]
* [http://www.piedmontpark.org/ Official Park Site]
* [http://www.friendsofpiedmontpark.org Friends of Piedmont Park]
* [http://www.atlantapride.org/ Atlanta Pride]
* [http://www.atlantafestivals.com/ Atlanta Jazz Festival]
* [http://www.dogwood.org/ Atlanta Dogwood Festival]
* [http://www.turner.com/screenonthegreen/ Screen on the Green]
* [http://atlantatimemachine.com/misc/piedpk1.htm Then/Now photos of Piedmont Park]
* [http://atlantatimemachine.com/misc/piedpk2.htm Another set of Then/Now photos of Piedmont Park]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/atlanta/ Atlanta, Georgia, a National Park Service "Discover Our Shared Heritage" Travel Itinerary]
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