Arthus reaction


Arthus reaction

Infobox_Disease
Name = Arthus reaction


Caption =
DiseasesDB = 33220
ICD10 = ICD10|T|78|4|t|66
ICD9 = ICD9|995.21
ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus =
eMedicineSubj =
eMedicineTopic =
MeshID = D001183
In immunology, the Arthus reaction is a type of local type III hypersensitivity reaction. Type III hypersensitivity reactions are immune complex-mediated, and involve the deposition of antigen/antibody complexes mainly in the vascular walls, serosa (pleura, pericardium, synovium), and glomeruli.

History

The Arthus reaction was discovered by Arthus in 1903. [Injections répétées de serum du cheval chez le lapin, "Comptes rendus des séances de la Société de biologie et de ses filiales", Paris, 55 (1903), 817–820.] Arthus repeatedly injected horse
serum subcutaneously into rabbits. After four injections,he found that there was edema and that the serum was absorbed slowly. Further injections eventually led to gangrene.

Process

The Arthus reaction involves the in situ formation of antigen/antibody complexes after the intradermal injection of an antigen. If the animal/patient was previously sensitized (has circulating antibody), an Arthus reaction occurs. This manifests as local vasculitis due to deposition of immune complexes in dermal blood vessels. Activation of complement and recruitment of PMNs ensue, resulting in an inflammatory response.

Arthus reactions have been infrequently reported after vaccination against
diphtheria and tetanus. To quote from the CDC: [ [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5503a1.htm Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adolescents: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines] , K. R. Broder et al., "MMWR Recommendations and Reports", March 24, 2006 / 55(RR03), 1–34, page 18.]

Arthus reactions (type III hypersensitivity reactions) arerarely reported after vaccination and can occur after tetanustoxoid–containing or diphtheria toxoid–containing vaccines. An Arthusreaction is a local vasculitis associated with deposition ofimmune complexes and activation of complement. Immunecomplexes form in the setting of high local concentration ofvaccine antigens and high circulating antibody concentration. Arthus reactions are characterized bysevere pain, swelling, induration, edema, hemorrhage, andoccasionally by necrosis. These symptoms and signs usuallyoccur 4–12 hours after vaccination.....ACIP has recommended thatpersons who experienced an Arthus reaction after a dose oftetanus toxoid–containing vaccine should not receive Td morefrequently than every 10 years, even for tetanus prophylaxis aspart of wound management.

References

ee also

* Serum sickness


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arthus reaction — Ar·thus reaction är thəs , ȧr tues n a reaction that follows injection of an antigen into an animal in which hypersensitivity has been previously established and that involves infiltrations, edema, sterile abscesses, and in severe cases gangrene …   Medical dictionary

  • Arthus' reaction — /ahr tooh siz/, Immunol. a severe, local immune reaction to the injection of an antigen in a sensitized host. Also called Arthus phenomenon. [after Nicolas Maurice Arthus (1862 1945), French physiologist, who discovered it in 1903] * * * …   Universalium

  • Arthus' reaction — /ahr tooh siz/, Immunol. a severe, local immune reaction to the injection of an antigen in a sensitized host. Also called Arthus phenomenon. [after Nicolas Maurice Arthus (1862 1945), French physiologist, who discovered it in 1903] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arthus reaction — A localized inflammation due to injection of antigen into an animal that has a high level of circulating antibody against that antigen. A haemorrhagic reaction with oedema occurs due to the destruction of small blood vessels by thrombi. It may… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Arthus reaction — inflammatory response to the introduction of a foreign substance into the blood vessels or tissues of a body (that already has antibodies against those antigens) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Arthus reaction (phenomenon) — Ar·thus reaction (phenomenon) (ahr tūsґ) [Nicolas Maurice Arthus, French physiologist, 1862–1945] see under reaction …   Medical dictionary

  • reverse passive Arthus reaction — the reaction produced when precipitating antibody is inoculated into a skin site in an experimental animal, followed in 30 minutes to 2 hours by inoculation of the homologous antigen, either intravenously or intracutaneously at the same site.… …   Medical dictionary

  • passive cutaneous Arthus reaction — a variation of the Arthus reaction in which a nonimmune host is inoculated with large quantities of precipitating antibody intravenously, followed by local cutaneous inoculation of antigen …   Medical dictionary

  • Arthus реакция — * Arthus рэакцыя * Arthus reaction комплементзависимая реакция гиперчувствительности, которая проявляется в виде реакции антигена с антителами (осаждение). При этом образуются микропреципитаты (осажденные микрочастицы), которые повреждают клетки …   Генетика. Энциклопедический словарь

  • Arthus-type reaction — any pathologic process involving the same mechanism as the Arthus reaction, i.e., deposition of immune complexes and complement activation, as in immune complex disease …   Medical dictionary


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