Mass-Observation was a
United Kingdom social researchorganisation founded in 1937. Their work ended in the mid 1960s but was revived in 1981. The Archive is housed at the University of Sussex.
Mass-Observation aimed to record everyday life in Britain through a panel of around 500 untrained volunteer observers who either maintained diaries or replied to open-ended questionnaires. They also paid investigators to anonymously record people's conversation and behaviour at work, on the street and at various public occasions including public meetings and
sporting and religious events.
The creators of the Mass-Observation project were anthropologist
Tom Harrisson, poet Charles Madgeand film-maker Humphrey Jennings. Collaborators included the critic William Empson, the photographer Humphrey Spender, the collagist Julian Trevelyan, and the painters William Coldstreamand Graham Bell. Run on a shoestring budget with money from their own pockets and the occasional philanthropic contribution or book advance, the project relied most on its network of volunteer correspondents.
Mass-Observation began after King Edward VIII's abdication in 1936 to marry divorcée
Wallis Simpson. Dissatisfied with the pronouncements of the newspapers as to the public mood, the project's founders initiated a nationwide effort to document the feelings of the populace about the historical event by collecting anecdotes, overheard comments, and "man-in-the-street" interviews on and around the Coronation of George VI.
"May the Twelfth: Mass-Observation Day-Surveys 1937" "by over two hundred observers" was published in book form. The result tended to subvert the Government's efforts at image-making. The principal editors were Humphrey Jennings and Charles Madge, with the help of T. O. Beachcroft, Julian Blackburn,
William Empson, Stuart Legg and Kathleen Raine. The 1987 reprint contains an Afterword by Professor David Pocock, director of the Tom Harrisson Mass-Observation Archive.
Second World War, the Mass-Observation research was occasionally influential in shaping British public policy. In particular, their study of saving habits were used by John Maynard Keynesto successfully argue for tax policy changes. The war also led to a few cases of Mass-Observation doing research on commission for government authorities trying to shape recruiting and war propaganda.
Mass-Observation has been criticised by some as an invasion of privacy. Participants were not only reporting on their own lives; they often commented on their neighbours and friends as well. Such an atmosphere of surveillance was in keeping with the rising culture of
espionage, which dominated the Second World War, although it should be noted that Mass-Observation was an independent, not a government, effort aimed at education rather than manipulation of the public.
Mass-Observation had set out to turn the tools of anthropology used to study foreign cultures on Britain's; to be "The Science of Us." Criticism of the scientific validity focusing on the experiment parameters began fairly early, continued throughout its existence, and was a key element in its eventual demise. Because of the self-selecting nature of the observers, they did not represent a scientifically balanced cross-section of British society as a modern public opinion poll would. Although geographically and occupationally diverse, the participants tended to be middle-class, educated, literate, and left of centre.
Decline and End
Following the war, and the departure of project founders Harrisson, Madge, and Jennings, research began to focus on the commercial habits of the country [Article "Deck the halls with bread and lard" by David Kynaston in "Seven", the Arts and Media section of The Sunday Telegraph issue no 2,428 dated 23 December 2007] rather than the broader cultural research that characterized its first decade. This turn towards market research was formalized in 1949 when the project was incorporated as a private firm and, under new management, became registered as a market research limited company, Mass Observation (UK) Limited. Eventually the firm was merged with the advertising agency J.Walter Thompson’s UK research agency
BMRB, to form MRB International, followed by full merger in the early 1990s.
A reevaluation of the tremendous resource of primary historical material that is the Mass-Observation archives led to a relaunch of the project in 1981. Today, housed at the University of Sussex, Mass-Observation continues to collect the thoughts of its panel of writers through regular questionnaires (known as directives) and is used by students, academics, media researchers and the public for its unique collection of material on everyday life in Britain.
*Charles Madge & Humphrey Jennings, eds. "May the Twelfth, Mass-Observation Day-Surveys 1937, by over two hundred observers", London, Faber & Faber, 1937. ISBN 0571148727
*Charles Madge & Tom Harrisson, "Britain", Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1939
A number of publications are also available from the University of Sussex. The following selection of titles also gives some idea of the scope of Mass-Observation's work:
BoltonWorking Class Life"
*"Everyday use of social relaxants and stimulants"
*"Gender and Nationhood. Britain in the
*"Health, sickness and the work ethic"
Europe: pointers to some British attitudes"
*"Researching women's lives: notes from visits to East Central Europe"
*"Mass-Observation: des 'capsules' de vie quotidienne"
*"One Day in the Life of
Sexsurveyed, 1949-1994" - The actual Mass-Observation survey was called Little Kinsey, the results were published in a book by Liz Stanley of the above name.
Puband the People"
*"Weeping in the Cinema in 1950"
In 2004 "Our Hidden Lives", an edited selection of the diaries kept by five of these observers and diarists during the
post-warperiod was published.
*Simon Garfield, "Our Hidden Lives", 2005 paperback edition from Ebury Press: ISBN 0-09-189733-5.
* Hubble, Nick. "Mass-Observation and Everyday Life". Houndmills-Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2006. ISBN 1-4039-3555-6. A history of the Mass-Observation movement from a former Research Fellow at the Mass-Observation Archive, University of Sussex, UK (from back cover).
* [http://www.massobs.org.uk/ University of Sussex Mass Observation site]
*Caleb Crain. [http://www.newyorker.com/critics/atlarge/articles/060911crat_atlarge "Surveillance society: The Mass-Observation movement and the meaning of everyday life."] . "The New Yorker". 11 September 2006.
* [http://spender.boltonmuseums.org.uk/index.html Photography taken by Humphrey Spender for the Mass-Observation project in Bolton]
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