name = Gray SealMSW3 Wozencraft | pages = | id = 14001036]
status = LR/lc
status_system = iucn2.3
status_ref = IUCN2006|assessors=Seal Specialist Group|year=1996|id=9660|title=Halichoerus grypus|downloaded=12 May 2006]
phylum = Chordata
genus = "Halichoerus"
genus_authority = Nilsson, 1820
species = "H. grypus"
binomial = "Halichoerus grypus"
binomial_authority = (Fabricius, 1791)
range_map_caption = Gray Seal range (in blue)
The Gray Seal ("Halichoerus grypus", meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the
North Atlantic Ocean. It is a large seal of the family Phocidaeor "true seals". It is the only species classified in the genus"Halichoerus". Its name is alternatively spelled Grey Seal and it is also known as Atlantic Grey Seal and the Horsehead Seal [Mowat, Farley, Sea Of Slaughter, Atlantic Monthly Press Publishing, First American Edition, 1984.] .
It is a medium sized seal, with the bulls reaching 2.5–3.3 m long and weighing up to 300 kg; the cows are much smaller, typically 1.6–2.0 m long and 100–150 kg weight. It is the typical seal of the northern and western coasts, the
Common Sealbeing more often seen off southeastern coasts.
Great Britainand Ireland, the Gray Seal breeds in several colonies on and around the coasts; notably large colonies are at the Farne Islandsoff the Northumberland Coast(about 6,000 animals), North Ronaoff the north coast of Scotland, Lambay Islandoff the coast of Dublinand Ramsey Islandoff the coast of Pembrokeshire.
In the Western North Atlantic, the Gray Seal is typically found in large numbers all along the coast of
North Americaup to about the coastal waters of New Jerseyin the United States. In Canada, it is typically seen in areas such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and the Maritimes, and Quebec. In the United States onit is found year round off the New Englandcoasts (in particular Maineand Massachusetts) and slightly less frequently in the Middle Atlantic States, though its natural range extends to Virginia. During the winter months it can be seen hauled out on the rocks, islands, and shoals not far from shore, like great gray bananas in the sun, and occasionally coming ashore to rest. In the spring the recently weaned pups and yearlings occasionally strand on beaches after becoming "lost".
The Gray Seal feeds on a wide variety of
fish, mostly benthicor demersalspecies, taken at depths down to 70m (230ft) or more. sand eels (Ammodytes spp) are important in its diet in many localities. Codand other gadids, flatfish, herringFact|date=October 2007 and skates are also important locally. However, it is clear that the Gray Seal will eat whatever is available, including octopusand lobsters.Fact|date=October 2007 The average daily food requirement is estimated to be 5kg (11lb), though the seal does not feed every day and it fasts during the breeding season.
The pups are born in autumn (September to November) in the eastern Atlantic and in winter (January to February) in the west, with a dense, soft silky white fur; at first they are small and shrivelled-looking, but they rapidly fatten up to look like over-filled barrels, from the extremely fat-rich milk they receive from their mothers. Within a month or so, they shed the pup fur and grow the dense waterproof adult fur, and soon leave for the sea to learn to fish for themselves. In recent years, the number of Gray Seals has been on the rise in the west, and in
Canadathere have been calls for a seal cull, however this does not appear to be coming to fruition any time soon.
United StatesGray Seal numbers are increasing as well; it has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Actfor several years and it is still illegal to harm one. Before the act there were only a few isolated colonies in Maineand nowhere else. Today it is seen increasingly near New Yorkand New Jerseywaters and it is very likely it will establish colonies further and further south provided the main Canadian pupping grounds are not molested. It is also not very likely a seal hunt shall be instituted any time soon in the U.S.
In the UK seals are protected under the
Conservation of Seals Act 1970, however it does not apply to Northern Ireland. In the UK there have also been calls for a cull from some fishermen, claiming that stocks have declined due to the seals.A recent paper, however, from the [http://www.smru.st-and.ac.uk/ Sea Mammal Research Unit] at St Andrews Universityclarifies that seals take less than 1% of the total stock biomass in the North Sea. The real problem is over-fishing.Fact|date=February 2008
There are two recognized subspeices of this seal:
*"Halichoerus grypus grypus"
*"Halichoerus grypus macrorhynchus"
*Gray Seals on pinnipeds.org : http://www.pinnipeds.org/species/grey.htm
*ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/ARK/mammals/Halichoerus_grypus/ images and movies of the grey seal "(Halichoerus grypus)"]
*Grey Seal Conservation Society (GSCS) http://www.greyseal.net
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