1814

Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1814

January - March


* January 14 - Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in exchange for west Pomerania, as part of the Treaty of Kiel.
* January 29 - Battle of Brienne: The French army of Emperor Napoleon I wins.
* January 31 - Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina.
* February - George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen represents Britain at the Congress of Chatillon.
* February 11 - Norway's independence is proclaimed, marking the ultimate end of the Kalmar Union.
* February 12 - A fire destroys the Custom House in London.
* February 14 - Napoleon wins the Battle of Vauchamps.
* February 18 - Napoleon wins the Battle of Montereau.
* February 21 - Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814.
* March 7 - Napoleon wins the Battle of Craonne.
* March 9 - the USS Enterprise reaches Wilmington, North Carolina, returning from the Caribbean.
* March 10 - Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Laon in France.
* March 12 - Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angouleme enters Bordeaux, marking the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty.
* March 27 - War of 1812 - Battle of Horseshoe Bend: In northern Alabama, United States forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek Indians.
* March 30 - Napoleonic Wars: Sixth Coalition forces march into Paris.
* March 31 - Anti-Napoleonic troops occupy Paris.

April - June


* April 6 - Emperor Napoleon abdicates; Louis XVIII becomes King of France.
* April 10 - the Duke of Wellington wins the Battle of Toulouse.
* April 12 - The Royal Norwegian Navy is re-established.
* May 3 - The Duke of Provence, the future Louis XVIII of France, returns to Paris.
* May 5 - British-American War (War of 1812): The British attack Fort Ontario at Oswego, New York.
* May 17 - The Constitution of Norway is signed and the Danish Crown Prince Christian Frederik is elected King of Norway by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly.
* May 17 - The occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian hands.
* May 30 - The First Treaty of Paris is signed returning France's borders to their 1792 extent. Napoleon I of France is exiled to Elba on the same day.

July - September


* July 5 - War of 1812 - Battle of Chippewa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippewa, Ontario.
* July 24 - War of 1812: General Phineas Riall advances toward Niagara Falls, Ontario to halt Jacob Brown's American invaders.
* July 25 - George Stephenson tests his locomotive "Blucher" successfully.
* July 25 - War of 1812 - Battle of Lundy's Lane : Reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls, Ontario for General Riall's British and Canadian force, and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 1800 hours; Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
* August 7 - Pope Pius VII reestablishes the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) all over the world, after having approved their survival and existence in Russia.
* August 12 - In England, the last hanging under the Black Act is carried out, of William Potter for cutting down an orchard (even the judge petitioned for reprieve).
* August 13 - The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 is signed.
* August 24 - War of 1812: British troops occupy Washington, DC, setting numerous buildings on fire, including the Capitol.
* August 28 - Alexandria, Virginia offers surrender to the British fleet without a fight.
* September 11War of 1812 - Battle of Lake Champlain: An American squadron under Thomas MacDonough defeats the British squadron, ultimately forcing the invading army to retreat back into Canada.
* September 13War of 1812: The British bombard Fort McHenry at Baltimore. The British failure at the Battle of Baltimore is a turning point in the war, and the American defense of the fort inspires Francis Scott Key to compose the poem later set to music as "The Star Spangled Banner".

October - December


* October - A large vat full of porter (beer) owned by Meux's Brewery bursts, demolishing houses and killing 9 people (8 people drown and one person dies of alcohol poisoning, after attempting to stop the flood by drinking the beer).
* November 7War of 1812: Andrew Jackson seizes Pensacola, Florida.
* December 15 – The Hartford Convention is convened by members of the American Federalist Party.
* December 24War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent is signed, officially ending the war.

Undated

* Missionaries attempt to write down the Maori language.
* George Stephenson designs his first locomotive "Blücher".
* Sir Walter Scott writes "Waverley".
* Guyana is transferred from the Netherlands to Britain; it is renamed "British Guiana".

Ongoing events

* Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)-Peninsular War/Sixth Coalition
* War of 1812 (1812-1815)
* Norway in 1814

Births

January - June


* January 1 - Hong Xiuquan, Chinese rebel (d. 1864)
* January 27 - Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (d. 1879)
* February 18 - Samuel Fenton Cary, American politician and temperance activist (d. 1900)
* March 9 - Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet, nationalist, and founder of the Ukrainian language (d. 1861)
* April 3 - Lorenzo Snow, fifth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1901)
* April 21 - Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist (d. 1906)
* May 12 - Adolf von Henselt, German composer
* May 30 - Mikhail Bakunin, Russian anarchist (d. 1876)

July - December


* July 19 - Samuel Colt, American gun maker (d. 1862)
* August 8 - Esther Morris, American suffragist and judge (d. 1902)
* August 10 - Henri Nestlé, German-born Swiss chocolate magnate (d. 1890)
* August 13 - Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (d. 1874)
* August 23 - James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (d. 1877)
* August 28 - Sheridan le Fanu, Irish writer (d. 1873)
* September 2 - Ernst Curtius, German archaeologist and historian (d. 1896)
* September 8 - Charles-Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, French writer and historian (d. 1874)
* September 27 - Daniel Kirkwood, astronomer (d. 1895)
* October 4 - Jean-François Millet, French painter (d. 1875)
* October 7 - Susanna Dickinson, survivor of the Alamo
* October 15 - Mikhail Lermontov, Russian writer (d. 1841)
* November 6 - Adolphe Sax, Belgian instrument maker and inventor (d. 1894)
* November 22 - Serranus Clinton Hastings, American politician (d. 1893)
*"date unknown" - Táhirih, Persian Bahá'í heroine

Deaths

January - June


* January 27
** Philip Astley, English circus promoter (b. 1742)
** Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (b. 1762)
* March 28 - Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French inventor (b. 1738)
* April 1 - Joseph de Ferraris, Austrian cartographer of the Austrian Netherlands (b. 1726)
* April 12 - Charles Burney, English music historian (b. 1726)
* May 29 - Josephine de Beauharnais, Empress of France (b. 1763)

July - December

* July 12 - William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, British general
* July 19 - Captain Matthew Flinders, English explorer of the coasts of Australia (b. 1774)
* August 21 - Antonio Carnicero, Spanish painter (b. 1748)
* August 21 - Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (b. 1753)
* August 31 - Arthur Phillip, British admiral and first governor of New South Wales (b. 1738)
* September 8 - Marie Caroline of Austria, queen of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, and "de facto" ruler (b. 1752)
* October 19 - Mercy Otis Warren, American playwright (b. 1728)
* November 23 - Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United States of America (b. 1744)
* December 2 - Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, French writer (b. 1740)
* December 13 - Charles Joseph, Prince de Ligne, Austrian field marshal (b. 1735)
* December 19 - Joseph Bramah, inventor of the hydraulic press (b. 1748)


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