History of the Jews in Scotland
The earliest date at which
Jews arrived in Scotlandis not known. It is possible that some arrived, or at least visited, as a result of the Roman Empire's conquest of southern Great Britain, but there is no direct evidence for this. What the Romans referred to as " Caledonia" was never integrated into the Empire, although there was a short-lived occupation of southern Scotland, but Roman influence and trade continued after the withdrawal of their troops. Most histories of Jews in Scotland deal with the subject matter from a British perspective, and the Scottish aspect tends to be marginalised.
Middle Ages to Union with England
Englandduring the Middle Ageshad state persecution of the Jews, culminating in the Edict of Expulsionof 1290 (it has been suggested that Jews may have arrived in Scotland after this date [http://www.mcfarlandpub.com/book-2.php?id=978-0-7864-2800-7] , there was never a corresponding expulsion from Scotland. Indeed the eminent Jewish-Scottish scholar David Daichesstates in his autobiographical "Two Worlds: An Edinburgh Jewish Childhood" that there are grounds for saying that Scotland is the only European country which has no history of state persecution of Jews. Evidence of Jews in medieval Scotland is fairly scanty, but in 1190, the Bishop of Glasgow forbade churchmen to "ledge their benefices for money borrowed from Jews". [cite web |publisher=jewishvirtuallibrary|title=Scotland|url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Scotland.html] This was around the time of the Anti-Jewish riots in England so it is possible Jewish refugees lived in Scotland for a brief time, or it may refer to English Jews' interests in Scotland. Aberdeenand Dundeehad close links to Baltic ports such as in Polandand Lithuaniaknown as Scottish merchant trade routes. It is possible that Jewishpeople may have come to Scotlandto trade with their Scottish counterparts [cite web |publisher=electricscotland.com|title=History|url=http://www.electricscotland.com/history/poland/scotsndx.htm]
Like many Christian nations, medieval Scots believed themselves to have a Biblical connection. The
Declaration of Arbroath( 6 April 1320), which was sent as an appeal to Pope John XXII, confirmed Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and asserted its right to use military action when considered unjustly attacked. It was sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles. It is still periodically referenced by British Israelitists. The text asserts that in the eyes of God:
:"cum non sit Pondus nec distinccio Judei et Greci, Scoti aut Anglici":("there is neither bias nor difference between Jew or Greek, Scot or English")
The first recorded Jew in
Edinburghwas one David Brown in 1691, shortly before the Union [http://www.ehcong.com/JewishHistory.htm] , who made an application to reside and trade in the city. [cite web |publisher=ehcong.com|title=Jewish history|url=http://www.ehcong.com/JewishHistory.htm]
The majority of Jewish immigration appears to have occurred post-industrialisation, and post-
1707, meaning that Jews in Scotland were subject to various anti-Jewish British laws. Oliver Cromwellreadmitted Jews to England, Cornwalland Walesin 1656, and would have had some influence over the Scottish situation. Scotland was under the jurisdiction of the Jew Bill, enacted in 1753, but repealed the next year.
The first graduate from the
University of Glasgowwho was openly-known to be Jewish was Levi Myers, in 1787. Unlike their English contemporaries, Scottish students were not required to take a religious oath.
In 1795, we learn of Herman Lyon, who bought a burial plot in Edinburgh. He was of German nationality originally, and was a
dentistand chiropodist. He had moved to Scotland in 1788. There is no trace of the burial plot on Calton Hilltoday, but it is marked on the Ordnance Survey map of 1852 as "Jew's Burial vault". [cite web |publisher=ehcong.com|title=Jewish history|url=http://www.ehcong.com/JewishHistory.htm]
The first Jewish congregation in Edinburgh was founded in 1816, and in Glasgow in 1823. [cite web |publisher=sefarad.org|title=Glascow|url=http://www.sefarad.org/publication/lm/022/glasgow.html] That of
Aberdeenwas founded in 1893. The Jewish cemeteryin Dundeeindicates that there has been a Jewish congregation in that city since the 19th century.
Asher Asher(1837–1889) was the first Scottish Jew to enter the medical profession. The only book he published was "The Jewish Rite of Circumcision" (1873).
By 1878, Jews became attached to the Scottish aristocracy when
Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery, one of the Rothschilds, born in England, married Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery. She died at Dalmeny. Her son, Harry, would become Secretary of State for Scotlandin 1945 for a year.
In order to avoid persecution in the
Russian Empire, Jews settled in the larger cities of the UK, including Scotland, most notably in Glasgow(especially the Gorbals), although there were smaller populations in Edinburghand to a lesser extent, Dundee, Aberdeen, Greenockand Ayr. The Russian Jews tended to come from the west of the empire, especially the Baltic countries, and in particular Lithuania. It has been suggested that the Gorbals had a Jewish population of between 10,000 to 20,000, many decades ago although this has not been verified. [cite web |publisher=theglasgowstory.com|title=Glasgow story|url=http://www.theglasgowstory.com/story.php?id=TGSDC10]
20th and 21st centuries
Immigration continued into the 20th century, with over 8,000 Jews in 1905 [cite web |publisher=jewishencyclopedia|title=Scotland|url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=403&letter=S&search=scotland] The Scottish Jewish community was augmented in the mid-20th century by refugees from
Nazismand the Second World War.
Organised British anti-Semitism arose in the form of
British Union of Fascists, which met with limited success in Scotland. Oswald Mosleydid visit Scotland, but his group was physically attacked on Princes Street in Edinburgh by "Protestant Action", which believed his group to be an Italian (i.e. Roman Catholic) intrusion. In fact, it has been claimed that bigotry was diverted away from Jews by anti-Catholicism, particularly in Glasgow, where the main racist and religious prejudice was against Irish people. [cite web |publisher=sundayherald|title=Prejudice|url=http://www.sundayherald.com/45344] The Englishness of many "British" hard-right movements also most-likely alienated many Scots who could have been potential converts. Perhaps the most prominent and vocal supporter of anti-Semitism was the eccentric aristocrat Archibald Maule Ramsay, but it is difficult to link him with any large Scottish tendency. In the Gorbals at least, both Louise Sless and Woolf Silver, recall no anti-Semitic sentiment. [cite web |publisher=sefarad.org|title=Glasgow|url=http://www.sefarad.org/publication/lm/022/glasgow.html]
According to the 2001 census, approximately 6,400 Jews live in Scotland, most of whom are in Edinburgh (about 1,000), Glasgow (about 5,000,)and to a lesser extent Dundee. Scotland's Jewish population continues to be predominantly urban. The
SSPCAcame into conflict with the Aberdeen congregation over slaughtering methods at the turn of the 20th century. As with Christianity, the practising Jewish population continues to fall, as many younger Jews either become secular, or intermarry with other faiths. Scottish Jews have also emigrated in large numbers to the USA, Englandand the Commonwealth for economic reasons, as other Scots have done. Only a handful have moved to IsraelFact|date=February 2007. Scotland currently has a strong Palestinian Solidarity campaign, led by the likes of George Galloway, which sometimes is the cause of some friction with Scottish Jews, particularly over fund-raising by the Jewish National Fundin the country.
In August 2006, protests against the invasion of
Lebanonby Israelled to their amateur cricketteam having to play behind barbed wireat RAF Lossiemouth.
Scots Yiddish is the name given to a Jewish hybrid vernacular between Lowland Scots and
Yiddishwhich had a brief currency in the Lowlands of Scotlandin the first half of the 20th century. The Scottish literary historian David Daichesdescribes it in his autobiographical account of his Edinburgh Jewish childhood, "Two Worlds":
:"Recently I received a letter from the son of the man who was stationmaster at one of the small railway stations where the earliest trebblers [Yiddish pronunciation of travellers, i.e. Jewish travelling salesmen] would alight; he told me how, at the very beginning of this century, these Jewish immigrants, not yet knowing any English, would converse with his father, they talking in Yiddish and he in broad Scots, with perfectly adequate mutual intelligibility. Scots-Yiddish as a working language must have been developing rapidly in the years immediately preceding the first World War. It must have been one of the most short-lived languages in the world. I should guess that 1912 to 1914 was the period of its flourishing. The younger generation, who grew up in the 1920s and 1930s, of course did not speak it, though they knew Yiddish; and while there is an occasional old man in Edinburgh who speaks it today, one has to seek it out in order to find it, and in another decade it will be gone for ever. ‘Aye man, ich hob’ getrebbelt mit de five o’clock train,’ one trebbler would say to another. ‘Vot time’s yer barmitzvie, laddie?’ I was once asked. ‘Ye’ll hae a drap o’ bamfen (whisky). It’s Dzon Beck. Ye ken: “Nem a schmeck fun Dzon Beck.”’ (‘Take a peg of John Begg’, the advertising slogan of
John Beggwhisky.) [David Daiches, "Two Worlds", 1956, Cannnongate edition 1987, ISBN 0-86241-148-3, p. 119f.] Daiches explores the social stratification of Edinburgh Jewish society in the interwar period, noting what is effectively a class divide between two parts of the community, on the one hand a highly educated and well-integrated group who sought a synthesis of Orthodox Rabbinical and Modern Secular thinking, on the other a Yiddish-speaking group most comfortable maintaining the lifestyle of the Eastern European ghetto. The Yiddish population grew up in Scotland in the 19th century, but by the late 20th century had mostly switched to using English. The creolisation of Yiddishwith Scotswas therefore a phenomenon of the middle part of this period.
The Glaswegian Jewish poet
A. C. Jacobsalso refers to his language as Scots-Yiddish. [Mario Relich, "The Strange Case of A. C. Jacobs" [http://www.star.ac.uk/darkhorse/archive/RelichOnA_C_Jacobs.pdf online] .]
List of Scottish Jews
Scottish people of some Jewish background, or Jewish people with a Scottish background:
Ronni Ancona(Sephardi), comedienne (" Jewish Chronicle", 28/09/2005, "Diary" p.66, "Could there a hint of racial stereotyping in the Almeida's decision to cast two Jewish actors — Ronni Ancona and Henry Goodman — in its upcoming production of The Hypochondriac?")
Hazel Cosgrove, Lady Cosgrove[cite web |publisher=culham.ac.uk|title=Feature article|url=http://www.culham.ac.uk/tvr/Feature/f980917_rh.html] first female Court of Session judge
Ivor Cutler, musician, teacher and comedian
Monty Finniston, industrialist
Myer Galpern, Lord Provost of Glasgow; MP
Muriel Gray[http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/people/famousfirst1146.html] , Author, 'The Tube' presenter.
Jeremy Isaacs, broadcaster
Mark Knopfler, guitarist and vocalist (Glasgow born_)
Kevin MacDonald (director), "Touching the Void"
Andrea McLean, GMTVPresenter (ethnically Russian-Jewish family who converted to Christianity)
Malcolm Rifkind, politician
Jerry Sadowitz, controversial comedian and conjurer
Manny Shinwell, politician
Muriel Spark, novelist (Jewish father; mother Anglican but Muriel Spark's son says that she had Jewish parents; converted to Catholicism later in life)
Harry Woolf, Baron Woolf, judge, brought up and educated in Scotland
Sophie Waldie, Miracle worker
People of Scottish-Jewish extraction
Alicia Silverstone, American actress, Scottish born Jewish parents (mother a convert).
Robert Downey, Jr.
Oscar Hammerstein II
Country Joe McDonald
In Popular Culture
* The Credit Draper - A novel by J.David Simons. A fictional account of a young Russian-Jewish refugee named Avram Escovitz growing up in the Gorbals in Glasgow before going to work as a credit draper in the Highlands.
* The Fabulous Bagel Boys - A one off
BBCtelevision drama set in Glasgow's Jewish community originally intended to be a series after a luke warm reception it was not picked up. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0381174/]
* Collins, Dr. KE - "Scotland's Jews - A Guide to the History and Community of the Jews in Scotland" (1999)
* Conn, A (editor) - "Serving Their Country- Wartime Memories of Scottish Jews" (2002)
* Kaplan, H L - "Jewish Cemeteries in Scotland" in Avotaynu, Vol.VII No 4, Winter 1991
* Levy, A - "The Origins of Scottish Jewry"
* Phillips, Abel - "A History of the Origins of the First Jewish Community in Scotland: Edinburgh, 1816" (1979)
cottish Jewish autobiography
* Daiches, David - "Two Worlds - An Edinburgh Jewish Childhood"
* Shinwell, Manny - "Conflict Without Malice" (1955)
History of the Jews in Ireland
History of the Jews in Wales
History of the Jews in England
List of British Jews
Andrew B. Davidson
* [http://www.dinur.org/1.html?rsID=219 The Jewish History Resource Center] Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Scotland.html The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Scotland]
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=403&letter=S&search=scotland Jewish Encyclopedia on Scotland]
* [http://www.ehcong.com/JewishHistory.htm Edinburgh Hebrew Congregation]
* [http://www.camdenassociates.com/sjac/ Scottish Jewish Archives Centre]
Jewish Year Book(JYB)
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