Automatic vehicle location
Automatic vehicle locating or AVL is a concept for determining the geographic location of a vehicle and transmitting this information to a point from where it was requested. Telelocating using location-based services is a common term in the European Union. However, the concept does not apply only with wireless communication services based on terrestric illumination, as e.g. with GSM. Alternatively automatic vehicle locating may be implemented using active RFID or RTLS.
Most commonly, the location is determined using GPS, and the transmission mechanism is a satellite, terrestrial radio or cellular connection from the vehicle to a radio receiver, satellite or nearby cell tower. Other options for determining actual location, for example in environments where GPS illumination is poor, are
dead reckoning, i.e. inertial navigation, or active RFIDsystems or cooperative RTLSsystems. With advantage, combinations of these systems may be applied.
After capture, the tracking data is transmitted using any choice of
telemetryor wireless communicationssystems. GSMand EVDO are the most common services applied. Because of the low data rate needed for AVL, and the low cost and near-ubiquitous nature of these public networks. The low bandwidth requirements also allow for satellite technology to receive telemetry data at a moderately higher cost, but across a global coverage area and into very remote locations not covered well by terrestrial radio or public carriers. One system description discloses that locations are polled every thirty seconds. [Thirty second reference only is from http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov//JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13589.html Assessment of the Denver RegionalTransportation District's AutomaticVehicle Location System, US Department of Transportation.]
Application with vehicles
Automatic vehicle locating is a powerful concept for managing fleets of vehicles, as service vehicles, emergency vehicles, and especially precious construction equipment, also
public transportvehicles (buses and trains). It is also used to track mobile assets, such as non wheeled construction equipment, non motorized trailers, and mobile power generators.
Application with vehicle drivers and crews
The otherpurpose of tracking is to provide graded service or to manage a large driver and crewing staff effectively. For example, suppose an ambulance fleet has an objective of arriving at the location of a call for service within six minutes of receiving the request. Using an AVL system allows to evaluate the locations of all vehicles in service with driver and other crew in order to pick the vehicle that will most likely arrive at the destination fastest, (meeting the service objective). [One definition of AVL exists in, "Glossary," "Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Interoperability Needs Assessment," Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona, 2004, pp. 165.]
Types of systems
A typical AVL system would use terrestrial wireless communications already installed and then communicates simultaneously the locations of a vehicle to the manager of a fleet of vehicles.
Simple direction finding
Amateur radioand some cellular or PCSwireless systems use direction finding or triangulation of transmitter signals radiated by the mobile. This is sometimes called radio direction finding or RDF. The simplest forms of these systems calculate the bearing from two fixed sites to the mobile. This creates a triangle with endpoints at the two fixed points and the mobile. Trigonometry tells you roughly where the mobile transmitter is located. In wireless telephone systems, the phones transmit continually when off-hook, making continual tracking and the collection of many location samples possible. This is one type of location system required by Federal Communications CommissionRules for wireless Enhanced 911.
Former LORAN-based locating
Motorola offered a 1970s-era system based on the
United States Coast Guard LORANmaritime navigation system. The LORAN system was intended for ships but signal levels on the US east- and west-coast areas were adequate for use with receivers in automobiles. The system may have been marketed under the Motorola model name "Metricom". It consisted of an LFLORAN receiver and data interface box/modem connected to a separate two-way radio. The receiver and interface calculated a latitude and longitude in degrees, decimal degrees format based on the LORAN signals. This was sent over the radio as MDC-1200or MDC-4800 data to a system controller, which plotted the mobile's approximate location on a map. The system worked reliably but sometimes had problems with electrical noisein urban areas. Sparking electric trolleysor industrial plants which radiated electrical noise sometime overwhelmed the LORAN signals, affecting the system's ability to determine the mobile's geolocation. Because of the limited resolution, this type of system was impractical for small communities or operational areas such as a pit mine or port.
To track and locate vehicles along fixed routes, a technology called Signpost transmitters is employed. This is used on transit routes and rail lines where the vehicles to be tracked continually operated on the same linear route. A
transponderor RFID chip along the vehicle route would be polled as the train or bus traverses its route. As each transponder was passed, the moving vehicle would query and receive an ack, or handshake, from the signpost transmitter. A transmitter on the mobile would report passing the signpost to a system controller. This allows supervision, a call center, or a dispatch center to monitor the progress of the vehicle and assess whether or not the vehicle was "on schedule". These systems are an alternative inside tunnels or other conveyances where GPS signals are blocked by terrain. [For an example of one US signpost system, see its service manual: "T1919A Metrocom II 150.8-174 MHz Vehicle Location Receiver", (Schaumburg, Illinois: Motorola Communications and Electronics, 1979).]
Todays GPS-based locating
The low price and ubiquity of Global Positioning System or GPS equipment has lent itself to more accurate and reliable telelocation systems. GPS signals are impervious to most electrical noise sources and don't require the user to install an entire system. Only a receiver to collect signals from the satellite segment is installed in each vehicle and a radio to communicate the collected location data with a dispatch point.
Large private telelocation or AVL systems send data from GPS receivers in vehicles to a dispatch center over their private, user-owned radio backbone. These systems are used for businesses like parcel delivery and ambulances. Smaller systems which don't justify building a separate radio system use cellular or PCS data services to communicate location data from vehicles to their dispatching center. Location data is periodically polled from each vehicle in a fleet by a central controller or computer. In the simplest systems, data from the GPS receiver is displayed on a map allowing humans to determine the location of each vehicle. More complex systems feed the data into a computer assisted dispatch system which automates the process. For example, the computer assisted dispatch system may check the location of a call for service and then pick a list of the four closest ambulances. This narrows the dispatcher's choice from the entire fleet to an easier choice of four vehicles.
Some wireless carriers such as Nextel have decided GPS was the best way to provide the mandated location data for wireless Enhanced 9-1-1. Newer Nextel radios have embedded GPS receivers which are polled if 9-1-1 is dialed. The 9-1-1 center is provided with latitude and longitude from the radio's GPS receiver. In centers with
computer assisted dispatch, the system may assign an address to the call based on these coordinates or may project an icon depicting the caller's location onto a map of the area.
The main purpose of using AVL is not only to locate the vehicles, but also to obtain information about engine data, fuel consumption, driver data and sensor data from i.e. doors, freezer room on trucks or air pressure. Such data can be obtained via the
CAN-bus, via direct connections to AVL systems or via open bus systems such as UFDEXthat both sends and receives data via SMSor GPRSin pure ASCIItext format. Because most AVL consists of two parts, GPSand GSMmodem with additional embedded AVL software contained in a microcontroller, most AVL systems are fixed for its purposes unless they connect to an open bus system for expansion possibilities.
With an open bus system the users can send invoices based on goods delivered with exact location, time and date data where if connected to scale,
RFIDor barcode readers, can make a fairly good automated system to avoid human errors.
Another scenario for sensor functions is to connect the AVL to driver information, to collect data about driving time, stops, or even driver absence from the vehicle. If the driver/worker conditions is such as the hourly rates for driving and working outside is not the same, this can be monitored by sensors. [needs clarification]
Special applications of automatic vehicle locating
Vehicle location technologies can be used in the following scenarios:
* Stolen vehicle recovery: both consumer and commercial vehicles can be outfitted with RF or GPS units to allow police to do tracking and recovery. Some units allow the police to activate the tracking unit in the vehicle directly and follow tracking signals.
Fleet management: when managing a fleet of vehicles, knowing the real-time location of all drivers allows management to meet customer needs more efficiently. Vehicle location information can also be used to verify that legal requirements are being met: for example, that drivers are taking rest breaks and obeying speed limits.
* Passenger Information: Real-time Passenger information systems use predictions based on AVL input to show the expected arrival and departure times of
Asset tracking: companies needing to track valuable assets for insurance or other monitoring purposes can now plot the real-time asset location on a map and closely monitor movement and operating status. For example, haulage and logistics companies often operate lorries with detachable load carrying units. In this case, trailers can be tracked independently of the cabs used to drive them. Combining vehicle location with inventory management that can be used to reconcile which item is currently on which vehicle can be used to identify physical location down to the level of individual packages.
* Field worker management: companies with a field service or sales workforce can use information from vehicle tracking systems to plan field workers' time, schedule subsequent customer visits and be able to operate these departments efficiently.
* Covert surveillance: vehicle location devices attached covertly by law enforcement or espionage organizations can be used to track journeys made by individuals who are under surveillance
Automatic number plate recognition
Intelligent transportation system
Mobile phone tracking
NextBus, an implementation used for public transportation systems
OnStar, vehicle manufacturer implemented tracking systems.
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration
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