Television New Zealand
network_name = Television New Zealand (TVNZ)
Te Reo Tātaki
network_type = Broadcast television
country = flagicon|NZL
available = Nationally (New Zealand) and some
Pacific Islandnations such as the Cook Islands, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands.
founded = 1980
slogan = "Our nation. Our voice."
"He tau tangata. He reo tātaki."
Rick Ellis, Chief Executive Officer
website = [http://www.tvnz.co.nz/ tvnz.co.nz] |
Television New Zealand (TVNZ) is a state-owned television broadcasting corporation in
TVNZ was established in 1980, through the
mergerof Television One and TV2 (formerly South Pacific Television). Until 1988 it was paired with Radio New Zealandas the Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand (BCNZ).
Approximately 90% of TVNZ's
revenueis from commercial activity (such as advertisingand merchandising). The remainder of its fundingcomes from governmentfunding agencies.
The Labour-led governments since 1999 have pursued a programme of public broadcasting reforms. New Zealand’s wide-ranging adoption of
neoliberalpolicies in the mid-1980s and 1990s had large sections of the state sector privatised. As a state owned enterprise, TVNZ enjoyed enormous commercial success (sustaining two thirds of the overall audience share) and paid the Crown substantial dividends (over $250 million between 1989 and 1999). However, the commercial success had been achieved through an unabashed pursuit of ratings through populist and tabloidcontent, and prior to the 1999 election the National-led government was evidently positioning TVNZ for privatisation Labour-led administrations since 1999 explicitly recognised the market failures of a wholly commercial broadcasting sector (e.g. saturation-level advertising, low levels of local content, heavy reliance on cheap imports and a disregard for quality genres and in-depth news and current affairs) and re-emphasised television’s cultural and democratic functions in their policy thinking.
The government’s highest profile broadcasting reform to date was the restructuring of TVNZ as a Crown Entity in 2003. This introduced a dual remit whereby the broadcaster had to maintain its commercial performance (continuing dividend payments to the Crown) while simultaneously implementing a new public service Charter.
The TVNZ Charter would require the negotiation and reconciliation of potentially contradictory commercial and public service imperatives. The final version of the TVNZ Charter included a range of public service objectives and expectations.
However, this dual remit precluded any transformation of TVNZ into fully-fledged public service broadcaster, and TVNZ’s efforts to balance its pursuit of commercial performance and Charter objectives were soon being criticised. Despite some investment in local content, including new documentaries and discussion programmes, the content on TV One and TV2 remained similar to the pre-charter schedules, with a continuing high proportion of light entertainment and
This was because TVNZ's dual remit required it to continue paying dividends to the Crown, and although TVNZ now receives a modest subsidy towards implementing the Charter, the former has thus far exceeded the latter. The government has proposed a Programme of Action for broadcasting which would review the funding system.
There is much debate on the future of TVNZ, which focuses on the nature of public service broadcasting and its commercial role. An example was in a memo called "A More Public Broadcaster" [http://www.thebigidea.co.nz/print.php?sid=3092] written by outgoing
Chief ExecutiveIan Fraser to the board of TVNZ in October 2005, was obtained and released by Green MP Sue Kedgley. The memo outlined three options
* TV One as a fully non-commercial network, like ABC in Australia, charged with delivering Charter values, and possibly merging with
Radio New Zealandand Maori Television
* TV One a semi-commercial broadcaster with no more than six minutes of advertisements an hour like SBS in Australia
* TV One and TV2 remaining unchanged, but two new public service channels being broadcast via digital television. [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=1&ObjectID=10359765]
15 February 2006, a group of 31 prominent New Zealanders signed an open letter [http://media.apn.co.nz/webcontent/document/pdf/tvnz.pdf] , published as a full-page newspaper advertisement, calling for better quality programmes and less advertising on TVNZ. These included mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary, and former Governors-General Sir Michael Hardie Boys and Dame Catherine Tizard. However, they were accused of being out of touch and nostalgic for local programmmes from the 1970s, when New Zealand had only one or two TV channels.
While the Broadcasting Minister,
Steve Mahareyruled out turning TVNZ into an entirely non-commercial broadcaster, on 25 February, he stated that the Labour Government was "pretty much settled" on the introduction of two new free-to-air, non-commercial channels available via digital television. One channel could show high-end international documentaries, re-runs of "One News" and minority programmes with a high local content, and another, primarily for children, screening serious drama and arts at night. [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/search/story.cfm?storyid=0008B228-EB44-13FE-A33883027AF1023D]
November 14 2006, TVNZ announced plans to launch two commercial-free digital channels. The first, with the working title TVNZ News 24, would feature news, sport and special interest content, and be launched in late 2007. This would be followed by a channel featuring children's, families', arts and documentary programming, with the working title of TVNZ Home, in early 2008. [http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/BU0611/S00272.htm] While 80 per cent of the programming would be local content, 70 per cent of this would consist of repeats from TVNZ's existing channels or its archive.
The proposal was criticised by TV3, which accused the Government of "bailing out" TVNZ and argued that the money would be better spent on new programming [http://www.newswire.co.nz/main/viewstory.aspx?storyid=346453&catid=17] Although Sue Kedgely welcomed the decision to make the channels (including children's programming) commercial-free, she accused the Government of tight-fistedness. [http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0611/S00253.htm]
TV One is targeted at an older audience compared to other major television channels in New Zealand. It has a broad range of programming including
ONE Newsand Current Affairs and ONE Sport, with overnight news coverage provided with BBC World News.
The channel also has rights to screen sporting events live such as the Olympics (until
2008), the Commonwealth Gamesand the America's Cup. A notable exception is All Blackstest matches, where they were out-bid by TV3.
TV2 targets a younger audience than TV One. TV2's line up consists of dramas, sitcoms, and reality shows, most of which are produced in New Zealand or imported from the United States.
Locally-produced content includes: "
Shortland Street" and " Mitre 10 Dream Home", and international shows (which are predominantly American) include: Lost, Grey's Anatomy, Desperate Housewivesand Ugly Betty.
TVNZ 6 is TVNZ's first digital-only television channel. It is commercial-free, and currently is available on the Freeview platform.
TVNZ 6 broadcasts three distinct services. TVNZ Kidzone screens preschool programming between 6:00 am and 4:00 pm; TVNZ Family screens family-orientated programming between 4:00 pm and 8:30 pm; and TVNZ Showcase screens arts and drama programming between 8:30 pm and midnight.
TVNZ 7, launched in March 2008, is a commercial-free 24-hour news and information channel. It is available only via the Freeview digital television platform.
TVNZ Sport Extra
Occasional long form sport coverage.
Only available on the Freeview platform.
[http://tvnzondemand.co.nz TVNZ ondemand] is Television New Zealand's online television viewing and downloading website, launched in March 2007. Although the content on this site is only available from within New Zealand, a selection is made available to an international audience via http://youtube.com/TVNewZealand.
Internationally, TVNZ has helped provide television services in Pacific Island nations such as the
Cook Islands, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands. While TVNZ provides much of the programming, scheduling and continuity are done locally.
Because of its history TVNZ has inherited and developed its own services in the production and broadcasting services area. These include The New Zealand Television Archive, production facilities, television school.
TVNZ also operated the website nzoom.com for a number of years. The site was an internet portal with news purchased from
Radio New Zealandits own content and also content produced by its own staff. It was rebranded in 2004 as [http://tvnz.co.nz tvnz.co.nz] .
Between 1995 and 1997, TVNZ operated a network of regional TV stations under the '
Horizon Pacific' name and through a subsidiary called Horizon Pacific Television. Its broadcasted content included BBC Worldand NZ documentary programming. The network consisted of newly formed stations in Hamilton, Wellingtonand Dunedinand CTV, a station they purchased based in Christchurch. CTV is still broadcasting, but is no longer owned by TVNZ.
Horizon Pacific was replaced by a local 'free to air' version of the music video channel
MTV, based on MTV's UK service and local programming, although the channel was dropped in 1998. Prior to MTV's demise, TVNZ had bought the channel's competitor, " MaxTV". [Cardno, James. [http://www.listener.co.nz/default,754.sm History never repeats] " New Zealand Listener". September 27- October 3, 2003Vol 190 No 3307 ]
TVNZ also operated a satellite services division organising and downlink facilities and across the globe, but this service was wound down in 2005.
New Zealand uses
PALB (7MHz channel spacing) on VHF, and PALG (8MHz channel spacing) on UHF.
Australiaalso uses PAL B on VHF, the frequency allocations of NZ differ somewhat from Australia.
* Australia uses PAL B (7MHz channel spacing) for UHF, so most UHF channels are on different frequencies.
* For stereo sound New Zealand uses
NICAM, but Australia uses Zweiton
* Because of these differences, some
AustralianTV sets (when taken to NZ) are only be capable of mono sound reproduction, and many VHF channels may not be received (properly) or come in at all.
* TVNZ (for historical and technical reasons) uses the greatest number of
VHFfrequencies in New Zealand.
New Zealand has a near nationwide implementation of
NICAMstereo sound for TV One and TV2. NICAM stereo was first made available on TV2 in the Aucklandregion in 1989, also during the early 1990s Simulated Stereowas available in Wellingtonon TV2. NICAM stereo was not rolled out to the rest of the country or onto TV One until 1996 and for some regions (such as Southland) NICAM was not available until 2001. Rival networks TV3 has offered NICAM stereo in all available regions since its launch in 1989 this is also the case with Prime TV. Stereo sound is available on TV One and TV2 if accessed through Sky Digital.
TVNZ will be beginning HDTV transmissions in time for the 2008 Olympic Games with TV One and TV2 both to be transmitted in 720p format.
Kordia, formerly BCL, TVNZ's transmission partner
TVNZ's broadcast network is operated by
Kordia, formerly a subsidiary of TVNZ known as "Broadcast Communications Limited" until 2006. The company owns and operates the terrestrial transmission network used for broadcast of all major terrestrial television networks in New Zealand, including TV3 and Prime Television - TVNZ's major competitors, along with other voice and data telecommunications services.
Along with TV3 both of TVNZ's current television networks TV1 and TV2 are fed as distinct feeds to viewers based on defined regions though this is only for the purpose of targeted regional advertising as the company discontinued regional news programming in the late 1980s. TVNZ's predecessor,
NZBCstarted as distinct stations in the major metropolitan centres. Nationwide networked services were first introduced in 1969 to broadcast a tape of the moon landing flown specially from Australia simultaneously across all stations. TVNZ also used to run Telethons up until 1990 at locations around the country, viewers would be shown full coverage of the Telethon nearest their location. Originally when TVNZ began broadcasting TV1 and TV2 on Sky Digital at the end of 2001 viewers would see only nationwide or Auckland advertisements when watching these channels through the Sky Digital service. In 2004 this was changed to show advertisements from either Auckland, Wellington or Christchurch with viewers outside of these regions seeing advertisements from the closest region. This was again dropped in March 2007 with a return to only nationwide advertising on TVNZ channels on Sky Digital.
TV One, TV2, TVNZ 6 and TVNZ Sport Extra are available "in the clear" over
DVB-Son Optus D1. A SKY set-top box is not required, any satellite set-top box or tuner will work."
TVNZ's functions are subject to "
lifeline utilityrequirements" under NZ civil defence legislation. In practice, this status as a lifeline utility requires TVNZ to be able to function at least to a reduced level after an emergency, and to provide advice to civil defence authorities when requested.
TVNZ has used three logos throughout its history.
New Zealand shows:
Public broadcasting in New Zealand
Australasian TV frequencies
List of New Zealand television channels
* [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=1&ObjectID=10359765 Chief outlines 'major problem at TVNZ] The New Zealand Herald,
December 132005, retrieved January 3, 2006.
*TVNZ Annual Report for 2005 [http://images.tvnz.co.nz/tvnz/pdf/tvnz_annual_report_2005.pdf] Retrieved
January 3, 2006
* TVNZ Charter 2003 [http://corporate.tvnz.co.nz/tvnz_detail/0,2406,111535-244-257,00.html] Retrieved
January 4, 2006
*TVNZ Corporate Brochure 2005 [http://images.tvnz.co.nz/tvnz/pdf/tvnz_corp_brochure.pdf] Retrieved
January 3, 2006
* [http://www.tvnz.co.nz Official Site]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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