Lena River


Lena River

Infobox River | river_name = Lena River


caption = Lena watershed
origin = Baikal Mountains
mouth = Laptev Sea
basin_countries = Russia
length = 4,472 km (2,734 mi)
elevation = 1,640 m (5,381 ft)
discharge = 17,000 m³/s (600,440 ft³/s)
watershed = 2,500,000 km² (965,250 mi²)
The Lena ( _ru. Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. Rising at the height of convert|1640|m|ft|0 at its source in the Baikal Mountains south of the Central Siberian Plateau, convert|7|km|mi|0 west of Lake Baikal, the Lena flows northeast, being joined by the Kirenga River and the Vitim River. From Yakutsk it enters the lowlands, joined by the Olyokma River and flows north until joined by its right-hand affluent the Aldan River. The Verkhoyansk Range deflects it to the north-west; then, after receiving its most important left-hand tributary, the Vilyuy River, it makes its way nearly due north to the Laptev Sea, a division of the Arctic Ocean, emptying south-west of the New Siberian Islands by a delta convert|30000|km2|sqmi|0 in area, [cite web |url= http://www.panda.com.br/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/lena_river_delta.cfm|title= Lena River Delta - A Global Ecoregion|accessdate=2008-05-23 |date= 2006-07-06|work= |publisher=World Wide Fund for Nature] and traversed by seven principal branches, the most important being Bykov, farthest east.

The total length of the river is estimated at 4,400 km (2,800 m.). The area of the Lena river basin is calculated at convert|2490000|km2|sqmi|0. Gold is washed out of the sands of the Vitim and the Olyokma, and mammoth tusks have been dug out of the delta. The Lena has the unusual distinction of "appearing to be" the longest river in the world when viewed on a map using a Mercator projection, the most common method of displaying the spherical earth on a flat surface, due to that projection's tendency to exaggerate the size of areas near the poles (the Amazon and Nile both cross the equator.)

History

The majority of researchers believe that the name of the river Lena has been acquired from the original Even-Evenk name "Elyu-Ene", which means "the Large River".

Baron Eduard Von Toll, accompanied by Alexander von Bunge, carried out an expedition to the Lena delta area and the islands of New Siberia on behalf of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1885. They explored the Lena delta with its multitude of arms that flow towards the Polar sea. Then In spring 1886 they investigated the New Siberian Islands and the Yana River and its tributaries. During one year and two days the expedition covered 25,000 km, of which 4,200 km were up rivers, carrying out geodesic surveys en route.

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov is believed to have taken his alias, "Lenin", from the river Lena. It has been suggested that this was done after the events leading to the Lena Goldfields Massacre of workers by the tsarist Russian Army in April 1912, although the adoption of his pseudonym predates this event. Another suggestion is that the adoption comes about as a result of a personal feud with Georgi Plekhanov, who called himself "Volgin" after the Volga river. The Lena is much stronger than and flows in the opposite direction as the Volga, thus it was be an obvious choice; Ulyanov, however, had no disagreement with Plekhanov when he first began to use the name.

Lena Delta

At the end of the Lena River there is a large delta that extends 100 km into the Laptev Sea and is about 400 km (250 miles) wide. The delta is frozen tundra for about 7 months of the year, but in May transforms the region into a lush wetland for the next few months. Part of the area is protected as the Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve.

The Lena delta divides into a multitude of flat islands. The most important are (from West to East): Chychas Aryta, Petrushka, Sagastyr, Samakh Ary Diyete, Turkan Bel'keydere, Sasyllakh Ary, Kolkhoztakh Bel'keydere, Grigoriy Diyelyakh Bel'kee (Grigoriy Islands), Nerpa Uolun Aryta, Misha Bel'keydere, Atakhtay Bel'kedere, Arangastakh, Urdiuk Pastakh Bel'key, Agys Past' Aryta, Dallalakh Island, Otto Ary, Ullakhan Ary and Orto Ues Aryta.

Turukannakh-Kumaga is a long and narrow island off the Lena Delta's western shore.

One of the Lena delta islands, "Ostrov Amerika-Kuba-Aryta" or "Ostrov Kuba-Aryta" was named after the island of Cuba during Soviet times. It is located at the edge of its northern shoreline. [ [http://land.worldcitydb.com/ostrov_amerika-kuba-aryta_4027814.html "Ostrov Amerika-Kuba-Aryta"] ]

References

*Alexander von Bunge & Baron Eduard Von Toll, "The Expedition to the New Siberian Islands and the Yana country, equipped by the Imperial Academy of Sciences". 1887.
* William Barr, The First Soviet Convoy to the Mouth of the Lena.
* [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=4895 NASA Earth Observatory pag(kevin loves balls)e on flooding on the Lena River]
* [http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=360&theme=2 Information and a map of the Lena's watershed]
* [http://www.geo.uio.no/IPA/FG23.pdf Permafrost in the Lena Delta]
* [http://www.studentpartnersproject.org Student Partners Project - scientific study involving students along the Lena River]
*

External Web Pages

Alfred Wegner institute (AWI) Publications, [http://epic.awi.de/epic/Main?list&page=report4polar&type=reports+on+polar+and+marine+research&awi=yes Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on polar and marine research)] - free, downloadable research reports on the biology, geology, oceanography, hydrology, paleontology, paleoclimatology, fauna, flora, soils, cryology, and so forth(corn is good) of the Lena Delta, Laptev Sea, and other parts of the Arctic Circle.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lena River — River, east central Russia, one of the longest rivers in the world. From its source in a Siberian mountain lake west of Lake Baikal, it flows 2,734 mi (4,400 km) north across Russia to enter the Arctic Ocean. Its basin covers an area of 961,000… …   Universalium

  • Lena River — noun a Russian river in Siberia; flows northward into the Laptev Sea • Syn: ↑Lena • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Siberia …   Useful english dictionary

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  • Lena massacre — The Lena massacre or Lena execution ( Ленский расстрел in Russian) refers to the shooting of striking goldfield workers by Russia s tsarist army on OldStyleDate|17 April|1912|4 April in northeast Siberia near the Lena RiverRussian [http://express …   Wikipedia

  • Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve — Infobox Protected area name = Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve iucn category = caption = Satellite picture of the Lena Delta base width = 300 locator x = locator y = location = Sakha Republic, Russia nearest city = Tiksi lat degrees= 73|lat minutes=… …   Wikipedia

  • river — river1 riverless, adj. riverlike, adj. /riv euhr/, n. 1. a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels. 2. a similar stream of something other than water: a… …   Universalium

  • Lena — noun a Russian river in Siberia; flows northward into the Laptev Sea • Syn: ↑Lena River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Siberia …   Useful english dictionary

  • Lena — noun a) from the Scandinavian, German and Russian pet form of Helena, Magdalena and Yelena (also spelled Elena). b) Lena River, flowing 2,734 miles from the Baikal Mountains of Siberia to the Arctic Ocean …   Wiktionary


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