Familial renal disease in animals
Familial renal disease in animals is an uncommon cause of
renal failure(kidney failure) in young dogs and cats. Most causes are breed-related (familial) and some are inherited. Some are congenital (present at birth). Renal dysplasia is a type of familial renal disease characterized by abnormal cellular differentiationof renal tissue. Dogs and cats with renal disease caused by these diseases have the typical symptoms of renal failure, including weight loss, loss of appetite, depression, and increased water consumption and urination. A list of familial renal diseases by dog and cat breeds is found below.
Familial renal disease in dogs
Basenjis can be affected by a type of renal tubule disease known as Fanconi syndrome. Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Fanconi syndrome is also found in humans. It can progress to renal failure. Basenjis are usually affected between the ages of one and five years.cite book|author=Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.|title=Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine|edition=4th ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|year=1995|id=ISBN 978-0-7216-6795-9] In the United States, 10 percent of Basenjis are found to have glycosuria. [cite journal |author=Bax H |title= [Inventory of Fanconi syndrome in Basenji dogs in The Netherlands] |journal=Tijdschr Diergeneeskd |volume=130 |issue=16 |pages=472–4 |year=2005 |pmid=16130757]
Beagles can be affected by glomerular amyloidosis, which is deposition of amyloidin the kidney. Findings include protein in the urine. It does progress to renal failure. Beagles are affected between the ages of five and eleven years. Beagles also can have familial polycystic kidney disease. [cite web | title = Renal Anomalies | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | date = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130202.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-25 ]
Bull Terriers can be affected by an inherited type of renal disease caused by basement membrane disease. Protein in the urine is a consistent finding. Bull Terriers are affected between the ages of one and eight years.
Cairn Terriers can be affected by polycystic kidney disease. Multiple small cysts are found in the kidneys. Cysts are present by the age of six weeks. It is inherited through a autosomal recessive mechanism.cite web | last = Giger | first = Urs | title = Diseases of the Kidneys | work = Proceedings of the 27th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | date = 2002 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2621 | accessdate = 2007-03-25 ]
Chow Chows can be affected by renal dysplasia that progresses to renal failure and secondary fibrous renal osteodystrophy, causing fractures and "rubber jaw".
Cocker Spaniels can be affected by glomerular disease before the age of four years. It does progress to renal failure. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. [cite journal |author=Lees G, Helman R, Homco L, Millichamp N, Hunter J, Frey M |title=Early diagnosis of familial nephropathy in English cocker spaniels |journal=J Am Anim Hosp Assoc |volume=34 |issue=3 |pages=189–95 |year=1998 |pmid=9590445]
Dobermanns can be affected by basement membrane disease of the kidneys that can progress to renal failure.
German Shepherd Dog
German Shepherd Dogs can be affected by multiple cystadenocarcinomas of the kidney. It is inherited and appears between the ages of five and eleven years. Blood in the urine is often seen. It is sometimes accompanied by nodules in the skin or multiple uterine leiomyomas.
Lhasa Apso and Shih Tzu
Lhasa Apsos and Shih Tzus can both be affected by renal dysplasia before the age of five years. It does progress to renal failure. It can be accompanied by fibrous osteodystrophy, caused by calciumabsorption from the bone. Signs include bone fractures and "rubber jaw".
Miniature Schnauzers can be affected by renal dysplasia before the age of five years. It does progress to renal failure.
Norwegian Elkhounds can be affected by renal tubule disease (Fanconi's syndrome) that does not progress to renal failure. A consistent finding is glucose in the urine.
Rottweilers can be affected by glomerular disease before the age of one year that does progress to renal failure. Findings include protein in the urine and high cholesterollevels in the blood.
Samoyeds can be affected by basement membrane disease of the kidneys. It is inherited through the
X chromosomeand therefore more severe in affected male dogs. Findings in male dogs include the presence of protein and glucose in the urine and the inability to concentrate urine, and progression to renal failure by the age of nine months and death by sixteen months. Affected female dogs have protein in the urine and a failure to gain a normal amount of weight, but are usually otherwise normal.
Shar Peis can be affected by glomerular amyloidosis which is caused by deposition of amyloid in the kidney and occurs secondary to Shar Pei fever. It progresses to renal failure by the age of six years.
Shih Tzus have a type of renal dysplasia characterized by persistence of the fetal glomeruli. The predominating signs are of chronic renal failure. Severely affected dogs only live for a few months. The mechanism of inheritance appears to be through an autosomal dominantgene with incomplete penetrance. [cite web | last = Bovee | first = Kenneth C. | title = Renal Dysplasia in Shih Tzu Dogs | work = Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | date = 2003 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2003&PID=6602&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-03-25 ]
oft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers can be affected by renal dysplasia that progresses to renal failure. It is usually seen by the age of three years.
Standard Poodles can be affected by renal dysplasia by the age of two years that progresses to renal failure. Secondary fibrous osteodystrophy can be seen.
Welsh Corgis can be affected by renal telangiectasiabetween the ages of five and thirteen years. It is characterized by red-black nodules in the kidneys. It can cause hydronephrosisand abdominal pain. It usually does not progress to renal failure.
Familial renal disease in cats
Abyssinians can be affected by glomerular
amyloidosis between the ages of one and five years. It progresses to renal failure. Findings include protein in the urine. It is inherited.
Persians can be affected by
polycystic kidney disease, characterized by small cysts in the kidneys. It is inherited through an autosomal dominantmechanism and can progress to kidney disease later in life.
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