Rhyton (plural rhyta) is the ancient Greek word (ῥυτόν "rutón") for a container from which fluids were intended to be drunk, or else poured in some ceremony such as
Name and function
The word is believed to be derived from Greek "rhein", "to flow", from Indo-European " [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE493.html *sreu-] ", "flow", and would thereby mean "pourer". Many vessels considered rhyta featured a wide mouth at the top and a hole through a conical constriction at the bottom from which the fluid ran. The idea is that one scooped wine or water from a storage vessel or similar source, held it up, unstoppered the hole with one's thumb, and let the fluid run into the mouth (or onto the ground in
libation) in the same way wine is drunk from a wineskintoday.
Smith points out that this use is testified in classical paintings and accepts
Athenaeus's etymology that it was named "apo tes rhyseos", "from the flowing". Smith also categorized the name as having been a recent form (in classical times) of a vessel formerly called the "keras", "horn", in the sense of a drinking horn. The word "rhyton" is not present in what is known of the oldest form of Greek, Mycenaean Greek, written in Linear B, but the bull's head rhyton, of which many instances survive, is mentioned in the inventory of vessels at Knossos, such as tablet 231 (K872), as "ke-ra-a" [Ventris & Chadwick, "Documents in Mycenaean Greek", 2nd Edition, Page 330.] , shown with the bull ideogram. The word is restored as an adjective, "*kera(h)a", with Mycenaean intervocalic "h".
It cannot be supposed that every drinking horn or libation vessel was pierced at the bottom, especially in the prehistoric phases of the form. The scoop function would have come first. Once the holes began, however, they invited zoomorphic interpretation and plastic decor in the forms of animal heads, with the fluid pouring from the spout as a mouth: bovids, equines, cervids, and even canines.
Rhyta occur among the remains of civilizations speaking different languages and language groups in and around the Near and Middle East, such as Persia from the second millennium BCE onwards. They are often shaped like an animal head or horn and can be very ornate and compounded with precious metals and stones. In Minoan Crete, silver and gold bulls' heads with round openings for the wine (permitting wine to pour from the bull's mouth) seemed particularly common, for several have been recovered from the great palaces (
Iraklion Archaeological Museum).
Not all rhyta were so valuable; many were simply decorated conical cups in ceramic.
Classical Athenian pottery, such as
red-figurevases, are decorated with painted themes typically from mythology. One standard theme depicts satyrs, which are ribald symbols, with rhyta and winekins. The horn-shaped rhyta are carefully woven in composition with the erect male organs of the satyrs, but this blatantly sexual and somewhat humorous theme appears to be a late development, in keeping with Athenian humor, as is expressed in the plays of Aristophanes. The ornate and precious rhyta of the great civilizations of earlier times are grandiose rather than ribald, which gives the democratic vase paintings an extra satirical dimension.
The connection of satyrs with wine and rhyta had been made earlier. In
Nonnos's epic "Dionysiaca," he describes the satyrs at the first discovery of wine-making::"...the fruit bubbled out red juice with white foam. They scooped it up with oxhorns, instead of cups which had not yet been seen, so that ever after the cup of mixed wine took this divine name of 'Winehorn'." ["Dionysiaca" XII 361-362.] Karl Kerenyi, in quoting this passage, [Kerenyi 1976 p 60] remarks, "At the core of this richly elaborated myth, in which the poet even recalls the rhyta, it is not easy to separate the Cretan elements from those originating in Asia Minor."
Silver Siege Rhyton
Pictures of rhyta::* [http://www.pix8.net/pro/pic/753Ki2ke/92776.jpgPhoto of a rhyton] :* [http://www.persiandna.com/images/rhyton.jpgAchaemenid Persian Lion Rhyton] :* [http://www.daedalus.gr/DAEI/THEME/B33.jpgRock-crystal Rhyton of Minoan Crete] :* [http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page1651.html Early Iranian Horse Rhyton] :* [http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/dlevine/Rhyton.jpgMinoan Bull-head Rhyton] :* [http://www.cimec.ro/Arheologie/gumelnita/foto/3/1/index.htm Prehistoric European Rhyta] :* [http://www.asianart.com/articles/heller/large/33_rhyton_det01.jpgTibetan Rhyton] :* [http://www.ceramicstudies.me.uk/hgrafs04/ch486ts.gifCretan-style Rhyton from Egypt] :* [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/image?lookup=Perseus:
] Articles on rhyta::* Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities", under " [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-dgra/1002.html Rhyton] ":* Karla Huebner, "A Minoan Vase from Zakros, Crete: The Sanctuary Rhyton", in [http://www.anistor.co.hol.gr/english/enback/p032.htm "ANISTORITON" Issue P032 of 7 June 2003]
*Kerenyi, Karl, "Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life" 1976.
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Rhyton — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Rhyton de oro del periodo aqueménida de Irán. Excavado en Ecbatana. Conservado en el Museo Nacional de Irán. Rhyton (plural rhyta) es la antigua palabra griega (ῥυτόν rutón) para un recipiente en el cual los fluidos… … Wikipedia Español
Rhyton — des Malers von Brüssel R 330, um 470/60 v. Chr. Als Rhyton (neutr.) bezeichnet man ein gewöhnlich einhenkeliges Gefäß zum Ausgießen von Trankopfern durch eine Öffnung im unteren Bereich. Einige Rhyta, die aus der kretominoischen Kultur… … Deutsch Wikipedia
rhyton — rhytón s. n. [rhy pron. ri ] Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic RHYTÓN s.n. v. riton. Trimis de LauraGellner, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DN RHYTÓN s. n. vas conic din metal sau ceramică, cu vârful curbat în forma unui corn de… … Dicționar Român
Rhyton — en or datant de l Empire achéménide découvert sur le site d Ecbatane et gardé au Musée national d Iran. Un rhyton, rython ou rhython (du grec rhein, couler) désigne un vase en terre cuite ou en métal mesurant environ 25 centimètres de hauteur qui … Wikipédia en Français
rhyton — [ ritɔn ] n. m. • 1829; du gr. rhuton « vase à boire », de rhein « couler » ♦ Archéol. Coupe en corne, ou en forme de corne ou de tête d animal, à laquelle on buvait en laissant couler le liquide vers le bas. ● rhyton nom masculin (grec rhuton,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Rhyton — [griechisch] das, s/...ta, ein Trink und Spendegefäß des Altertums, das in der Art eines Trichters einen engen Ausguss besitzt. Rhyta waren in unterschiedlichen Formen im Alten Orient sowie in der minoischen und mykenischen Kultur verbreitet.… … Universal-Lexikon
Rhyton — (gr. Ant.), Trinkgefäß, oben breit, unten spitz zulaufend, in der Gestalt eines Hornes. Aus dem untern Theile ließ man den Wein in den Mund fließen … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
rhyton — [rī′tän΄] n. [Gr, neut. of rhytos, flowing, akin to rheein, to flow: see STREAM] an ancient Greek cup shaped like a drinking horn and typically made in the form of an animal s head … English World dictionary
rhyton — /ruy ton/, n., pl. rhyta / teuh/. an ancient Greek drinking horn, made of pottery or metal, having a base in the form of the head of a woman or animal. [1840 50; < Gk rhytón, n. use of neut. of rhytós flowing, akin to rheîn to flow] * * * … Universalium
Rhyton — Rhy|ton das; s, ...ta <aus gleichbed. gr. rhytón zu rhytós »flüssig, fließend, strömend«> ein Trink u. Spendegefäß des Altertums, das in der Art eines Trichters einen engen Ausguss besitzt … Das große Fremdwörterbuch