7th century

The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.

Overview

During this century, the Eastern Empire continued suffering setbacks, which increased after the 630s, when the prophet Muhammad established the geographically Islamic state, and set the stage for the rapid expansion of the Arab Empire. Although life in the countryside deteriorated, Constantinople grew to become the largest and wealthiest city in the world. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world. It caused the Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 550 and 700. It also may have contributed to the success of the Arabs. [ [http://dpalm.med.uth.tmc.edu/courses/BT2003/BTstudents2003_files%5CPlague2003.htm The History of the Bubonic Plague] ]

In the Iberian Peninsula, the seventh century was the "Siglo de Concilios", that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo.

Events

* Islam begins in Arabia, the Qur'an is documented.
* The world's population shrinks to about 208 million people. [ [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20061129/news_lz1e29last.html The good and bad of a population drop] ]
* The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy emerges at the beginning of this century. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
* Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia (modern England)
* Xuan Zang (aka Hsuan-Tsang) traveled from China to India, before returning to Chang An in China to translate Buddhist scriptures.
* End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh.
* Croats and Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations, whilst Croats set up early states.
* Teotihuacan is sacked and burnt.
* The religion of Shugendo evolves from Buddhism, Taoism, Shinto and other influences in the mountains of Japan.
* The Bulgars arrive in the Balkans; establishment of the powerful Bulgarian Empire.
* Arab traders penetrate the area of Lake Chad.
* Earliest attested English poetry
* 600, Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.
* 603, last mention of the Roman Senate in Gregorian Register. It mentions that the senate acclaimed the statues of emperor Phocas and empress Leontia. [ [http://books.google.ru/books?id=tsE9AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA246&lpg=PA246&source=web&ots=M8dNV2lx_z&sig=P3PwGDB5ELF_rvkl28CBB5aiTQg&hl=ru Jeffrey Richards. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476-752] ]
* 606, Boniface elected papal successor on the death of Pope Sabinian. He sought and obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Apostle should be the head of all the Churches". This ensured that the title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to the Bishop of Rome.
* 610, Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows East Roman Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. His first major act is to change the official language of the East Roman Empire from Latin to Greek (already the language of the vast majority of the population)
* 615, The Sassanid Empire under Chosroes II sacks Jerusalem, taking away the relic of the True cross. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
* 616, Khosrau II of Persia invades Egypt. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
* 616, Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats the Welsh in a battle at Chester.
* 618, Tang Dynasty of China initiated by Li Yuan.
* 618, The Chenla kingdom completely absorbed Funan.
* Guangzhou, China, becomes a major international seaport, hosting maritime travelers from Egypt, East Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, Sri Lanka, and South East Asia, including Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Nestorian Christians.
* 622, Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, during which the Hijra occurs — Muhammad and his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September.
* 623, The Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, becomes the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe.
* 626, The Avars and the Persians jointly besiege but fail to capture Constantinople.
* 627, Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians, ending the Roman-Persian Wars.
* 629, The Byzantine-Arab Wars begin. Much of the Roman Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn al-Walid.
* 629-630, Emperor Taizong's campaign against Eastern Tujue, Chinese Tang Dynasty forces under commanders Li Jing and Li Shiji destroy the Göktürk Khanate.
* 632, The Muslim conquests begin.
* 636, Around this time the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah resulted in a decisive victory for Muslims in the Islamic conquest of Persia, the Persian Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas.
* 639, Muslim conquest of Egypt and Armenia
* 642, Library of Alexandria destroyed again
* 664, Conquest of Kabul by Muslims.
* 650, The Khazar-Arab Wars begin.
* 651, Emperor Yazdgerd III is murdered in Merv, ending the rule of Sassanid dynasty in Persia (Iran).
* 656661, The First Islamic civil war.
* 658, Two Chinese monks, Zhi Yu and Zhi You, reconstruct the 3rd century South Pointing Chariot mechanical compass-vehicle for Emperor Tenji of Japan.
* 661, Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib is assassinated. He is succeeded by Hasan ibn Ali as the Shia Imam and Muawiyah I as the Sunni Caliph. This was the foundation of the Umayyad caliphate. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
* 663, The Tang Dynasty of China and Korean Silla Kingdom gain victory against the Korean Baekje Kingdom and their Yamato Japanese allies in the naval Battle of Baekgang.
* 668, The end of the Goguryeo-Tang Wars, as Goguryeo fell to a joint attack by Tang China and Unified Silla of Korea, the latter of which held the Goguryeo domains.
* 670 In 670 an Arab Muslim army under Uqba ibn Nafi entered the region of Ifriqiya. Finally in the late 670s conquest of North Africa has been completed.
* 674, The first Arab siege of Constantinople begins.
* 677, Most of the Arab fleet is destroyed by Greek fire.
* 680, Battle of Karbala took place near Kufa which led to killing of Husayn ibn Ali and the division of Muslim community. The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria.
* 683685, The Second Islamic civil war.
* 688, Emperor Justinian II of the Byzantine Empire defeats the Bulgars.
* 694, Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accuses the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentences all Jews to slavery.
* 698, The Arabs capture Carthage from the Byzantine Empire, and destroy it completely.
* 700, The Mount Edziza volcanic complex erupts in northern British Columbia, Canada.

ignificant persons

* Muhammad (570632), final prophet of Islamic religion
* Abu Bakr, first caliph of Islam
* Umar, second caliph of Islam
* Uthman, third caliph of Islam
* Ali ibn Abi Talib (600661), cousin of Muhammad, fourth caliph of Islam, first Shi'a Imam
* Emperor Taizong of Tang (599649 AD), China
* Khalid ibn al-Walid ("The Sword of Allah") (592642), Muslim Arab military commander who defeats both the Roman and Persian empires in over eighty battles.
* AsparuhKhan of the Bulgars and founder of contemporary Bulgaria
* The Unknown Archont led the Serbs to the Balkans from the north
* Pacal the Great, ruler of Maya state of Palenque
* Aethelbert, King of Kent
* Antara Ibn Shaddad, Arab poet
* Augustine Eriugena, Irish scientist
* Li Shiji, Chinese general and later prime minister
* Brahmagupta, Indian mathematician
* Caedmon, English poet.
* Cenn Fáelad mac Aillila, Irish scholar, died 679
* Gregory the Great (Pope, 540604)
* Saint Cuthbert
* Heraclius — Warrior Emperor of Byzantium who won numerous victories against the Sassanids (Persians)
* Li Shiji, Chinese general and later prime minister
* Yeon Gaesomun, Generalissimo of Goguryeo
* Emperor Taizong of Tang China
* Pulakesi II, comes to power
* Isaac of Nineveh (d 700) Nestorian theologian
* Saint Asaph
* Dae Jo Yeong, founder of Balhae, a state in ancient Manchuria

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

* 650, The first Chinese Paper money is issued. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
* 670s, Greek fire invented in Constantinople.
* The stirrup introduced to Persia from China, late 7th century
* Earliest known record of the game Chatrang, predecessor to Chess
* After sailing from Ethiopia, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas brings the first Quran to China, and establishes the first Islamic mosque of China in Guangzhou in the 630s.
*The Xumi Pagoda in Zhengding, China is built in 636 AD.

Decades and years

References


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