- Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha (1760s-1849) was a
Māorichief and war leader of the Ngati Toatribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Companyand was a participant in the Wairau Affrayin Marlborough.
At some time around 1815, muskets became the weapon of choice and changed the character of tribal warfare. In 1819 Te Rauparaha joined with a large war party of
Ngā Puhiled by Tāmati Wāka Nene; they probably reached Cook Straitbefore turning back.
Over the next few years the intertribal fighting intensified, and by 1822 they were being forced out of their land around Kawhia. Led by Te Rauparaha they began a fighting retreat or migration southwards, one which ended with them controlling the southern part of the
North Islandand particularly Kapiti Island, which became the tribal stronghold. Attempts by various Southern Māori tribes to recover Kapiti Island in 1824 were decisively defeated.
Trade and further conquest
There were already numerous
Pākehā whalingstations in the area, and Te Rauparaha encouraged them, establishing a lucrative trade of supplies for muskets thereby increasing his manaand military strength. In 1827 he began the conquest of the South Island, and by the early 1830s he controlled most of the northern part of it.
In 1831 he took the major
Ngāi Tahu pāat Kaiapoiafter a three month siege [http://www.waimakariri.govt.nz/library/history_files/KaiapoiPa.pdf] [http://library.christchurch.org.nz/TiKoukaWhenua/Kaiapoi/] , and shortly after took Onawe pāin the Akaroaharbour, but these and other battles in the south were in the nature of revenge raids rather than for control of territory.
Planned European settlement
insisted that he do so (Oliver 2007).
Te Rauparaha soon became alarmed at the flood of British settlers and refused to sell any more of his land. This quickly led to tension and the upshot was the Wairau Affray when a party from Nelson tried to arrest Te Rauparaha and 22 of them were killed. The subsequent government enquiry exonerated Te Rauparaha which further angered the settlers who began a campaign to have the governor,
Capture and eventual death
Then in May 1846 fighting broke out in the Hutt Valley between the settlers and Te Rauparaha's nephew,
Te Rangihaeata. Despite his declared neutrality, Te Rauparaha was arrested, near a tribal village in what would later be called Plimmerton, by the Governor, George Grey, and held without trial before being exiled to Auckland. He was allowed to return to his people at Otaki in 1848, where he died the following year, 27 November 1849.
The most common
haka, or challenge, performed by the All Blacksand many other New Zealand sports teams before international matches is " Ka Mate" - composed by Te Rauparaha to celebrate his escape from death in a battle in the early 1800s.
*Oliver, Steven. 'Te Rauparaha ? - 1849'. "Dictionary of New Zealand Biography", updated 22 June 2007. URL: [http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/]
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