BAe 146


BAe 146

Infobox Aircraft
name= BAe 146 / Avro RJ
type=Airliner
manufacturers=British Aerospace BAE Systems


caption=Buzz BAe 146-300
designer=
first flight=1981-09-03
introduced=May 1983
retired=
status=Active service
primary user=
more users=
produced=1978-2003
number built=387 (Avro RJ: 166; BAe 146: 221)
unit cost=
variants with their own articles=

The BAe 146 is a medium-sized commercial aircraft which was manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace (which later became part of BAE Systems). Production ran from 1983 until 2002. Manufacture of the improved version known as the Avro RJ began in 1992. A further-improved version, the Avro RJX – with new engines – was announced in 1997, but only two prototypes and one production aircraft were built before production ceased in late 2001. With 387 aircraft produced, the Avro RJ/BAe 146 program is the second most successful British civil jet to date.

The BAe 146/Avro RJ carries its four turbofan jet engines on a high wing above the fuselage (not below, or at mid-fuselage, as on most conventional civilian aircraft) and has a T-tail. The aircraft has STOL capabilities and very quiet operation; it has been marketed under the name Whisperjet. It sees wide usage at small city-based airports. In its primary role it serves as a regional jet, short-haul airliner or regional airliner. The BAe 146/Avro RJ is in wide use among European airlines, such as Brussels Airlines, Swiss International Air Lines and Lufthansa. The freight-carrying version has the designation "QT" (Quiet Trader), while a convertible version is designated "QC".

The BAe 146 comes in -100, -200 and -300 models. The equivalent Avro RJ versions are designated RJ70, RJ85, and RJ100.

Development

Hawker Siddeley carried out the original design in 1973 using the designation HS.146, but soon abandoned the project as a result of the world economic downturn resulting from the 1973 oil crisis. Low-key development proceeded, however, and in 1978 British Aerospace, Hawker Siddeley's corporate successor, re-launched the project. The name 146 comes from the original de Havilland design number, DH146, which was continued by Hawker Siddeley when the former became a subsidiary of the latter. The type name "Avro RJ" superseded "BAe 146" in 1993.

The BAe 146 received its Certificate of Airworthiness on 8 February 1983. [cite news | first = Michael | last = Donne | title = BAe 146 cleared for delivery to airlines| work = Financial Times | publisher = The Financial Times Limited| page = 21| date = 1983-02-09 | accessdate = 2007-01-06]

The early aircraft were built at what was the original de Havilland factory at Hatfield. The Avro RJ family of aircraft was built at the BAE Systems Regional Aircraft Centre at the Avro Airfield at Woodford in England. The original Lycoming ALF 502 engines were replaced by the higher thrust, derivative Honeywell LF 507 turbofan engines with the development of the Avro RJ series, which were housed in redesigned nacelles. The Avro RJ series also had a slightly modernised cockpit. [http://www.vlmmagazine.com/features/2007/may/air_news.html VLM Introduces Jet Aircraft] , Velocity, VLM Magazine, May 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-02.] Production of this aircraft has ended, with the final four aircraft being delivered in October-November 2003. Many airlines are predicted to replace the Avro/BAe with the Airbus A318, Bombardier CRJ700 or one of the Embraer E-Jets range. 166 Avro RJ aircraft were delivered between 1993 and 2002.

The aircraft have proven to be useful on "high density" regional and short-haul routes. In economy class, the aircraft can either be configured in a standard five-abreast layout or a high-density 6-abreast layout, making it one of very few regional jets that can use a 6-abreast layout in economy class. The plane is also renowned for its relatively low noise generation, a positive feature which won the hearts of many operators who wanted to fly in and out of noise stringent airports within cities. The aircraft is one of only a few types that can be used on flights to London City Airport, which has a unique steep approach and a short runway.

Problems

The ALF 502 turbofans suffered from some reliability problems. The internal electronics were prone to overheating which could trigger an automatic shutdown of an engine with no option of in-flight restarting, and certain rare atmospheric conditions caused loss of engine thrust due to internal icing. [cite web|url=http://www.highbeam.com/library/docfree.asp?DOCID=1G1:62527181&ctrlInfo=Round19%3AMode19a%3ADocG%3AResult&ao= |title=UPDATE: Braathens have BAe 146 aircraft.|author=Airline Industry Information|accessdate=2006-04-30] . In recent years, there have been cases where toxic fumes from engine oil have entered the air-conditioning system and entered the cockpit, adversely affecting the pilots. [cite web|author="The Guardian"|title=Toxic cockpit fumes that bring danger to the skies |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/airlines/story/0,,1718316,00.html|accessdate=2006-04-30] [cite web|author=BBC News|title=Pilots protest over 'noxious' air|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7053925.stm|accessdate=2007-10-21]

Variants

;BAe 146-100 and Avro RJ70:First flight of the -100 occurred on 3 September 1981, [cite web|author=The British Aircraft Directory|title=Historical flight details for the BAe 146 aircraft series|url=http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=668|accessdate=2006-09-01] with deliveries commencing in 1983. The launch customer in March 1983 was Dan-Air soon followed by the RAF's Royal Flight. The -100 was the last of the 146 series designs to be developed into the Avro RJ standard with first deliveries of the Avro RJ70 in late 1993. The RJ70 differed from the 146-100 in having FADEC LF 507 engines and digital avionics. The RJ70 seats 70 passengers five abreast, 82 six abreast or 94 in high-density configuration.

;BAe 146-200 and Avro RJ85:The 146-200 features a 2.41 m (7 ft 11 in) fuselage extension and reduced cost per seat mile. The -200 first flew in August 1982 and entered service six months later. The RJ85, the first RJ development of the BAe 146 family, features an improved cabin and the more efficient LF 507 s. Deliveries of the RJ85 began in April 1993. The RJ85 seats up to 112 passengers.

;BAe 146-300 and Avro RJ100:Designers' initial proposals for the -300, the final development of the 146 product line, included a 3.2 m extension to the fuselage of the -200, more powerful engines and winglets. However due to the requirements of airlines for higher efficiency rather than capacity the production 146-300 emerged as a 2.44 m stretch of the -200, without winglets or the proposed ALF 502R-7. Deliveries began in December 1988. The Avro version of the 146-300, the second such development of the 146 product line, became the RJ100. It shared the fuselage of the 146 version, but with interior, engine and avionics improvements. The most common configuration in the RJ100 seats 100 passengers. The RJ115 seats 116 as standard or up to a maximum of 128 in a high-density layout.

;Statesman:VIP or corporate transport version. The 146 is the first jet aircraft operated by the British Queen's Flight (later 32 (The Royal) Squadron), and entered service in 1986 after two aircraft were leased by the Royal Air Force for evaluation. The aircraft are operated in a VIP configuration with a capacity of 19 passengers and 6 crew. [http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/EquipmentFactsheets/Bae146.htm]

;146-QT (Quiet Trader)Freighter version.;146-QCConvertible passenger/freight version.;146-STAMilitary transport version. This version also had a refuelling probe protruding beyond the nose. The aircraft was displayed at the 1989 Paris Air Show but failed to receive any orders.

Avro RJX Series

The RJX-70, RJX-85 and RJX-100 aircraft represented advanced variants of the Avro RJ Series. The RJX used Honeywell AS977 turbofans for greater efficiency (15% less fuel-burn, 17% increased range), quieter performance and 20% less maintenance costs. Drukair of Bhutan placed orders for two RJX-85s, while British European placed firm orders for 12 RJX-100s and 8 options. [ [http://www.bae-systems.com/newsroom/2001/110701news1.htm BRITISH EUROPEAN CONFIRMS ORDER FOR 20 AVRO RJX-100 AIRLINERS AND SELECTS JETSPARES & EFDMS] , BAE Systems. Retrieved 2008-01-01.] However, BAE Systems terminated the project in December 2001, having completed and flown only three aircraft - a prototype each of the RJX-85 and RJX-100, and a production RJX-100 for British European. BAE reached an agreement with Druk Air and British European in early 2002 in which the airlines agreed not to enforce their firm orders for the RJX. BAE explored the possibility of manufacturing 14 "hybrid" aircraft, however British European at least was unwilling to accept the risk of operating a unique type. [cite news| first = Mike | last = Vines | title = RJX Dead and Buried | work = Business & Commercial Aviation | publisher = The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. | page = 32| date = March 2002 | accessdate = 2007-01-05]

The termination of the RJX project marked the end of commercial airliner production in the United Kingdom although key components, such as wing manufacture for Airbus aircraft, remains in the United Kingdom.

Operators

Civilian operators

;BAe 146:As of August 2006, a total of 158 BAE 146 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service. Major operators include:;ALB
*Albanian Airlines (3)
*Belle Air (1);AUS
*National Jet Systems (14);BEL
*TNT Airways (13)
*Brussels Airlines (30)cite web | url= http://www.aviationindustrygroup.com/index.cfm?format=1718 | format= PDF | title= BAe 146 Family industry data | work= Aircraft Technology Engineering & Maintenance magazine Paris Special | date= 18 June 2007 | accessdate= 2007-07-16 ] (Retirement of the last 4 Bae 146's announced in July 2008, the 14 Avro RJ85 and 12 Avro RJ100 stay.);BUL
*Bulgaria Air (8);CHI
*Aerovias DAP (1);PRC:Astra Airlines (1)
*China Eastern Airlines (10);DOM
*Sol Dominicana Airlines (5);GER
*Eurowings (15);IND
*MDLR Airlines (3);IDN
*Linus Airways (2)
*Pelita Air Service (1);IRN
*Taban Airlines (2);IRL
*CityJet (12)
*Aer Arann (2) (wet leased from Flightline) ;PHL
*Asian Spirit (4);PER
*Aero Condor (1)
*Star Peru (2) [ [http://www.starperu.com/2iflota.asp Star Peru buys 2 new BAe 146] ] ;UK
*Flybe (14)
*Flightline (9)

Some 17 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.Flight International, 3-9 October 2006]

;Avro RJ:As of August 2006, a total of 152 Avro RJ aircraft (all variants) also remain in airline service. Major operators include:

;BEL
*Brussels Airlines (26);FRO
*Atlantic Airways (7);FIN
*Blue1 (9);GER
*Lufthansa CityLine (18);GRE
*Aegean Airlines (6);IND
*MDLR Airlines (2);IRL
*CityJet (23);SWE
*Malmö Aviation (9)
*Transwede Airways (6);SUI
*Swiss International Air Lines (20);UK
*BA CityFlyer (12);UZB
*Uzbekistan Airways (3)

Some 12 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.As of August 2007 LINUS Airways from Indonesia uses 2 BAe 146-200s Avro RJ for regular and commercial domestic flight.

Military operators

;BOL
* Bolivian Air Force;SAU
* Royal Saudi Air Force;UK
* Royal Air Force
** No. 32 (The Royal) Squadron RAF
** Queen's Flight

Former Civilian Operators

;CAN
*Air BC;USA
*American Airlines/AirCal
*Air Wisconsin
*Atlantic Southeast Airlines
*Business Express Airlines Operated 5 BAe146-200 obtained from Discovery Airways - these were later replaced by RJ70s.
*Discovery Airways
*Mesaba Airlines
*Pacific Southwest Airlines

Notable incidents

The BAe-146/Avro RJ has been involved in seven hull-loss accidents with a total of 216 fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type-stat.php?type=120 Aviation Safety Network - BAe 146] ] [cite web | url= http://www.bt.no/lokalt/hordaland/article305103.ece | title= Have taken 216 human lifes (Norwegian language) | work= Bergens Tidende | date= 11 October 2006 | accessdate= 2007-07-16]

* On 7 December 1987 a Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 1771 BAe 146-200 (registration: N350PS) crashed after a disgruntled former USAir employee aimed a .44 Magnum pistol and fired several shots in or near the cockpit area, causing the aircraft to enter a steep nosedive. All of the 43 passengers and crew members on board were killed. At the time airline employees were allowed to bypass security checkpoints. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19871207-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - December 7, 1987 crash] ]

* On 20 February 1991 a LAN Chile BAe 146-200A (registration: CC-CET) overran runway 8 while landing at Puerto Williams Airport (WPU), Chile, killing 20 of the 73 people on board. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19910220-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - February 20, 1991 crash] ]

* On 23 July 1993 a China Northwest Airlines BAe 146-300 (registration: B-2716) crashed while attempting to take off from Yinchuan Airport (INC), People's Republic of China. 55 of the 113 passengers and crew were killed. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19930723-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - July 23, 1993 crash] ]

* On 25 September 1998 a Paukn Air BAe 146-100 (registration: EC-GEO) crashed while on an approach to runway 15 at Melilla Airport (MLN/GEML), Spain. All of the 38 passengers and crew were killed. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19980925-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - September 25, 1998] ]

* On 24 November 2001 Crossair Flight 3597 Avro RJ-100 (registration: HB-IXM) crashed while on a VOR/DME approach to runway 28 at Zürich-Kloten Airport (ZRH/LSZH), Switzerland. 24 of the 33 passengers and crew were killed. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20011124-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - November 24, 2001 crash] ]

* On 8 January 2003 a Turkish Airlines Avro RJ-100 (registration: TC-THG) crashed while on a VOR/DME approach to runway 34 at Diyarbakir Airport (DIY/LTCC), Turkey. All of the 80 passengers and crew were killed. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20030108-1&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - January 8, 2003 crash] ]

* On 10 October 2006 a Atlantic Airways Flight 670 BAe 146-200A (registration OY-CRG) skidded off the runway while landing at Stord Airport, Norway. The spoilers did not deploy when the aircraft landed. 3 passengers and 1 crew member were killed, of the 16 persons on board. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6036321.stm Norway runway blaze kills three] , BBC News, October 10, 2006.] [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20061010-0&lang=en Aviation Safety Network report - October 10, 2006 crash] ]

pecifications (BAe 146-200)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
crew=4 with 2 flight attendants
capacity=85-100 passengers
length main=93 ft 8 in
length alt=28.55 m
span main=86 ft 5 in
span alt=26.34 m
height main=28 ft 3 in
height alt=8.61 m
area main=832 ft²
area alt=77.30 m²
empty weight main=73,415 lb
empty weight alt=33,300 kg
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
max takeoff weight main=93,035 lb
max takeoff weight alt=42,200 kg
engine (jet)=Honeywell ALF 502R-5
type of jet=turbofans
number of jets=4
thrust main=6,970 lbf
thrust alt=31 kN
max speed main=555 mph
max speed alt=482 knots, 893 km/h
cruise speed main=465 mph
cruise speed alt=404 knots, 750 km/h
range main=1,290 mi
range alt=2,075 km
range more=with 25,000 lb (11,000 kg) of payload
ceiling main=31,200 ft
ceiling alt=9,500 m
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
thrust/weight=

ee also

aircontent
related=
similar aircraft=
lists=
* List of airliners
see also=

References

External links

* [http://www.regional-services.com/main_ur_prod_b146.html Manufacturer website - BAe 146] - [http://www.regional-services.com/main_ur_prod_arj.html Avro RJ]
* [http://www.airliners.net/search/photo.search?distict_entry=true&aircraft_genericsearch=BAE%20Systems%20Avro%20146-RJ/RJX Photos of this aircraft on Airliners.net]
* [http://www.smiliner.com/index.html Smiliner 146 family information page]
* [http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/avro_rj/ Aerospace-Technology - Avro RJ] - [http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/avrorjx/ Avro RJX]
* [http://www.aaib.gov.uk/publications/bulletins/april_2006/avro_146_rj100__g_cfaa.cfm Air Accidents Investigation Branch - Avro 146-RJ100, G-CFAA]
* [http://www.swissworldcargo.com/web/NS6/index/operations/op-fleet/op-fl-narrowbody-aircraft/op-fl-ar1.htm SwissWorldCargo Avro RJ100 «Jumbolino»]
* [http://www.news.ch/Jumbolino+Flug+abgebrochen/228295/detail.htm "Jumbolino-Flug abgebrochen"]
* [http://www.vectorsite.net/avbae146.html THE BAE 146 at Greg Goebel's AIR VECTORS]
* [http://www.aerosite.net/content/view/63/40/ Aerosite - BAe 146]
* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=45 Airliners_net British Aerospace BAe-146]


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