 Turán's theorem

In graph theory, Turán's theorem is a result on the number of edges in a K_{r+1}free graph.
An nvertex graph that does not contain any (r + 1)vertex clique may be formed by partitioning the set of vertices into r parts of equal or nearlyequal size, and connecting two vertices by an edge whenever they belong to two different parts. We call the resulting graph the Turán graph T(n,r). Turán's theorem states that the Turán graph has the largest number of edges among all K_{r+1}free nvertex graphs.
Turán graphs were first described and studied by Hungarian mathematician Paul Turán in 1941, though a special case of the theorem was stated earlier by Mantel in 1907.
Contents
Formal statement
Formally, Turán's theorem may be stated as follows.
Let G be any subgraph of K_{n} such that G is K_{r+1} free. Then the number of edges in G is at most
An equivalent formulation is the following:
Among the nvertex simple graphs with no (r + 1)cliques, T(n,r) has the maximum number of edges.
Proof
Let G be an nvertex simple graph with no (r + 1)clique and with the maximum number of edges.
 Overview: The proof consists of two claims about G, which we outline, before proving.
The first claim is that G must be a complete rpartite graph (although it's stated more technically below). In other words, we can partition the vertex set into r subsets such that if two vertices are in different sets, S_{i} and S_{j}, then they have an edge between them, but if they are in the same set, then they have no edge between them. The second claim is that the sizes of these sets S_{i} differ from each other by at most 1. For example, if we want the graph on 23 vertices with the most edges that does not contain a triangle, then we partition the vertices into sets S_{1} and S_{2}, with  S_{1}  = 12 and  S_{2}  = 11. We add all the edges between the two sets, so the graph will have 11*12 = 132 edges. This matches with the theorem, which says that G will have at most edges.
 Claim 1: Graph G does not contain any three vertices u,v,w such that G contains edge uv, but contains neither edge uw nor vw.
(This claim is equivalent to the relation x~y iff x not connected to y being an equivalence relation. ~ is always reflexive and symmetric, but only in special cases is it transitive. ~ is not transitive precisely when we have u, v and w with u ~ w and w ~ v without u ~ v.)
Assume the claim is false. Construct a new nvertex simple graph G' that contains no (r + 1)clique but has more edges than G, as follows:
Case 1: d(w) < d(u) or d(w) < d(v).
Assume that d(w) < d(u). Delete vertex w and create a copy of vertex u (with all of the same neighbors as u); call it u'. Any clique in the new graph contains at most one vertex among {u,u'}. So this new graph does not contain any (r + 1)clique. However, it contains more edges:  E(G')  =  E(G)  − d(w) + d(u) >  E(G)  .
Case 2: and
Delete vertices u and v and create two new copies of vertex w. Again, the new graph does not contain any (r + 1)clique. However it contains more edges: .
This proves Claim 1.
The claim proves that one can partition the vertices of G into equivalence classes based on their nonneighbors; i.e. two vertices are in the same equivalence class if they are nonadjacent. This implies that G is a complete multipartite graph (where the parts are the equivalence classes).
 Claim 2: The number of edges in a complete kpartite graph is maximized when the size of the parts differs by at most one.
If G is a complete kpartite graph with parts A and B and  A  >  B  + 1, then we can increase the number of edges in G by moving a vertex from part A to part B. By moving a vertex from part A to part B, the graph loses  B  edges, but gains  A  − 1 edges. Thus, it gains at least edge. This proves Claim 2.
This proof shows that the Turan graph has the maximum number of edges. Additionally, the proof shows that the Turan graph is the only graph that has the maximum number of edges.
Mantel's theorem
As a special case of Turán's theorem, for r = 2, one obtains Mantel's theorem:
The maximum number of edges in an nvertex trianglefree graph is
In other words, one must delete nearly half of the edges in K_{n} to obtain a trianglefree graph.
A strengthened form of Mantel's theorem states that any graph with at least n^{2}/4 edges must either be the complete bipartite graph K_{n/2,n/2} or it must be pancyclic: not only does it contain a triangle, it must also contain cycles of all other possible lengths up to the number of vertices in the graph (Bondy 1971).
Another strengthening of Mantel's theorem states that the edges of any graph may be covered by at most cliques: that is, the intersection number is at most (Erdős, Goodman & Pósa 1966).
See also
References
 Aigner, Martin; Ziegler, Günter M. (1998), Proofs from THE BOOK, Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag.
 Bondy, J. A. (1971), "Pancyclic graphs I", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B 11 (1): 80–84, doi:10.1016/00958956(71)900165.
 Erdős, Paul; Goodman, A. W.; Pósa, Louis (1966), "The representation of a graph by set intersections", Canadian Journal of Mathematics 18 (1): 106–112, doi:10.4153/CJM19660143, MR0186575, http://www.renyi.hu/~p_erdos/196621.pdf.
 Turán, Paul (1941), "On an extremal problem in graph theory" (in Hungarian), Matematikai és Fizikai Lapok 48: 436–452.
 West, Douglas Brent (1999) [1996], Introduction to Graph Theory (2nd ed.), Prentice Hall, ISBN 9780130144003.
Categories: Extremal graph theory
 Theorems in discrete mathematics
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