- History of Rome
The History of the city of
Romespans 2,800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BCinto the center of a vast civilization that dominated the Mediterranean region for centuries. Its political power was eventually replaced by that of peoples of mostly Germanic origin, marking the beginning of the Middle Ages. Rome became the seat of the Roman Catholic Churchand the home of a sovereign state within its walls, the Vatican City. Today it is the capital of Italy.
The traditional date for the
founding of Rome, based on a mythological account, is April 21, 753 BC, and the city and surrounding region of Latiumhas continued to be inhabited with little interruption since around that time.
"For more information, and history of Rome as a complete civilization, see
Barbarian and Byzantine rule
480, the last Western Roman emperor Julius Nepos, was murdered and a Roman general of barbarian origin Odoacerdeclared allegiance to Byzantine emperor Zeno. The reunification of the Roman Empirehad little impact on Rome. Odoacerand later the Ostrogothscontinued, like the last emperors, to rule Italy from Ravenna. Meanwhile, the Senate, even though long since stripped of wider powers, continued to administer Rome itself, with the Pope usually coming from a senatorial family. This situation continued until Theodahadmurdered Amalasunthain 535and declared secession from the empire. Forces of the Eastern Roman Empire, sent West by Justinian Iunder Belisarius, recaptured the city next year.
December 17, 546, the Ostrogoths under Totilarecaptured and sacked the city. The Byzantine general Belisariusrecaptured Rome, but the Ostrogoths retook it in 549. Belisarius was replaced by Narses, who captured Rome from the Ostrogoths for good in 552, ending the so-called Gothic Wars which had turned much of Italy into desert. The continual war around Rome in the 530sand 540sleft it in a state of total disrepair — near abandoned and desolate with much of its lower-lying parts turned into unhealthy marshes as the drainage systems were neglected and the Tiber's embankments fell into disrepair in the course of the latter half of the sixth century. [P. Llewellyn, "Rome in the Dark Ages" (London 1993), p. 97.] Here, malariadeveloped. The aqueducts were never repaired, leading to a shrinking population of less than 50,000 concentrated near the Tiberand around the Campus Martius, abandoning those districts without water supply. There is a legend, significant though untrue, that there was a moment where no one remained living in Rome.
Eastern Roman Emperor
Justinian I(reigned 527– 565) tried to grant Rome subsidies for the maintenance of public buildings, aqueducts and bridges — though, being mostly drawn from an Italydramatically impoverished by the recent wars, these were not always sufficient. He also styled himself the patron of its remaining scholars, orators, physicians and lawyers in the stated hope that eventually more youths would seek a better education. After the wars, the Senate was theoretically restored, but under the supervision of a prefectand other officials appointed by, and responsible to, the Byzantine authorities in Ravenna.
However, the Pope was now one of the leading religious figures in the entire Byzantine Empire and effectively more powerful locally than either the remaining senators or local Byzantine officials. In practice, local power in Rome devolved to the Pope and, over the next few decades, both much of the remaining possessions of the senatorial aristocracy and the local Byzantine administration in Rome were absorbed by the Church.
The reign of Justinian's nephew and successor
Justin II(reigned 565– 578) was marked from the Italian point of view by the invasion of the Lombardsunder Alboin( 568). In capturing the regions of Benevento, Lombardy, Piedmont, Spoletoand Tuscany, the invaders effectively restricted Imperial authority to small islands of land surrounding a number of coastal cities, including Ravenna, Naples, Romeand the area of the future Venice. The one inland city continuing under Byzantine control was Perugia, which provided a repeatedly threatened overland link between Rome and Ravenna. In 578and again in 580, the Senate, in its last recorded acts, had to ask for the support of Tiberius II Constantine(reigned 578– 582) against the approaching Dukes, Faroald I of Spoletoand Zottoof Benevento.
582– 602) added a new factor in the continuing conflict by creating an alliance with Childebert II of Austrasia(reigned 575– 595). The armies of the Frankish Kinginvaded the Lombard territories in 584, 585, 588and 590. Rome had suffered badly from a disastrous flood of the Tiber in 589, followed by a plague in 590. The latter is notable for the legendof the angelseen, while the newly elected Pope Gregory I(term 590– 604) was passing in procession by Hadrian's Tomb, to hover over the building and to sheathe his flaming sword as a sign that the pestilence was about to cease. The city was safe from capture at least. Agilulf, however, the new Lombard King (reigned 591to c. 616), managed to secure peace with Childebert, reorganized his territories and resumed activities against both Naplesand Rome by 592. With the Emperor preoccupied with wars in the eastern borders and the various succeeding Exarchs unable to secure Rome from invasion, Gregory took personal initiative in starting negotiations for a peace treaty. This was completed in the autumn of 598— only later recognized by Maurice. It would last till the end of his reign.
The position of the
Bishop of Romewas further strengthened under the usurper Phocas(reigned 602– 610). Phocas recognized his primacy over that of the Patriarch of Constantinopleand even decreed Pope Boniface III( 607) to be "the head of all the Churches". Phocas' reign saw the erection of the last imperial monument in the Roman Forum, the column bearing his name. He also gave the Pope the Pantheon, at the time closed for centuries, and thus probably saved it from destruction.
7th century, an influx of both Byzantine officials and churchmen from elsewhere in the empire made both the local lay aristocracy and Church leadership largely Greek speaking. However, the strong Byzantine cultural influence did not always lead to political harmony between Rome and Constantinople. In the controversy over Monothelitism, popes found themselves under severe pressure (sometimes amounting to physical force) when they failed to keep in step with Constantinople's shifting theological positions. In 653, Pope Martin Iwas deported to Constantinople and, after a show trial, exiled to the Crimea, where he died.
663, Rome had its first imperial visit for two centuries, by Constans II— its worst disaster since the Gothic Wars when the emperor proceeded to strip Rome of metal, including that from buildings and statues, to provide armament materials for use against the Saracens. However, for the next half century, despite further tensions, Rome and the Papacy continued to prefer continued Byzantine rule - in part because the alternative was Lombard rule, and in part because Rome's food was largely coming from Papal estates elsewhere in the Empire, particularly Sicily.
727, Pope Gregory IIrefused to accept the decrees of Emperor Leo III, establishing iconoclasm[Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., Source Book for Mediæval History (New York: Scribners, 1905; reprint AMS Press, 1971). Transcribed by Sean Faith. ] . Leo reacted first by trying in vain to abduct the Pontiff, and then by sending a force of Ravennate troops under the command of the ExarchPaulus, but they were pushed back by the Lombards of Tuscia and Benevento. Roman general Eutychiussent west by the emperor successfully captured Rome and restored it as a part of the empire in 728.
November 1, 731, a council was called in St. Peter by Gregory III to excommunicate the iconoclasts. The Emperor responded by confiscating large Papal estates in Sicilyand Calabriaand transferring areas previously ecclesiastically under the Pope to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Despite the tensions Gregory III never discontinued his support to the imperial efforts against external threats.
In this period the Lombard kingdom was living an age of revival under the strong Liutprand. In
730he razed the countryside of Rome to punish the Pope who had supported the duke of Spoleto. Though still protected by his massive walls, the pope could do little against the Lombard king, who managed to ally himself with the Byzantines. Other protectors were now needed. Gregory III was the first Pope to ask for concrete help from the Frankish Kingdom, then under the command of Charles Martel( 739) [from Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), p. 102
Aistulfwas even more aggressive. He conquered Ferraraand Ravenna, ending the Exarchate of Ravenna. Rome seemed his next victim. In 754, Pope Stephen IIwent to France to name Pippin the Younger, king of the Franks, as "patricius romanorum", i.e. protector of Rome. In the August of that year the King and Pope together crossed back the Alps and defeated Aistulf at Pavia. When Pippin went back to St. Denis however, Aistulf did not keep his promises, and in 756besieged Rome for 56 days. The Lombards returned north when they heard news of Pippin again moving to Italy. This time he agreed to give the Pope the promised territories, and the Papal Stateswere born.
771the new King of the Lombards, Desiderius, devised a plot to conquer Rome and seize Pope Stephen IIIduring a feigned pilgrimage within its walls. His main ally was one Paulus Afiarta, chief of the Lombard party within the city. However the plan failed, and Stephens' successor, Pope Hadrian Icalled Charlemagneagainst Desiderius, who was finally defeated in 773. [http://http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/einhard.html The Life of Charlemange] The Lombard Kingdom was no more, and now Rome entered into the orbit of a new, greater political institution.
Numerous remains from this period, along with a museum devoted to Medieval Rome, can be seen at Crypta Balbi in Rome.
Holy Roman Empire
April 25 799the new Pope, Leo III, led the traditional procession from the Lateranto the Church of San Lorenzo in Lucinaalong the Via Flaminia(now Via del Corso). Two nobles (followers of his predecessor Hadrian) who disliked the weakness of the Pope with regards to Charlemagne, attacked the processional train and delivered a life threatening wound to the Pope. Leo fled to the King of the Franks, and in November 800the King entered in Rome with a strong army and a number of French bishops. He declared a judicial trial to decide if Leo was to remain Pope, or if the deposers' claims had reasons to be upheld. This trial, however, was only a part of a well thought out chain of events which ultimately surprised the world. The Pope, naturally was declared legitimate and the attempters subsequently exiled. On December 25, 800, Pope Leo IIIcrowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperorin St. Peter's Basilica.
This act forever severed the loyalty of
Romefrom its imperial progeny, Constantinople. It created instead a rival empire which, after a long series of conquests by Charlemagne, now encompassed most of the Christian Western territories.
Following the death of Charlemagne, the lack of a figure with equal prestige led the new institution into disagreement. At the same time the universal church of Rome had to face emergence of the lay interests of the City itself, spurred on by the conviction that the Roman people, though impoverished and abased, had again the right to elect the Western Emperor. The famous counterfeit document called the "
Donation of Constantine", prepared by the Papal notaries, guaranteed to the Pope a dominion [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/donatconst.html] stretching from Ravennato Gaeta. This nominally included the suzerainty over Rome, but this was often highly disputed and as the centuries passed only the strongest Popes were to be able to assert it. The main element of weakness of the Papacy within the walls of the city was the continued necessity of the election of new popes, in which the emerging noble families soon managed to insert a leading role for themselves. The neighbouring powers, namely the Duchy of Spoletoand Toscana, and later the Emperors, learned how to take their own advantage of this internal weakness, playing the role of arbiters among the contestants.
Rome was indeed prey of anarchy in this age. The lowest point was touched in
897, when a raging crowd exhumed the corpse of a dead pope, Formosus, and put it on trial.
In this period the renovated Church was again attracting pilgrims and
prelates from all the Christian world, and money with them: even with a population of only 30,000, Rome was again becoming a city of consumers dependent upon the presence of a governmental bureaucracy. In the meantime, Italian cities were acquiring increasing autonomy, mainly led by new families which were replacing the old aristocracy with a new class formed by entrepreneurs, traders and merchants. After the sack of Rome by the Normansin 1084, the rebuilding of the city was supported by powerful families such as the Frangipane familyand the Pierleoni family, whose wealth came from commerce and banking rather than landholdings. Inspired by neighbouring cities like Tivoli and Viterbo, Rome's people began to consider adopting a communal status and gaining a substantial amount of freedom from papal authority.
Giordano Pierleoni, the Romans rebelled against the aristocracy and Church rule in 1143. The Senate and the Roman Republic, the Commune of Rome, were born again. Through the inflammatory words of preacher Arnaldo da Brescia, an idealistic, fierce opponent of ecclesiastical property and church interference in temporal affairs, the revolt that led to the creation of the Commune of Romecontinued until it was put down in 1155, though it left its mark on the civil government of the Eternal City for centuries. Twelfth-century Rome, however, had little in common with the empire which had ruled over the Mediterranean some 700 years before, and soon the new Senate had to work hard to survive, choosing an ambiguous policy of shifting its support from the Pope to the Holy Roman Empireand vice versa as the political situation required. At Monteporzio, in 1167, during one of these shifts, in the war with Tusculum, Roman troops were defeated by the imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa. Luckily, the winning enemies were soon dispersed by a plague and Rome was saved.
1188the new communal government was finally recognized by Pope Clement III. The Pope had to make large cash payments to the communal officials, while the 56 senators became papal vassals. The Senate always had problems in the accomplishment of its function, and various changes were tried. Often a single Senator was in charge. This sometimes led to tyrannies, which did not help the stability of the new-born organism.
1204the streets of Rome were again in flames when the struggle between Pope Innocent III's family and its rivals, the powerful Orsinifamily, led to riots in the city. Many ancient buildings were then destroyed by machines used by the rival bands to besiege their enemies in the innumerable towers and strongholds which were a hallmark of the Middle Age Italian towns.
Torre dei Contiwas one of the many towers built by the noble families of Rome to mark their power and defend themselves in the several feuds that marked the city in the Middle Ages. Only the lower third part of Torre dei Conti can be seen today.]
The struggle between the Popes and the emperor Frederick II, also king of
Naplesand Sicily, saw Rome support the Ghibellines. To repay his loyalty, Frederick sent to the commune the Carrocciohe had won to the Lombards at the battle of Cortenuovain 1234, and which was exposed in the Campidoglio. In that year, during another revolt against the Pope, the Romans headed by senator Luca Savellisacked the Lateran. Curiously, Savelli was the nephew of Pope Honorius IIIand father of Honorius IV, but in that age family ties often did not determine one's allegiance. Rome was never to evolve into an autonomous, stable reign, as happened to other communes like Florence, Sienaor Milan. The endless struggles between noble families ( Savelli, Orsini, Colonna, Annibaldi), the ambiguous position of the Popes, the haughtiness of a population which never abandoned the dreams of their splendid past but, at the same time, thought only of immediate advantage, and the weakness of the republican institutions always deprived the city of this possibility.
In an attempt to imitate more successful communes, in
1252the people elected a foreign Senator, the Bolognese Brancaleone degli Andalò. In order to bring peace in the city he suppressed the most powerful nobles (destroying some 140 towers), reorganized the working classes and issued a code of laws inspired by those of northern Italy. Brancaleone was a tough figure, but died in 1258with almost nothing of his reforms turned into reality. Five years later Charles I of Anjou, then king of Naples, was elected Senator. He entered the city only in 1265, but soon his presence was needed to face Conradin, the Hohenstaufen's heir who was coming to claim his family's rights over southern Italy, and left the city. After June 1265Rome was again a democratic republic, electing Henry of Castileas senator. But Conradin and the Ghibelline party were crushed in the Battle of Tagliacozzo( 1268), and therefore Rome fell again in the hands of Charles.
Nicholas III, a member of
Orsinifamily, was elected in 1277and moved the seat of the Popesfrom the Lateran to the more defensible Vatican. He also ordered that no foreigner could become senator of Rome. Being a Roman himself, he had himself elected senator by the people. With this move, the city began again to side for the papal party. In 1285Charles was again Senator, but the Sicilian Vespersreduced his charisma, and the city was thenceforth free from his authority. The next senator was again a Roman, and again a pope, Honorius IV of the Savelli.
Boniface VIII and the Babylonian captivity
Successor to the meteoric Celestine V was an energetic Roman of the Caetani family, Boniface VIII. Entangled in a local feud against the traditional rivals of his family, the
Colonna, at the same time he struggled to reassure the universal supremacy of the Holy See. In 1300he launched the first Jubilee and founded the first University of Rome. The Jubilee was an important move for Rome, as it increased further its international prestige and, most of all, the city's economy was boosted by the flow of pilgrims. Boniface died in 1303after the humiliation of the "Schiaffo di Anagni" ("Slap of Anagni"), which signed instead the rule of the King of France over the Papacyand marked another period of decline for Rome.
Boniface's successor, Clement V, never entered in the city, starting the so-called "Babylonian Captivity", the absence of the Pope from their Roman seat in favour of
Avignon, which will last for more than 70 years. This situation brought the independence of the local powers, but these revealed largely unstable; and the lack of the holy revenues caused a deep decay of Rome. For more than a century Rome had no new major buildings. Furthermore, many of the monuments of the city, including the main churches, began to ruin.
Cola di Rienzo and the Pope's return to Rome
In spite of its decline and the absence of the Pope, Rome had not lost its spiritual prestige: in
1341the famous poet Petrarcacame to the city to be crowned as poet in Capitoline Hill. Noblemen and poor people at one time demanded with one voice the return of the Pope. Among the many ambassadors that in this period took their way to Avignon, emerged the bizarre but eloquent figure of Cola di Rienzo. As his personal power among the people increased by time, on May 30 1347he conquered the Capitoline at the head of an enthusiast crowd. The period of his power, though very short-lived, is anyway one of the most interesting in the life of Rome in Middle Ages, as Cola tried to assure himself a renovating, almost mystical aura of a paladin of Italian independence, within a confused political dream inspired to the prestige of the Ancient Rome. Now in possession of dictatorial powers, he took the title of "tribune", referring to the pleb's magistracy of the Roman Republic. Cola also considered himself at an equal status of that of the Holy Roman Emperor. On August 1, he conferred Roman citizenship on all the Italian cities, and even prepared for the election of a Roman emperor of Italy. It was too much: the Pope denounced him as heretic, criminal and pagan, the populace had began to be disenchanted with him, while the nobles had always hated him. On December 15, he was forced to flee.
1354, Cola was again a protagonist, when Cardinal Gil Alvarez De Albornozentrusted him with the role of "senator of Rome" in his program of reassuring the Pope's rule in the Papal States. In October the tyrannical Cola, who had become again very unpopular for his delirious behaviour and heavy bills, was killed in a riot provoked by the powerful family of the Colonna. In April of 1355, Charles IV of Bohemiaentered the city for the ritual coronation as Emperor. His visit was very disappointing for the citizens. He had little money, received the crown not from the Pope but from a Cardinal, and moved away after a few days.
With the emperor back in his lands, Albornoz could regain a certain control over the city, while remaining in his safe citadel in
Montefiascone, in the Northern Lazio. The senators were chosen directly by the Pope from several cities of Italy, but the city was in fact independent. The Senate council included six judges, five notaries, six marshals, several familiars, twenty knights and twenty armed men. Albornoz had heavily suppressed the traditional aristocratic families, and the "democratic" party felt confident enough to start an aggressive policy. In 1362Rome declared war on Velletri. This move, however, provoked a civil war. The countryside party hired a condottieriband called "Del Cappello" ("Hat"), while the Romans bought the services of German and Hungarian troops, plus a citizen levy of 600 knights and even 22,000 infantry. This was the period in which Italy was scourged by these ruthless condottieri bands. Many of the Savelli, Orsini and Annibaldi expelled from Rome became leaders of such military units. The war with Velletri languished, and Rome again gave itself to the new Pope, Urban V, provided the dreadful Albornoz did not enter the walls.
October 16, 1367, in reply to the prayers of St. Brigidand Petrarca, Urban finally visited for the city. During his presence, Charles IV was again crowned in the city (October 1368). In addition, the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologuscame in Rome to beg for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, but in vain. However, Urban did not like the unhealthy air of the city, and on September 5 1370he sailed again to Avignon. His successor, Gregory XI, officially set the date of his return to Rome at May 1372, but again the French cardinals and the King stopped him.
January 17 1377, Gregory XI could finally reinstate the Holy Seein Rome.
The incoherent behaviour of his successor, the Italian Urban VI, provoked in
1378the Western Schism, which impeded any true attempt of improving the conditions of the decaying Rome.
Early 15th century
1433the Duke of Milan Filippo Maria Viscontisigned a treaty of peace with Florenceand Venice, he sent the condottieri Niccolò Fortebraccioand Francesco Sforzato harass the Papal States, in vengeance for Eugene IV's support to these former republics. Fortebraccio, supported by the Colonna, occupied Tivoli in October and ravaged Rome's countryside. Despite the concessions made by Eugene to the Visconti, the Milanese soldiers did not stop their action. This led the Romans to institute a Republic government under the "Banderesi" ( May 29 1434). Eugene left the city in the night of June 4.
However, the "Banderari" soon proved incapable to govern the city, and their misfits and violences deprived it soon of the popular support. The city was therefore returned to Eugene by the army of
Giovanni Vitelleschion October 26 1434. After the death of Vitelleschi in mysterious circumstances, the power in the city was under Ludovico Scarampo, Patriarch of Aquileia. Eugene returned in Rome on 28 September 1443.
With Nicholas V (reigned from
March 19 1447) the Renaissanceentered in Rome, starting a period in which Rome was to become the centre of Humanism. He was the first pope to embellish the Roman court with scholars and artists, including Lorenzo Vallaand Vespasiano da Bisticci.
September 4 1449Nicholas proclaimed a Jubilee for the following year, which saw a great influx of pilgrims from all Europe. The crowd was so large that in December, on Ponte Sant'Angelo, some 200 people died crushed under their feet or drowned in the Tiber. But that year the plague reappeared in the city, and Nicholas fled dishonourably.
In any case, Nicholas asserted in a stable way the temporal power of the Papacy, a power in which the Emperor was to have no part at all. In this way, the coronation and the marriage of
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperoron March 16, 1452, was more a civil ceremony. The Papacy now controlled Rome with a strong hand. A plot by Stefano Porcari, whose aim was the restoration of the Republic, was ruthlessly suppressed on January 1453. Porcari was hanged together with the other plotters, Francesco Gabadeo, Pietro de Monterotondo, Battista Sciarra and Angiolo Ronconi, but the Pope gained a treacherous reputation, as when the execution was beginning he was too drunk to confirm the grace he had previously given to Sciarra and Ronconi.
He also designed urban renewal in collaboration with
Leon Battista Alberti, including the construction of a new St Peter's Basilica.
Nicholas' successor Calixtus III neglected the new cultural policy of Nicholas, devoting himself instead to his greatest passion, the love for his nephews. The Tuscan Pius II, who took the reins after his death in
1458, was a great Humanist, but did little for Rome. During his reign Lorenzo Vallademonstrated that the Donation of Constantinewas a forgery. Pius was the first pope to use guns, in campaign against the rebel barons Savelli in the neighbourhood of Rome, in 1461. One year later the moving to Rome of the head of the apostle St. Andrewproduced a great number of pilgrims. The reign of Pope Paul II( 1464- 1471) was notable only for the reintroduction of the Carnival, which was to become a very popular feast in Rome in the following centuries. In the same year ( 1468) a plot was discovered against the pope, organized by the intellectuals of the Roman Academyfounded by Pomponio Leto. The plotters were sent to Castel Sant'Angelo.
More important by far was the pontificate of Sixtus IV. In order to favour his relative
Girolamo Riario, he promoted the unsuccessful Congiura dei Pazziagainst the Mediciof Florence ( April 26 1478) and in Rome fought the Colonnaand the Orsini. The personal politics of intrigues and wars needed much money, but in spite of this Sixtus was a true patron of art in the wake of Nicholas V. He reopened the Academy and reorganized the Collegio degli Abbreviatori, and in 1471started the construction of the Vatican Library, whose first curator was Platina. The Library was officially founded on June 15, 1475. He restored several churches, including Santa Maria del Popolo, the Aqua Virgoand the Hospital of the Holy Spirit, paved some streets and also built a famous bridge on the Tiber which still today carries his name. However, his main building project was the Sistine Chapelin the Vatican Palace. Its decoration called on some of the most renowned artists of that age, including Mino da Fiesole, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Luca Signorelliand Pinturicchio, and in the 16th century Michelangelopainted it with his famous masterpiece and made it one of the most outstanding monuments of the world. Sixtus died on August 12, 1484. He is considered the first Pope-king of Rome.
Chaos, corruption and nepotism appeared in Rome under the reign of his successors, Innocent VIII and
Pope Alexander VI( 1492- 1503). During the vacation period between the death of the former and the election of the latter there were 220 murders in the city. Alexander had to face Charles VIII of France, who invaded Italy in 1494and entered in Rome on December 31of that year. The Pope could only barricade himself into Castel Sant'Angelo, which had been turned into a true fortress by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. In the end, the skilful Alexander was able to gain the support of the king, assigning his son Cesare Borgiaas military counsellor for the subsequent invasion of the Kingdom of Naples. Rome was safe and, as the King directed himself southwards, the Pope again changed his position, joining the anti-French League of the Italian States which finally compelled Charles to flee to France.
The most nepotist Pope of all, Alexander favoured his ruthless son Cesare, creating for him a personal duchy out of territories of the
Papal States, and banning from Rome the Orsini family, Cesare's most relentless enemy. In 1500the city hosted a new Jubilee, but its street grew even more unsafe as, especially at night, when they were controlled by bands of lawless "bravi". Cesare himself assassinated Alfonso of Bisceglie, his sister Lucrezia's, as well as, presumably, the Pope's son, Giovanni of Gandia.
The Renaissance had a great impact on Rome's face, with works like the "
Pietà" by Michelangelo and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartment, all made during Innocent's reign. Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope Julius II( 1503- 1513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family. In this twenty-years period Rome became the greatest centre of art of the world. The old St. Peter's Basilicawas demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like Bramante, who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorioand planned a great project to renovate the Vatican. Raphael, who in Rome became the most famous painter of Italy creating frescos in the Cappella Niccolina, the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, plus many other famous paintings. Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapeland executed the famous statue of the Moses for the tomb of Julius. Rome lost in part its religious character, becoming increasingly a true Renaissance city, with a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties, intrigues and licentious episodes. Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts. Before his early death, Raphaelalso promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins.
ack of Rome and Counter-Reformation
1527the ambiguous policy followed by the second MediciPope, Pope Clement VII, resulted in the dramatic sack of the city by the unruly Imperial troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The city was devastated for several days, many of the citizens were killed or took shelter outside the walls. The Pope himself was imprisoned for months in Castel Sant'Angelo. The sack marked the end of one of the most splendid eras of modern Rome.
1525's Jubilee resulted in a farce, as Martin Luther's claims had spread criticism and even despise against the Pope's greed of money throughout Europe. The prestige of Rome was then challenged by the defections of the churches of Germany and England. Pope Paul III( 1534- 1549) tried to recover the situation by summoning the Council of Trento, although being, at the same time, the most nepotist Pope of all. He even separated Parmaand Piacenzafrom the Papal Statesto create an independent duchy for his son Pier Luigi. He continued the patronage of art supporting the Michelangelo's " Last Judgment", asking him to renovate the Campidoglioand the on-going construction of St. Peter's. After the shock of the sack, he also called the brilliant architect Giuliano da Sangallo the Youngerto strengthen the walls of the Leonine City.
The need for renovation in the religious costumes became evident in the vacancy period after Paulus' death, when the streets of Rome became seat of masked carousels which satirized the Cardinals attending the conclave. His two immediate successors were feeble figures who did nothing to escape the actual Spanish suzerainty over Rome.
Paul IV, elected in
1555, was a member of the anti-Spanish party, but his policy resulted in the Neapolitan troops of the viceroy again besieging Rome in 1556. Paul sued for peace, but had to accept the supremacy of Philip II of Spain. He was one of the most hated Popes of all, and, after his death the raging populace burned the Holy Inquisition's palace and destroyed his marble statue on the Campidoglio. Paul's Counter-Reformationviews are well shown by his order that a central area of Rome, around the " Porticus Octaviae", be delimited, creating the famous Roman Ghetto,the very constricted area in which the city's Jewswere forced to live.
Counter-Reformationgained pace under his successors, the milder Pope Pius IVand the severe Saint Pius V. The former was a nepotist lover of court splendours, but more severe costumes arrived anyway through the ideas of his advisor, the prelate Charles Borromeo, who was to become one of the most popular figures among the Rome's people. Pius V and Borromeo gave Rome a true Counter-Reformation character. All pomp was removed from the court, the jokers were expelled, and cardinals and bishops were obliged to live in the city. Blasphemy and concubinage were severely punished. Prostitutes were expelled or confined in a reserved district. The Inquisition's power in the city was reasserted, and its palace rebuilt with an increased space for prisons. During this period Michelangelo and opened the Porta Piaand turned the Baths of Diocletianinto the spectacular basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, where Pius IV was buried.
The pontificate of his successor, Gregory XIII, was considered a failure. As he tried to use milder measures than those of St. Pius, the worst element of the Roman population felt free to scourge again the streets. The French writer and philosopher
Montaignemaintained that "life and goods were never as unsure as at the time of Gregorius XIII, perhaps", and that a confraternity even held homosexual marriage in the church of San Giovanni a Porta Latina. The courtesans repressed by Pius had now returned.
Sixtus V was of very different temper. Although short (
1585- 1590), his reign his however remembered as one of the most effective in the modern Rome's history. He was even tougher than Pius V, and was variously nicknamed "castigamatti" ("punisher of the mad"), "papa di ferro" ("Iron Pope"), "dictator" and even, ironically, "demon", since no other Pope before him pursued with such a determination the reform of the church and the costumes. Sixtus profoundly reorganized the Papal States' administration, and cleaned the streets of Rome of thugs, procurers, dueling and so on. Even the nobles and Cardinals could not consider themselves free from the arms of Sixtus' police. The money from taxes, which were not now wasted in corruption, permitted an ambitious building program. Some ancient aqueducts were restored, and new one, the Acquedotto Felice(from Sixtus' name, Felice Peretti) was constructed. New houses were built in the desolate district of Esquilino, Viminaleand Quirinale, while old houses in the centre of the city were destroyed to open new, larger streets. Sixtus's principal aim was to make Rome a better destination for pilgrimages, and the new streets were intended to permit a better access to the major Basilicas. Old obelisks were moved or erected to embellish St. John in Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore and St. Peter, as well as Piazza del Popolo, in front of Santa Maria del Popolo.
Some of the most famous views of Rome in the
18th centurywere etched by Giovanni Battista Piranesi. His grand vision of classic Rome inspired many to visit the city and examine the ruins themselves.
Italian unification (
The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (
1798), which was built under the influence of the French Revolution. During Napoleon's reign, Rome was annexed into his empire and was technically part of France. After the fall of Napoleon's Empire, new states were created in Italy through the Congress of Vienna of 1814. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naple and Sicily) under Bourbon Ferdinand IV, the restored Papal States, and the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia under King Charles-Albert. The two regions of Venetia and Lombardy were given to the Austrians under their direct control for some time.
Another Roman Republic arose in
1849, within the framework of revolutions of 1848. Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification, Giuseppe Mazziniand Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought for the short-lived republic. However, the actions of these two great men would not have resulted in unification without the sly leadership of Camille Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia.
In his attempt to unify Northern Italy under the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, Cavour enacted major industrialization of the country in order to become the economic leader of Italy. In doing so, he believed that the other states would naturally come under his rule. Next, he sent the army of Piedmont to the Crimean War to join the French and British. Making minor successes in the war against Russia, cordial relations were established between Piedmont-Sardinia and France; a relationship to be exploited in the future.
The return of
Pope Pius IXin Rome, with help of French troops, marked the exclusion of Rome from the unification process that was embodied in the Second Italian Independence Warand the "Mille" expedition, after which all the Italian peninsula, except Rome and Venetia, would be unified under the House of Savoy. Garibaldi first attacked Sicily, luckily under the guise of passing British ships and landing with little resistance.
Taking the island, Garibaldi's actions were publicly denounced by Cavour but secretly encouraged via weapons supplements. This policy or real-politik, where the ends justified the means of unification, was continued as Garibaldi faced crossing the Strait of Messina. Cavour privately asked the British navy to allow Garibaldi's troops across the sea while publicly he again, denounced Garibaldi's actions. The maneuver was a success and Garibaldi's military genius carried him on to take the entire kingdom.
Cavour then moved to take Venetia and Lombardy via an alliance with France. The Italians and French together would attack the two states with France getting the city of Nice and the region of Savoy in return. However, the French pulled out of their agreement soon after, enraging Cavour who subsequently resigned. Only Lombardy had been captured at the time.
With French units still stationed at Rome however, Cavour, being called back to office, foresaw a possibility of Garibaldi attacking the Papal States and accidentally disrupting French-Italian relations. The army of Sardinia was therefore mobilized to attack the Papal States but remain outside Rome.
In the Austro-Prussian war however, a deal was made between the new Italy and Prussia, where Italy would attack Austria in return for the region of Venetia. The war was a major success for the Prussians (though the Italians did not win a single battle), and the northern front of Italy was complete.
1870, the Franco-Prussian Warstarted, and French Emperor Napoleon IIIcould no longer protect the Papal States. Soon after, the Italian army under general Raffaele Cadornaentered Rome on September 20, after a cannonade of three hours, through Porta Pia(see capture of Rome). The Leonine Citywas occupied the following day, a provisional Government Joint created by Cadorna out of local noblemen to avoid the rise of the radical factions. Rome and Latiumwere annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebisciteheld on October 2. 133,681 voted for annexion, 1,507 opposed (in Rome itself, there were 40,785 "Yes" and 57 "No").
Initially, the Italian government had offered to let Pope Pius IX keep the Leonine City, but the pope rejected the offer because acceptance would have been an implied endorsement of the legitimacy of the Italian kingdom's rule over his former domain. Pope Pius IX declared himself a
prisoner in the Vatican, although he was not actually restrained from coming and going. Officially, the capital was moved from Florence to Rome in early 1871.
Today's Rome reflects the stratification of the epochs of its long history, but it also is a huge contemporary metropolis. Its vast historical centre contains many areas from Ancient Rome, areas from medieval times, many palaces and artistic treasures from the
Renaissanceera, many fountains, churches and palaces from baroquetimes, as well as many examples of the Art Nouveau, Neoclassic, Modernism, Rationalismand any other artistic styles of the XIX and XX centuries (the city is in fact considered a living encyclopedia and museum of the last 3000 years of western art). The historical centre is identified as within the limits of the ancient imperial walls. Some central areas were reorganised after the unification (1880–1910 - "Roma Umbertina"), and some important additions and adaptations made during the Fascist period, with the discussed creation of the " Via dei Fori Imperiali", of the "Via della Conciliazione" in front of the Vatican (for the construction of which a large part of the old Borgo neighbourhood was destroyed) and the founding of new "quartieri" (among which "EUR, San Basilio, Garbatella, Cinecittà, Trullo, Quarticciolo" and, on the coast, the restructuring of Ostia) and the inclusion of bordering villages ("Labaro", "Osteria del Curato", "Quarto Miglio", "Capannelle", "Pisana", "Torrevecchia", "Ottavia", "Casalotti"). These expansions were needed to house the huge increase of population caused by the centralisation of the Italian state.
World War II, Rome suffered few bombings (notably at "San Lorenzo") and relatively little damage because none of the sides involved wanted to endanger the life of Pope Pius XIIin Vatican City. Rome fell to the Allies on June 4 1944. It was the first capital of an Axis nation to fall, and was relatively undamaged because the Germans had declared it an "open city" and withdrawn, meaning that the Allies did not have to fight their way in.Fact|date=July 2007
After the war, Rome continued to expand due to Italy's growing state administration and industry, with the creation of new "quartieri" and suburbs. The current official population stands at 2.5 million; during the business day workers increase this figure to over 3.5 million. This is a dramatic increase from previous figures, which were 138,000 in
1825, 244,000 in 1871, 692,000 in 1921, 1,600,000 in 1931.
Rome hosted the
1960 Summer Olympics, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracallaas venues. For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the 1990 FIFAfootball World Cup), the Villaggio Olimpico(Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district), etc.
Many of the monuments of Rome were restored by the Italian state and by the Vatican for the
Being the capital city of
Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, like the Presidency of the Republic, the government (and its single "Ministeri"), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and the Vatican City (curiously, Rome also hosts, in the Italian part of its territory, the Embassy of Italy for the Vatican City, a unique case of an Embassy within the boundaries of its own country). Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones - such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, the German Archaeological Institute - for the honour of scholarship in the Eternal City, and humanitarian ones, such as the FAO.
Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" (
parks). Among the most significant resources: plenty of museums - ( Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums, Galleria Borghese, and a great many others) — aqueducts, fountains, churches, palaces, historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs.
Among its hundreds of churches, Rome contains the five Major
Basilicas of the Catholic church: "Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano" (St. John Lateran, Rome's cathedral), "Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano" ( St. Peter's Basilica), "Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura" (St. Paul Outside the Walls), "Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore" (St. Mary Major), and "Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura" (St. Lawrence Outside the Walls). The Bishop of Rome is the Pope.
*Gregorovius, Ferdinand. "History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages".
Theodor Mommsen"The History of Rome, Books I, II, III, IV, V."
* [http://www-personal.umich.edu/~bkh/rome/5-20-3.htm City models of Ancient Rome]
* [http://www.theromanforum.com/articolo.asp?ID=730 Origins of the name "Rome"]
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