Red rain in Kerala
25 Julyto 23 September 2001, red rain sporadically fell on the southern Indian state of Kerala. Heavy downpours occurred in which the rainwas coloured red, staining clothes with an appearance similar to that of blood.cite web | last = Gentleman | first = Amelia | coauthors = Robin McKie | year = 2006 | url = http://observer.guardian.co.uk/world/story/0,,1723913,00.html | title = Red rain could prove that aliens have landed | publisher = Guardian Unlimited | accessdate = March 12 | accessyear = 2006] Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported. [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2001/07/29/stories/0229000p.htm JULY 28, 2001, The Hindu: Multicolour rain] ] Coloured rain had been reported in Kerala in as early as 1896 and several times since then.
It was initially announced that the rains were coloured by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst, but a study commissioned by the
Government of Indiafound that the rains had been coloured by airborne spores from a locally prolific terrestrial alga. Other explanations were proposed but not until early 2006 did the coloured rains of Kerala gain widespread attention in the popular media. A controversial conjecture that the coloured particles were extraterrestrial cells was proposed by Godfrey Louisand Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi Universityin Kottayam. No information to support the extraterrestrial hypothesis has been published since 2006.
The coloured rain of Kerala began falling on
25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukkiin the southern part of the state. Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.cite web | last = Ramakrishnan | first = Venkitesh | year = 2001 | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1465036.stm | title = Coloured rain falls on Kerala | publisher = BBC | accessdate = March 6 | accessyear = 2006] Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following ten days, and then with diminishing frequency until late September. According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shrivelled grey "burnt" leaves. Shrivelled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area.cite web | last = Radhakrishnan | first = M. G. | year = 2001 | url = http://www.indiatoday.com/webexclusive/dispatch/20010905/stephen.html | title = Scarlets Of Fire | publisher = India Today | accessdate = March 6 | accessyear = 2006] [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?xml=0&art_id=1008083877 Mystery of the scarlet rains and other tales] — Times of India, 6 August 2001] [http://web.archive.org/web/20021130222422/timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?art_id=1263018103 Now wells form spontaneously in Kerala] — Times of India, 5 August 2001 (from the Internet Archive)] It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so localised that normal rain could be falling just a few metres away from the red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes. cite journal | last = Louis| first =G. | authorlink = | coauthors =Kumar A.S. | year =2006 | month = | title =The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin | journal =Astrophysics and Space Science | volume = | issue = | pages = | id = | url =http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0601022v1 | quote =( [full paper] ) ( [http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&doi=10.1007/s10509-005-9025-4 at journal website] )| accessdate = 2008-06-06 ] Each millilitreof rain water contained about 9 million redparticles, and each litreof rainwater was contained approximately 100 milligrams of solids. Extrapolatingthese figures to the total amount of red rain estimated to have fallen, it was estimated 50,000 kilograms of red particles had fallen on Kerala.
Description of the particles
The brownish-red solid separated from the red rain consisted of about 90% round red particles and the balance consisted of
protozoansand debris. The particles in suspension in the rain water were responsible for the colour of the rain, which at times was as strongly coloured as blood. A small percentage of particles were white or had light yellow, bluish gray and green tints. The particles were typically 4 to 10 µm across and spherical or oval. Louis's images with a scanning electron microscope showed the particles as having a depressed centre, suggestive of biological cell, especially red blood cells.At still higher magnification some particles showed internal structures.
Several groups of researchers analyzed the chemical elements in the solid particles and different techniques gave similar results. The particles were mostly
carbonand oxygenwith lesser amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, silicon, chlorineand metals.
Sediment (red particles plus debris) from the red rain was collected and analyzed by the
Centre for Earth Science Studies(CESS) using a combination of ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and wet chemical methods. The major elements found are listed below.cite journal
last = Sampath
first = S.
coauthors = Abraham, T. K., Sasi Kumar, V., & Mohanan, C.N.
title = Coloured Rain: A Report on the Phenomenon.
journal = CESS-PR-114-2001
publisher = Center for Earth Science Studies and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute
date = 2001
url = http://web.archive.org/web/20060613135746/http://www.geocities.com/iamgoddard/Sampath2001.pdf
accessdate =2008-05-27|format=PDF] The CESS analysis also showed significant amounts of
heavy metalsin the red raindust, including nickel(43), manganese(59), titanium(321), chromium(67) and copper(55) (amounts in ppm).
Louis and Kumar used
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopyanalysis of the red solid and showed that the particles were composed of mostly carbon and oxygen, with trace amounts of silicon and iron (see table).
CHN analyzershowed 43.03% carbon, 4.43% hydrogen, and 1.84% nitrogen.
J. Thomas Brenna in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at
Cornell Universityconducted carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses using a scanning electron microscope with X-ray microanalysis, an elemental analyzer, and an isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometer. The red particles collapsedwhen dried, which suggested that they were filled with fluid. The amino acidsin the particles were analyzed and seven were identified (inorder of concentration): phenylalanine, glutamic acid/ glutamine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, and arginine. He concluded that the results were consistent with a marine origin or a terrestrial plant that uses a C4 photosynthetic pathway.cite journal |last=DiGregorio |first=Barry E. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |month= |title=What made the rain red in India? Isotopic analysis points to a terrestrial origin for the unusual organic particles that colored the rain like blood. |journal=Analytical Chemistry (Washington, DC, United States) |volume=79 |issue=9 |pages=3238 |id= |url=http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/ancham/79/i09/pdf/0507detective.pdf?sessid=6006l3|accessdate= 2007-09-10 |quote=My chemical tests are consistent with a terrestrial origin for this material. This doesn't mean it is not extraterrestrial, but it certainly does not support it]
Possible causes for the red rain
History records many instances of unusual objects falling with the rain — in 2000, in an example of
raining animals, a small waterspoutin the North Seasucked up a school of fisha mile off shore, depositing them shortly afterwards on Great Yarmouthin the United Kingdom. [cite news | last = Lane | first = Megan | date = 2000-08-07| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/869482.stm | title = It's raining fish! | publisher = BBC | accessdate = 2006-03-06] Coloured rain is by no means rare, and can often be explained by the airborne transport of dustfrom desertor other dry regions which is washed down by rain. One such case occurred in Englandin 1903, when dust was carried from the Saharaand fell with rain in February of that year.Mill H. R., R. K. G. Lempfert, 1904,"The great dust fall of February 1903 and its origin." Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 30:57.]
At first, the red rain in Kerala was attributed to the same effect, with dust from the deserts of Arabia initially the suspect.
LIDARobservations had detected a cloud of dust in the atmosphere near Kerala in the days preceding the outbreak of the red rain. cite journal | last =Satyanarayana | first =M. | authorlink = | coauthors =Veerabuthiran S., Ramakrishna Rao D. Presennakumar B.| year =2004 | month = | title =Colored Rain on the West Coastal Region of India: Was it Due to a Dust Storm| journal =Aerosol Science and Technology | volume =28 | issue = | pages =24–26 | id = | url = | accessdate = 2008-05-30 | quote = ] [ cite journal | last = Veerabuthiran | first =S. | authorlink = | coauthors =Satyanarayana, M. | year =2003 | month =June | title =Lidar observations on atmospheric dust transported from south-west Asia to Indian west coast region: A case study of colour rain event occurred during July 2001| journal =Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics | volume =32| issue = | pages =158-165 | id = | url =http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijrsp/ijrsp2k3/ijrsp_jun03.htm#p6 | accessdate = 2008-05-30 | quote = ]
K.K. Sasidharan Pillai, a senior scientific assistant in the Indian Meteorological Department, proposed dust and acidic material from an eruption of
Mayon Volcanoin the Philippinesas an explanation for the coloured rain and the "burnt" leaves. [cite news | last = Varma | first = M. Dinesh | title = Theory links 'scarlet rain' to Mayon volcano| work = | publisher = The Hindu
September 1, 2001| url = http://www.hinduonnet.com/2001/09/01/stories/0401211v.htm | accessdate = 2008-05-26] The volcano was erupting in June and July 2001 [ cite web|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/5ef2040d3ff5114cc1256a76005478c6|title=Mayon eruption status update June 2001|accessdate=2008-05-26] and Pillai calculated that the Eastern or Equatorial jet streamcould have transported volcanic material to Kerala in 25-36 hours. The Equatorial jet stream is unusual in that it flows from east to west at about 10° N, [cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/understanding/jetstreams_world.shtml}|title=Jet Streams around the World|publisher=BBC Weather Centre|accessdate=2008-05-26] approximately the same latitude as Kerala (8° N) and Mayon Volcano (13° N).
Initially the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) had said that the cause of the red rain was an exploding meteor, which had dispersed about 1,000 kg (around one ton) of material. A few days later, when the red rain continued to fall, CESS retracted this. (Debris from a meteor would not have continued to fall in the same area; it would have been dispersed by winds.) CESS and the
Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute(TBGRI) jointly issued a statement that the particles colouring the rainwater were some type of spore.cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Red rain was fungus, not meteor|url=http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie20010806/nat10.html |work= |publisher=Indian Express |date= August 6, 2001|accessdate=2008-05-31 ] Then in November 2001, commissioned by the Government of India's Department of Science & Technology, the CESS and TBGRI released a report which concluded that:
The colour was found to be due to the presence of a large amount of spores of aAlthough red or orange, "Trentepohlia" is a Chlorophyte green alga which can grow abundantly on tree bark or damp soil and rocks, but is also the photosynthetic symbiont or photobiont of many lichens, including some of those abundant on the trees in
lichen-forming alga belonging to the genus Trentepohlia. Field verification showed that the region had plenty of lichens. Samples oflichen taken from Changanacherry, when cultured in an algal medium, also showed the presence of the same species of algae. Both samples (from rainwater and from trees) produced the same kind of algae, indicating that the spores seen in the rainwater could most probably have come fromlocal sources. Changanacherryarea.
The report also stated that there was no dust of meteoric, volcanic, or desert origin present in the rainwater, and that the colour of the rainwater was not due to any dissolved gases or pollutants. The report concluded that heavy rains in Kerala in the weeks preceding the red rains could have caused the widespread growth of lichens, which had given rise to a large quantity of spores in the atmosphere.
However, it could find no satisfactory explanation for the apparently extraordinary dispersal, nor for the uptake of the spores into clouds. It noted, for example, that prior to the first red rainfall there had been almost continuous rain for a period of eight hours. CESS responded ‘‘While the cause of the colour in the rainfall has been identified, finding the answers to these questions is a challenge.’’
Parts of the CESS/TBGRI report were supported by Milton Wainwright at
Sheffield University, who, together with Chandra Wickramasinghe, has studied stratospheric spores.cite web|url=http://www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/2006/03/03/1427866.htm| title= It's raining aliens] |quote= transcript of a New Scientist podcasthttp://www.newscientist.com/podcast.ns|accessdate=2008-06-03 ] In March 2006 he said the particles were similar in appearance to spores of a rust fungus,cite news |first=Chris |last=Benfield |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Is mysterious ‘red rain’ first evidence of life in space?|url=http://www.yorkshiretoday.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=55&ArticleID=1375334 |work= |publisher=Yorkshire Today |date= 3 June 2008|accessdate=2008-06-03 ] later saying that he had confirmed their similarity to spores or algae, and found no evidence to suggest that the rain contained dust, sand, fat globules, or blood.
In 2003 Louis and Kumar, physicists at
Mahatma Gandhi Universityin Kottayam, Kerala, posted an article entitled “Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala”cite web |url=http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0310120 |title= Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala |accessdate=2008-06-01 |last= Louis |first=Godfrey |coauthors= Kumar, A. Santhosh |date= 5 October 2003|work= |publisher=arXiv] in the on-line, non- peer reviewed arXivweb site. While the CESS report said there was no apparent relationship between the loud sound (possibly a sonic boom) and flash of light which preceded the red rain, to Louis and Kumar it was a key piece of evidence. They proposed that a meteor (from a comet containing the red particles) caused the sound and flash and when it disintegrated over Kerala it released the red particles which slowly fell to the ground. Their work indicated that the particles were of biological origin (consistent with the CESS report), not inorganic material and they invoked the panspermia hypothesisto explain the presence of cells in a supposed fall of meteoric material. Additionally, using ethidium bromidethey were unable to detect DNAor RNAin the particles. Two months later they posted another paper on the same site entitled “New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia” in which they reported that
The microorganism isolated from the red rain of Kerala shows very extraordinary characteristics like ability to grow optimally at 300°C (572°F) and the capacity to metabolize a wide range of organic and inorganic materials.These claims and data have yet to be reported in any peer reviewed publication. In 2006 they published a paper in "
Astrophysics and Space Science" entitled "The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin" which reiterated their hypothesis that the red rain was biological matter from an extraterrestrial source but made no mention of their claims to having induced the cells to grow. One of their conclusions was:
If the red rain particles are biological cells and are of cometary origin, then this phenomena can be a case of cometary panspermia.
Panspermiais the hypothesis that life on Earth was carried here from elsewhere in the universe. Fred Hoyleand Chandra Wickramasinghehave been among the proponents of the theory, but it has not been accepted by most mainstream scientists. The paper in "Astrophysics and Space Science" prompted numerous articles in the popular media.cite news |first=Hazel|last= Muir |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=When aliens rained over India |url=http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/evolution/mg18925411.100 |work= |publisher=New Scientist |date= 2 March 2006|accessdate=2008-06-03 ]
A quotation attributed to
Carl Saganthat "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence" is often used regarding the claims of alien life. [cite web|url=http://whyfiles.org/shorties/207red_rain/ |title= Red rain controversy: Aliens or hype?|publisher= The Why Files |accessdate=2008-06-04] cite web |url=http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/060104_specksfrm1.htm |title=Skepticism greets claim of possible alien microbes |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher=World Science |date= November 9, 2006]
Samples of the red particles were also sent for analysis to
Milton Wainwrightat Sheffield Universityand Chandra Wickramasingheat Cardiff University. Wickramasinghe reported in December, 2006 that “work in progress has yielded positive for DNA”,cite web|url=http://www.astrobiology.cf.ac.uk/redrain.htm|title=Cardiff Centre of Astrobiology: Analysis of Red Rain of Kerala|publisher=University of Cardiff|accessdate=2008-06-24] but the results have not yet been confirmed. The absence of DNA is key to Louis and Kumar's hypothesis that the cells were of extraterrestrial origins.
Wainwright is quoted as saying: [http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19025455.400.html 1 April 2006, New Scientist: Red rain fantasies] ]
“There appears to be an increasing tendency among scientists to come up with wild explanations when asked by the press to comment on unusual, novel phenomena. A good example is provided by comments about the recent Indian red rain phenomenon."A correction was printed in "The Observer" [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1729000,00.html For the record] , "
The Observer", March 12, 2006] regarding Dr. Wainwright's comment that the red rain lacked DNA. Dr. Wainwright asked in the correction to make clear that he currently had no view on whether the samples contained genetic material or not, and that it was physicist Godfrey Louis who held that view. The controversial research of Louis et al. is the only evidence suggesting that these organisms are of extraterrestrial origin.cite web |url=http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0312639|title= New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia |accessdate=2008-06-01 |last= Louis |first=Godfrey |coauthors= Kumar, A. Santhosh |date= 29 December 2003|work= |publisher= arXiv]
Pattazhcame to the conclusion that, "Regarding red rain, there was an argument that it was alien presence. But that’s just like science fiction. During 2001-02, [a] peculiar geological situation was prevailing in Kerala like caving in of wells and landslides.” [ [http://theviewspaper.net/science/2008/05/3137 The Viewspaper - 5178 Pattazhy ] ]
A study has been published showing a correlation between historic reports of colored rains and of meteors. cite journal | last =McCafferty | first =Partick | authorlink = | coauthors = | year =2008 | month = | title =Bloody rain again! Red rain and meteors in history and myth | journal =International Journal of Astrobiology | volume = | issue = | pages = | id = | url =http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?aid=1661980 | accessdate = 2008-05-31 | quote = ] In an interview [Citation
title = Claim of alien cells in rain may fit historical accounts: study
journal = World Science
date = January 22
year = 2008
url = http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/080122_red-rain.htm
accessdate = 2008-01-25] The author of the paper, Patrick McCafferty, said:
Sixty of these events (coloured rain), or 36 percent, “were linked to meteoritic or cometary activity,” he went on. But not always strongly. Sometimes, “the fall of red rain seems to have occurred after an airburst,” as from a meteor exploding in air; other times the odd rainfall “is merely recorded in the same year as a stone-fall or the appearance of a comet.”
Reports indicated that on
August 21, 2007red coloured rainfall occurred in a few places in the northern part of Kozhikode district. Places around Vadakara, a municipalityin Kozhikode district, which is 50 kilometres (31 miles) northward of Kozhikode town witnessed this phenomenon. Centre for Water Resources Development and Management(CWRDM) an agency of government of India, was reported to be awaiting samples for examination. [ [http://www.newkerala.com/july.php?action=fullnews&id=55259 Latest India News @ NewKerala.Com, India ] ]
September 6, 2007the river Periyar turned red in the region of the Eloorindustrial estate. [http://www.indiatogether.org/2006/sep/env-periyar.htm]
A possibly related incident occurred in February 2008 when small fish rained down on Kerala. [cite news
title = ‘Fish rain’ takes Kerala villagers by surprise
publisher = The Financial Express
date = , February 12, 2008
url = http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Fish-rain-takes-Kerala-villagers-by-surprise/272219/
accessdate = 2008-05-27]
31 July 2008An incident of red coloured rain occurred in the municipality of Bagadó, Chocó, Colombia. It has been reported that an individual took a sample of the rain to a laboratory and subsequently it was found to be "blood". [cite news
title = Investigan origen de lluvia con apariencia de sangre en área rural de Bagadó, Chocó
language = es
publisher = "
date = 2008-08-01
url = http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/otraszonas/home/investigan-origen-de-lluvia-con-apariencia-de-sangre-en-area-rural-de-bagado-choco_4420012-1
accessdate = 2008-08-03] [cite news
title = (Video) Sigue investigación de lluvia con apariencia de sangre
language = es
Caracol TV/ " El Espectador"
date = 2008-08-01
url = http://elespectador.com/node/29756
accessdate = 2008-08-03]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060613135746/http://www.geocities.com/iamgoddard/Sampath2001.pdf Sampath, S., Abraham, T. K., Sasi Kumar, V., & Mohanan, C.N. (2001). Coloured Rain: A Report on the Phenomenon. CESS-PR-114-2001, Center for Earth Science Studies and Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute.]
* [http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/evolution/mg18925411.100 “When aliens rained over India” by Hazel Muir in "New Scientist"]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6146292.stm “Searching for 'our alien origins'” by Andrew Thompson in "BBC News"]
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