- Pleural effusion
MeshID = D010996
Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the
pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during inhalation.
Types of fluids
Four types of fluids can accumulate in the pleural space:
Serous fluid( hydrothorax)
Pus( pyothoraxor empyema)
Pleural effusion is usually diagnosed on the basis of
medical historyand physical exam, and confirmed by chest x-ray. Chest films acquired in the lateral decubitusposition (with the patient lying on their side) are more sensitive, and can pick up as little as 50 ml of fluid. At least 300 ml of fluid must be present before upright chest films can pick up signs of pleural effusion (e.g., blunted costophrenic angles). Once accumulated fluid is more than 500 ml, there are usually detectable clinical signs in the patient, such as decreased movement of the chest on the affected side, dullness to percussion over the fluid, diminished breath soundson the affected side, decreased vocal resonance and fremitus(though this is an inconsistant and unreliable sign), pleural friction rub. Above the effusion, where the lung is compressed, there may be brochial breathing and egophony. In large effusion there may be tracheal deviation away from the effusion. Once a pleural effusion is diagnosed, the cause must be determined. Pleural fluid is drawn out of the pleural space in a process called thoracentesis. A needle is inserted through the back of the chest wall into the pleural space. The fluid may then be evaluated for the following:
# Chemical composition including
protein, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), albumin, amylase, pHand glucose
Gram stainand culture to identify possible bacterial infections
# Cell count and differential
Cytologyto identify cancer cells, but may also identify some infective organisms
# Other tests as suggested by the clinical situation -
lipids, fungal culture, viral culture, specific immunoglobulins
Transudate vs. exudate
The third step in the evaluation of pleural fluid is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. Transudative pleural effusions are caused by "systemic" factors that alter the balance of the formation and absorption of pleural fluid (e.g., left ventricular failure,
pulmonary embolism, and cirrhosis), while exudative pleural effusions are caused by alterations in "local" factors that influence the formation and absorption of pleural fluid (e.g., bacterial pneumonia, cancer, and viral infection).
Transudative and exudative pleural effusions are differentiated by comparing chemistries in the pleural fluid to those in the blood. According to a
meta-analysis, exudative pleural effusions meet at least one of the following criteria cite journal |author=Heffner J, Brown L, Barbieri C |title=Diagnostic value of tests that discriminate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Primary Study Investigators |journal=Chest |volume=111 |issue=4 |pages=970–80 |year=1997 |pmid=9106577 |doi=10.1378/chest.111.4.970] :
# Pleural fluid protein >2.9 g/dL (29 g/L)
# Pleural fluid cholesterol >45 mg/dL (1.16 mmol/L)
# Pleural fluid LDH >60 percent of upper limit for serum
Previously criteria proposed by Light for an exudative effusion are met if at least one of the following exists (Light's criteria) cite journal |author=Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W |title=Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates |journal=Ann Intern Med |volume=77 |issue=4 |pages=507–13 |year=1972 |pmid=4642731] :
# The ratio of pleural fluid protein to serum protein is greater than 0.5
# The ratio of pleural fluid LDH and serum LDH is greater than 0.6
# Pleural fluid LDH is more than two-thirds normal upper limit for serum
Twenty-five percent of patients with transudative pleural effusions are mistakenly identified as having exudative pleural effusions by Light's criteria. Therefore, additional testing is needed if a patient identified as having an exudative pleural effusion appears clinically to have a condition that produces a transudative effusion. In such cases albumin levels in blood and pleural fluid are measured. If the difference between the albumin levels in the blood and the pleural fluid is greater than 1.2 g/dL (12 g/L), it can be assumed that the patient has a transudative pleural effusion.
If the fluid is definitively identified as exudative, additional testing is necessary to determine the local factors causing the exudate.
Exudative pleural effusions
Once identified as exudative, additional evaluation is needed to determine the cause of the excess fluid, and pleural fluid amylase, glucose, pH and cell counts are obtained. The fluid is also sent for
Gram stainingand culture, and, if suspicious for tuberculosis, examination for TB markers ( adenosine deaminase> 45 IU/L, interferon gamma> 140 pg/mL, or positive polymerase chain reaction(PCR) for tuberculous DNA).
Pleural fluid amylase is elevated in cases of esophageal rupture, pancreatic pleural effusion, or cancer. Glucose is decreased with cancer, bacterial infections, or
rheumatoid pleuritis. Pleural fluid pH is low in empyema (<7.2) and may be low in cancer. If cancer is suspected, the pleural fluid is sent for cytology. If cytology is negative, and cancer is still suspected, either a thoracoscopy, or needle biopsy of the pleura may be performed.
The most common causes of transudative pleural effusions in the United States are left ventricular failure,
pulmonary embolism, and cirrhosis(causing hepatic hydrothorax), while the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions are bacterial pneumonia, cancer (with lung cancer, breast cancer, and lymphomacausing approximately 75% of all malignant pleural effusions), viral infection, and pulmonary embolism. Although pulmonary embolism can produce either transudative or exudative pleural effusions, the latter is more common.
Other causes of pleural effusion include
tuberculosis(though pleural fluid smears are rarely positive for AFB, this is the most common cause of pleural effusion in some developing countries), autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, bleeding (often due to chest trauma), chylothorax (most commonly caused by trauma), and accidental infusion of fluids. Less common causes include esophageal rupture or pancreatic disease, intraabdominal abscess, rheumatoid arthritis, asbestos pleural effusion, Meigs syndrome(ascites and pleural effusion due to a benign ovarian tumor), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Pleural effusions may also occur through medical/surgical interventions, including the use of medications (pleural fluid is usually
eosinophilic), coronary artery bypass surgery, abdominal surgery, endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy, radiation therapy, liver or lung transplantation, and intra- or extravascular insertion of central lines.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the pleural effusion. Therapeutic aspiration may be sufficient; larger effusions may require insertion of an intercostal drain (either pigtail or surgical). Repeated effusions may require chemical (
talc, bleomycin, tetracycline/ doxycycline) or surgical pleurodesis, in which the two pleural surfaces are attached to each other so that no fluid can accumulate between them.
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000086.htm Medline Plus Article on Pleural Effusion]
* [http://www.virtualcancercentre.com/symptoms.asp?sid=59 Pleural Effusion] Virtual Cancer Centre
* [http://rad.usuhs.edu/medpix/medpix.html?mode=image_finder&action=search&srchstr=pleural%20effusion&srch_type=all#top Pleural Effusion] Images from MedPix
* cite book
author = Light RW
year = 2001
title = Pleural Diseases
edition = 4th ed.
publisher = Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
location = New York ISBN 0-7817-2777-4
* cite book
author = Light RW
year = 2005
title = Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
chapter = Chapter 245: Disorders of the pleura, mediastinum, diaphragm, and chest wall
editor = Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL
edition = 16th ed.
publisher = McGraw-Hill Professional
location = New York, NY ISBN 0-07-140235-7
* cite book
author =Dowdeswell IRG
year = 1998
title = Internal Medicine
chapter = Chapter 64: Pleural Diseases
editor = Stein JH
edition = 5th ed.
publisher = C.V.Mosby
location = New York ISBN 0-8151-8698-3
* cite book
author = Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, O'Brien, Bucher
year = 2007
title = Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems
editor = Kristin Geen
edition = 7th ed.
publisher = Mosby Elsvier
location = St. Louis Missouri ISBN 978-0-323-03688-7
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