Silesian Voivodeshipand Opole Voivodeshipin Poland, Moravian-Silesian Regionand Olomouc Region(only Jeseník District) in Czech Republic, Germanyand USA
Upper Silesia/ Silesia
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: "Ślůnsko godka", _cs. Slezsky jazyk, _pl. Język śląski) is a
Slavic languageor dialect spoken in the region of Silesia. The ISO 639-3language code is "szl" [en icon http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=szl] .
Silesian speakers currently live in the region of
Upper Silesia, which is split between southwestern Polandand the northeastern Czech Republic. At present Silesian is commonly spoken in the area between historical border of Silesia on the east, and a line from Sycówto Prudnikon the west, as well as in the Rawiczarea. Until 1945Silesian was also spoken in enclaves in Lower Silesia, as Lower Silesian languagewas spoken by the ethnic German majority populace of that region at the time.
According to the last official census in Poland (2002), about 60,000 people declared Silesian as their native tongue, and over 173,000 people declared Silesian nationality [pl icon [http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_raport_z_wynikow_nsp_ludnosci_i_mieszkan_2002.pdf "www.stat.gov.pl"] - Main Statistical Office of Polish government: report of
Polish census of 2002] . There are also about 100,000 Silesian (Cieszyn Silesian) speakers living in the Czech Republic; Cieszyn Silesian is also commonly spoken in the Polish part of Cieszyn Silesia. Speakers of Cieszyn Silesian dialect usually identify themselves on the nationality level as Poles [en icon "Borders of Language and Identity in Teschen Silesia" - Kevin Hannan, 1996. New York: Peter Lang, page 162] . According to the last official census in Czech Republic, 10,878 people in declared Silesian nationalityFact|date=July 2008.
The recognition of Silesian
2003, the National Publishing Company of Silesia ("Narodowa Oficyna Śląska") commenced its operations [pl icon [http://www.narodowaoficynaslaska.friko.pl Page of National printing house of Silesia] ("Narodowa Oficyna Śląska")] . This publisher was started by the "Alliance of People of the Silesian Nation" ("Związek Ludności Narodowości Śląskiej") and it prints books about Silesia and books in Silesian language.
2007, the Slavic Silesian language was recognized by an ISO Joint Advisory Committee [en icon [http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/iso639jac.html Official page of Joint Advisory Committee (ISO 639/JAC)] ] , Library of Congress[pl icon [http://www.dziennik.pl/Default.aspx?TabId=14&ShowArticleId=54602 "Język śląski jest językiem obcym"] - Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat, 2007] [en icon [http://www.poland.pl/news/article,US_Library_of_Congress_recognizes_the_Silesian_language,id,287218.htm "US Library of Congress recognizes the Silesian language"] - "www.poland.pl", 2007] [en icon [http://www.polskieradio.pl/zagranica/news/artykul56383.html "Silesian – a language, not a dialect"] - "www.polskieradio.pl" (en. "www.polishradio.pl")] , International Information Centre for Terminology and SIL International. Language was attributed ISO code: "SZL" [en icon [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=szl www.sil.org] - ISO documentation of Silesian language] [en icon [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/codes.asp?order=639_3&letter=s www.sil.org] - list of languages with codes ISO (letter "S")] [en icon [http://www.ethnologue.org/codes/LanguageCodes.tab www.ethnologue.org] - list of languages with codes ISO] [en icon [http://www.lingvoj.org/lingvo/szl www.lingvoj.org] ] .
6 September2007, 23 politicians of the Polish parliament notified about a project of a new law to give the Silesian language the official status of a regional language [pl icon http://www.dyktando.org./?id=opis] .
The first official "National Dictation contest of the Silesian language" ("Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego") took place in August 2007 [szl icon/pl icon [http://www.dyktando.org www.dyktando.org] - official page of "National Dictation contest of the Silesian language"] .
30 January 2008and in June 2008, two organizations promoting Silesian language were started: Pro Loquela Silesianaand "Tôwarzistwo Piastowaniô Ślónskij Môwy "Danga" [pl icon [http://www.dz.com.pl/?tekst,2484 "Śląski wśród języków świata"] - Dziennik Zachodni, 2008] .
26 May 2008, was officially started [pl icon [http://gospodarka.gazeta.pl/IT/1,88732,5248211,Slaska_Wikipedia_juz_dziala.html "Śląska Wikipedia już działa"] - Gazeta Wyborcza-Gospodarka, 2008] .
30 June2008 in the edifice of the Silesian Parliamentin Katowice, a conference took place on the status of Silesian language. This conference was a forum for politicians, linguists, representatives of interested organizations, and persons who deal with the Silesian language. The conference was titled "Silesian - a dialect or however already a language?" ("Śląsko godka - jeszcze gwara czy jednak już język"?") [pl icon [http://pl.wikinews.org/wiki/Katowice:_konferencja_dotycz%C4%85ca_statusu_%C5%9Bl%C4%85skiej_mowy "Katowice: konferencja dotycząca statusu śląskiej mowy"] - article in pl.Wikinews] .
Steuers Silesian alphabet
The attempts at codification of Silesian are numerous. One of the first
alphabets created specifically for Silesian was Steuer's Silesian alphabet, used by Felix Steuer to write his poems in Silesian. The alphabetconsists of 30 graphemes and eight digraphs.
A, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, Ů, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż
This alphabet came into being in '
1990s. Was created by Ted Jeczalik (Tadzik Jeczalik, Tadeusz Jaczalik) [ [http://dyktando.org/index.php?id=ortografia Dyktando 2008 - Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego] ] from USA (one of jurors of "National Dictation contest of the Silesian language" / "Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego"). This alphabet is based on standard Latin alphabet/ English alphabet(compatible with ISO) and consists of 26 graphemes and 15 digraphs. Instead of special signs, the apostropheafter letter is used.
Phonetic Silesian alphabet
2006a new Silesian alphabet was proposed. It is widely used on the internet, including by the Silesian Wikipedia. It consists of 32 graphemes and four digraphs.
Letters: A, B, C, Ć,
Č, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ń, O, P, R, Ř, S, Ś, Š, T, U, Ů, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ž
Digraphs: Ch, Dz, Dź,
Polish alphabet for Silesian
Silesian is also written in an adaptation of the Polish alphabet. [ [http://dyktando.org/index.php?id=ortografia Dyktando 2008 - Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego] ] It contains 30 graphemes and 7 digraphs.
Letters: A, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O,
Ó, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż
Digraphs: Ch, Cz, Dz, Dź, Dż, Rz, Sz
It is used for a long time, because the
Silesiansin Polandare taught in Polish schools and they know only the Polish way of writing. In the Polish alphabet modification is written approximately half of web pages and books. [ [http://dyktando.org/index.php?id=ortografia Dyktando 2008 - Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego] ]
Writing in this alphabet is rather problematic, since there are many ways to write one sound, e.g. ź ( [Help:IPA| [ʑ] ) from the "phonetic alphabet" used inter alia on the
Silesian Wikipediacan be written as ź or zi, but "zi" in the phonetic script stands for [Help:IPA| [zi] . There's also the risk of losing the characteristic Silesian pronunciation - there is not one method of writing ů ( [Help:IPA| [o] ) - the word "Ślůnsk" can be written as Ślonsk, Ślónsk, Ślunsk and even Śląsk (despite there are no phonemic nasal vowels in Silesian).
The same thing is with the
diphtong"uo" ( [Help:IPA| [wɔ] ). According to the Polish orthography it must be transcribed as ło, which is incorrect, because it destroys the rule that "ł" comes from a velarized l. The alphabet is criticised by supporters of radical writings.
Lord's Prayerin Silesian, Polish and Czech.
Dialects of Silesian language
The Silesian language has many local dialects:
Cieszyn Silesian dialect
Niemodlin Silesian dialect
Gliwice Silesian dialect
Jabłonków Silesian dialect
Kluczbork Silesian dialect
Prudnik Silesian dialect
Opole Silesian dialect
Lach Silesian dialect
Dialect vs language
Opinions are divided between Polish linguists whether Silesian is a distinct language or simply another dialect of Polish. The issue can be contentious as some Silesians consider themselves to be a nationality within Poland. Linguists from Poland, for example;
Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay(19th-20th century) [en icon/pl icon " God's Playground" - Norman Davies, ISBN 83-240-0020-8] Jolanta Tambor [pl icon [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/katowice/1,35019,3603383.html "Językoznawcy o mowie śląskiej"] - Gazeta Wyborcza-Katowice, 2006] , Tomasz Wicherkiewicz [pl icon [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/katowice/1,35063,4347216.html "Język śląski uznany w Stanach Zjednoczonych"] - Gazeta Wyborcza-Katowice, 2007] and Tomasz Kamusella[pl icon "Schlonzska mowa - Język, Górny Śląsk i nacjonalizm" - Tomasz Kamusella, ISBN 83-919589-2-2] [en icon [http://cadmus.iue.it/dspace/bitstream/1814/1351/1/HEC03-01.pdf "The Szlonzoks and their Language: Between Germany, Poland and Szlonzokian Nationalism"] - Tomasz Kamusella, European University Institute- Department of History and Civilization and Opole University, 2003] support its status as a language.
International linguists such as
Reinhold Olesch[de icon "Zur schlesischen Sprachlandschaft: Ihr alter slawischer Anteil" - Reinhold Olesch, 1987, page 32-45] [pl icon Joanna Rostropowicz: Śląski był jego językiem ojczystym [Reinhold Olesch, 1910-1990] w: Śląsk bogaty różnorodnością - kultur, narodów i wyznań. Historia lokalna na przykładzie wybranych powiatów, miast i gmin (red. Krzysztof Kluczniok, Tomasz Zając), Urząd Gm. i M. Czerwionka-Leszczyny, Dom Współpracy Pol.-Niem., Czerwionka-Leszczyny 2004, ISBN 83-920458-5-8] and Gerd Hentschelfrom Germany, Ewald Osers(1949) [en icon "Silesian Idiom and Language" - Ewald Osers, New York1949] [en icon "Slavonic Encyclopedia", page 1149-1151] and Norman Davies[en icon "" - Norman Davies, page 1233, ISBN 0-19-820171-0] from United Kingdom, Czech Óndra Łysohorskyalso support the status of Silesian as a Slavic language.
The Silesian language has recently seen an increased use in culture, for example:
* TV and radio stations (for example:
TV Silesia, Sfera TV, Slonsky Radio[szl icon [http://www.slonskyradio.eu "www.slonskyradio.eu"] ] , Radio Piekary[pl icon [http://www.radiopiekary.pl "radiopiekary.pl"] ] );
* music groups (for example:
Hasiok, Dohtor Miód, FEET);
* theatre [pl icon [http://www.e-teatr.pl/pl/artykuly/57112.html "www.e-teatr.pl"] ] (for example: "Polterabend" in
Silesian Theatre[pl icon [http://www.teatrslaski.art.pl/przedstawienia/polterabend.php "www.teatrslaski.art.pl" (Silesian Theatre)] ] );
* film (for example: "Święta Wojna" ("Holy War"), "Grzeszny żywot Franciszka Buły" ("Sinful Life of Franciszek Buła"));
* books (for example: Silesian Bible).
Book of Henryków( 1270) is earliest document to include a sentence written in the Silesian language, though it be also recognised for Polish language and Czech language [szl icon [http://www.slunskoeka.pyrsk.com/gysichta.html#02. "www.slunskoeka.pyrsk.com"] ]
Lower Silesian language
* [http://punasymu.com "Pů našymu"]
* [http://www.slonzoki.de "Slonsko Lauba"]
* [http://slunskoeka.pyrsk.com/farby.html "Slunskoeka"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Silesian (disambiguation) — Silesian as an adjective can mean anything from or related to Silesia. As a noun, it refers to an article, item, or person of or from Silesia. Silesian may also refer to:;People *Silesians, inhabitants of Silesia, either a West Slavic (for… … Wikipedia
Silesian German — Infobox Language name = Lower Silesian language nativename = Schlesisch [http://www.ethnologue.com/show language.asp?code=sli Ethnologue entry] ] familycolor = Indo European states = Poland Czech Republic, Germany region = Dolny Śląsk (Lower… … Wikipedia
Silesian-American Corporation — Silesian American Corporation, SACO – was a holding company for Giesche Spolka Akcyjna (Giesche Corporation), operating in Upper Silesia, Poland during interwar times. Silesian American held 100% of Giesche Spolka Akcyjna stock.SACO was… … Wikipedia
Silesian Uprisings — Korfanty in 1920 made by Polish fighters in Woźniak foundry. It was one of the two created, the second was named Walerus – Woźniak.pl icon [http://www.zaglebie.info/news poznaj.php?n=1843 Ostatnie chwile odlewni Woźniaków] . Zaglebie.info] ]… … Wikipedia
Silesian Digital Library — The Silesian Digital Library (SDL) – a digital library co created by various institutions representing the area of culture, education and science in the historical Silesia and the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.OverviewThe Silesian Digital Library… … Wikipedia
Silesian — 1. adjective Of or pertaining to Silesia 2. noun a) Upper Silesian, West Slavic language spoken in southwestern parts of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. b) Lower Sile … Wiktionary
Silesian — ISO 639 3 Code : szl ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living … Names of Languages ISO 639-3
Polish language — Polski redirects here. For the car brand, see Polski Fiat. Polish język polski Pronunciation [ˈpɔlski] Spoken in … Wikipedia
Dialects of the Polish language — Polish language Language overview · History · Dialects · Pronunciation … Wikipedia
Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Former Subdivision native name = Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship conventional long name = common name = Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship continent = Europe country = Poland government type = Autonomy subdivision = Autonomous province… … Wikipedia