Web banner

A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF, Flash, often employing animation, sound, or video to maximize presence. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i.e. either wide and short, or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content, such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. For every unique user click on the ad, the affiliate earns money.

Typical web banner,

The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. This event is known as an "impression". When the viewer clicks on the banner, the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. This event is known as a "click through". In many cases, banners are delivered by a central ad server.

When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad, the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents).[citation needed] This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. Usually though, advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements, resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement.

Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question, although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag.

Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them, such as Privoxy. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners, for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox, or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer.

Contents

History

The pioneer of online advertising was Prodigy, a company owned by IBM and Sears at the time. Prodigy used online advertising first to promote Sears products in the 1980s, and then other advertisers, including AOL, one of Prodigy's direct competitors. Prodigy was unable to capitalize on any of its first mover advantage in online advertising.

The first clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term "banner ad") was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller, Ehrman, White and McAuliffe, a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office.[citation needed] [1] GNN was the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very first web sites ever.[citation needed]

HotWired was the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide range of major corporate advertisers. Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. Rick Boyce, a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney & Partners, spearheaded the sales effort for the company.[2] HotWired coined the term "banner ad" and was the first company to provide click through rate reports to its customers. The first web banner sold by HotWired was paid for by AT&T, and was put online on October 27, 1994.[3] Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994, but has Coors' "Zima" campaign as the first web banner.[4]

In May 1994, Ken McCarthy mentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising, and first introduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. He stated that he believed that only a direct response model—in which the return on investment of individual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run for online advertising. In spite of this prediction, banner ads were valued and sold based on the number of impressions they generated.

The first central ad server was released in July 1995 by Focalink Communications,[citation needed] which enabled the management, targeting, and tracking of online ads. A local ad server quickly followed from NetGravity in January 1996.[citation needed] The technology innovation of the ad server, together with the sale of online ads on an impression basis, fueled a dramatic rise in the proliferation of web advertising and provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of 1994 to 2000.

The new online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21st century, introduced by GoTo.com (later Overture, then Yahoo and mass marketed by Google's AdWords program), relies heavily on tracking ad response rather than impressions.

Standard sizes

Ad sizes have been standardized to some extent by the IAB; they are:[5]

IAB standard ad sizes. Note: This illustration is reduced in size. See actual sizes.
Sizes in bold are part of the IAB's Universal Ad Package.
Name Width / px Height / px Aspect ratio
Rectangles and Pop-Ups
Medium Rectangle 300 250 1.2
Square Pop-Up 250 250 1
Vertical Rectangle 240 400 1.67
Large Rectangle 336 280 1.2
Rectangle 180 150 1.2
3:1 Rectangle 300 100 3
Pop-Under 720 300 2.4
Banners and Buttons
Full banner 468 60 7.8
Half banner 234 60 3.9
Micro bar 88 31 2.84
Button 1 120 90 1.33
Button 2 120 60 2
Vertical banner 120 240 2
Square button 125 125 1
Leaderboard 728 90 8.09
Skyscrapers
Wide skyscraper 160 600 3.75
Skyscraper 120 600 5
Half page ad 300 600 2

References

  1. ^ http://articles.sfgate.com/2008-09-26/business/17158078_1_san-francisco-s-heller-ehrman-legal-industry-same-sex-marriages http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heller_Ehrman
  2. ^ Reid, Robert H. (1997). Architects of the Web: 1,000 Days that Built the Future of Business. John Wiley & Sons. Chapter Seven: 'Hotwired - Publishing on the Web' (pp 300-308) ISBN 0471171875
  3. ^ http://adage.com/digitalnext/post?article_id=139964 Happy Birthday, Digital Advertising!
  4. ^ Chapman, Merrill R., In search of stupidity: over 20 years of high-tech marketing disasters (2nd Edition) , Apress, ISBN 1-59059-721-4
  5. ^ "Ad Unit Guidelines". Interactive Advertising Bureau. http://www.iab.net/standards/adunits.asp. 

See also


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