Alan Lloyd Hodgkin


Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

Infobox scientist
name = Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin


image_size =
caption =
birth_name =
birth_date = birth date|df=yes|1914|02|05
birth_place = Banbury, Oxfordshire, England
death_date = death date and age|df=yes|1998|12|20|1914|02|05
death_place = Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
nationality = United Kingdom
prizes = Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1963)
filed = Physiology and Biophysics

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, OM, KBE, FRS (5 February 1914, Banbury, Oxfordshire, England [GRO Register of Births: MAR 1914 3a 2167 BANBURY - Alan L. Hodgkin, mmn = Wilson] – 20 December 1998 Cambridge [GRO Register of Deaths: DEC 1998 B43C 32 CAMBRIDGE - Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, DoB = 5 Feb 1914, aged 84] ) was a British physiologist and biophysicist, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Early life

Hodgkin was educated at The Downs School (Malvern), Gresham's School, Holt, and Trinity College, Cambridge. [Benson, S. G. G., Crossley Evans, Martin, "I Will Plant Me a Tree: an Illustrated History of Gresham's School" (James & James, London, 2002) ISBN 0-907383-92-0]

Career

During the Second World War, he volunteered to work on Aviation Medicine at Farnborough and was subsequently transferred to the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) where he worked on the development of centimetric radar, including the design of the Village Inn airborne gun-laying system.

With Andrew Fielding Huxley, Hodgkin worked on experimental measurements and developed an action potential theory representing one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology, known as the "voltage clamp". The second critical element of their research was the so-called giant axon of Atlantic squid ("Loligo pealei"), which enabled them to record ionic currents as they would not have been able to do in almost any other neuron, such cells being too small to study by the techniques of the time. The experiments took place at the University of Cambridge beginning in 1935 with frog sciatic nerve and continuing into the 1940s, after interruption by World War II. Hodgkin and Huxley published their theory in 1952.

In 1963, with Huxley, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on the basis of nerve "action potentials," the electrical impulses which enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system. Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with John Carew Eccles, who was cited for his research on synapses. Hodgkin and Huxley's findings led them to hypothesize ion channels, which were confirmed only decades later. Confirmation of ion channels came with the development of the patch clamp, which led to a Nobel prize in 1991 for Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann.

From 1978 to 1984, Hodgkin was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Honours

Hodgkin was knighted in 1972 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1973. From 1970 to 1975 he was President of the Royal Society.

ee also

* Hodgkin-Huxley model

References

* [http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/index.php?pageid=172 The Master of Trinity] at Trinity College, Cambridge
* [http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1963/hodgkin-bio.html Nobel biography of Hodgkin]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/239286.stm BBC obituary]
* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1963/hodgkin-speech.html Speech at Nobel banquet, 1963]
* [http://web.sfn.org/content/Programs/HistoryofNeuroscience1/ClassicPapers/hodgkin1.pdf Action Potential Paper]

Persondata
NAME = Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = physiologist and biophysicist
DATE OF BIRTH = 1914-02-05
PLACE OF BIRTH = Banbury, Oxfordshire, England
DATE OF DEATH = 1998-12-20
PLACE OF DEATH =


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  • Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (* 5. Februar 1914 in Banbury, Oxfordshire, England; † 20. Dezember 1998 in Cambridge, England) war ein englischer Biochemiker, der 1963 gemeinsam mit Sir John Carew Eccles und Andrew Fielding Huxley für die „Entdeckungen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hodgkin. Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (Banbury, Oxfordshire, 5 février 1914 Cambridge, 20 décembre 1998) fut un physiologiste et biophysicien britannique, lauréat en 1963 du prix Nobel de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, OM, KBE, FRS (Banbury, Inglaterra, 5 de febrero de 1914 Cambridge, Inglaterra, 20 de diciembre de 1998) fue un fisiólogo y biofísico británico que ganó en 1963 el Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina por su trabajo con… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — noun English physiologist who, with Andrew Huxley, discovered the role of potassium and sodium atoms in the transmission of the nerve impulse (1914 1998) • Syn: ↑Hodgkin, ↑Alan Hodgkin, ↑Sir Alan Hodgkin • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Alan Lloyd Hodgkin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hodgkin. Alan L. Hodgkin. Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 février 1914 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1963: John Carew Eccles — Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Andrew Fielding Huxley —   Die drei Physiologen wurden gemeinsam für ihre Entdeckungen bezüglich der ionischen Mechanismen, die bei Erregung und Hemmung in peripheren und zentralen Bereichen der Nervenzellenmembran eine Rolle spielen, ausgezeichnet.    Biografien   Sir… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Alan L. Hodgkin — Alan Lloyd Hodgkin 1963 Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (* 5. Februar 1914 in Banbury, Oxfordshire, England; † 20. Dezember 1998 in Cambridge, England) war ein englischer Biochemiker, der 1963 gemeinsam mit Sir John Carew Eccles und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hodgkin,Sir Alan Lloyd — Hodg·kin (hŏjʹkĭn), Sir Alan Lloyd. 1914 1998. British physiologist. He shared a 1963 Nobel Prize for research on nerve cells. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hodgkin , Sir Alan Lloyd — (1914–) British physiologist Born at Banbury near Oxford, Hodgkin graduated from Cambridge University and became a fellow in 1936. He spent World War II working on radar for the Air Ministry. He then worked at the physiological laboratory at… …   Scientists

  • Hodgkin, Sir Alan Lloyd — ▪ 1999       British physiologist (b. Feb. 5, 1914, Banbury, Eng. d. Dec. 20, 1998, Cambridge, Eng.), shared (along with his countryman Sir Andrew Huxley and Australian scientist Sir John Eccles) the 1963 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine… …   Universalium


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