Talysh language


Talysh language

language
name=Talysh
nativename=толышә зывон (tolyšǝ zyvon)
states=Iran, Azerbaijan
region=Southwestern Caspian Sea (Mainly: Gilan and Ardabil provinces.)
speakers=2 million
familycolor=Indo-European
fam2=Indo-Iranian
fam3=Iranian
fam4=Western
fam5=Northwestern
fam6=
iso2=
iso3=tly
lc1=
lc2=

The traditional heartlands of the Talysh language are the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of Masalli, Lenkoran, Lerik and Astara in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Talysh language is a member of the northwest group of Iranian language. Historically, the language and its people can be traced through the middle Iranian period back to the ancient Medes. Talysh refer to themselves andtheir language as Tolish. The origin of the name Tolish is not clear but is likely quite old, predating the migration of the Iranian peoples to the southwestern shores of the Caspian. In western literature the people and the language are sometimes referred to as Talish or Talesh.

Talysh has three dialects — Northern (in Azerbaijan and Iran), Central (in Iran) and Southern (in Iran). Northern Talysh (the part in the Republic of Azerbaijan) was historically known as Talish-i Gushtasbi. These dialects are mutually intelligible.

Northern Talysh distinguishes itself from Central and Southern Talysh not only geographically but culturally andlinguistically as well. Speakers of Northern Talysh are found almost exclusively in the Republic of Azerbaijan but can also be found in the neighbouring regions of Iran, along the Caspian Sea in the Province of Gilan. The varieties of Talysh spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan are best described as speech varieties rather than dialects. Four speech varieties are generally identified on the basis of phonetic and lexical differences. These are labeled according to the four major political districts in the Talysh region: Astara, Lenkaran, Lerik and Masalli. The differences between the varieties are minimal at the phonetic level (Mammedov 1971) and at the lexical level (Pireiko 1976, Rastorgueva 1991). Mammedov (1971) suggests a more useful dialectal distinction is one between the varieties spoken in the mountains and those spoken in the plains. In addition, he identifies the influence of other speech communities in the Talysh region on the varieties of Talysh.

There are a wide variety of estimates for the number of Talysh speakers with reliable estimates running anywhere from 500,000 to 1 million.

Notes

Taleshi (or Talyshi and also Tolashi) is the language of an old nation in the north of Iran so called Talesh. Taleshi is also spoken in the southern parts of the Republican of Azerbaijan which separated from Iran after a famous political treaty between Iran and Russia, the so called Turkamanchai Treaty. There are, in the north of Iran, 7 cities that speak Taleshi such as Masal, Rezvanshar, Talesh, Astara, Fouman, Shaft and Masoleh. However the only city whose people speak exclusively Taleshi is the township of Masal and Masouleh. In other cities, in addition to Taleshi language, people speak Gilaki and Turki-Azari. In part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, most of the villagers speak Taleshi and people in cities speak Turki. Generally speaking, the written books and texts concerning Taleshi are rare. However, In the recent decades a scientific and research movement has come about in this old region in poetry, history, literature, etc. for the sake of a new generation of graduated youth from universities.

For the latest research on Taleshi, see Garnik Asatrain and Habib Borjian, “Talish: people and language: The state of research,” "Iran and the Caucasus" 9/1, 2005, 43-72.

External links

* [http://simurg-art.by/art/Tolishradio.php TolishRadio]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tly Ethnologue report for Talysh]
* [http://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/talyshi/TALYSHSUMGAYIT.pdf Positive Orientation Towards the Vernacular among the Talysh of Sumgayit]
* [http://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/talyshi/talyshlanguage.pdf Example of Talyshi Language]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Talysh — may refer to:*Talysh people *Talysh language *Talysh Khanate *Talysh Mughan Autonomous Republic a self declared autonomy, which existed briefly in the south of Azerbaijan in 1993 *Talysh Mountains *Talış, Agsu, Azerbaijan *Talış, Hajigabul,… …   Wikipedia

  • Talysh people — ethnic group group=Talysh population= 912,000 poptime= popplace=: (76,800) [ [http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/azerbaijan/hypermail/200103/0062.html eurasianet.org (1999)] ] flag|Iran:112,000 [http://www.ethnologue.com/show… …   Wikipedia

  • Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic — Infobox Former Country conventional long name = Talysh Mughan Autonomous Republic common name = Talysh Mughan Autonomous Republic continent = Asia region = Azerbaijan country = Azerbaijan status=Unrecognized year start = 1993 year end = 1993 date …   Wikipedia

  • Talysh — ISO 639 3 Code : tly ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • Azari Language — language name=Azari nativename= آذری Adari states=Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan region=Middle East, Central Asia familycolor=Indo European fam2=Indo Iranian fam3=Iranian fam4=Western Iranian fam5=Northwestern Iranian extinct=gradually 1100… …   Wikipedia

  • Old Azari language — This article is about the Iranian language of Azerbaijan. For the Turkic language of Azerbaijan, see Azerbaijani language. Azari آذری Āḏarī Spoken in Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan Region Middle East, Central Asia …   Wikipedia

  • Gilaki language — Gilaki گیلهء‌کی Giləki Spoken in Iran, province of Gilan. Region southwest coast of the Caspian Sea Native speakers 3.3 million, decreasing  (1993) …   Wikipedia

  • Tat language — may refer to the following: Tat language (Caucasus) in Dagestan and Azerbaijan, a southwestern Iranian language, closely related to Persian Tati (Iran), a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects, including Takestani, closely related to Talysh… …   Wikipedia

  • Tat language (Caucasus) — This article is about one of southwestern Iranian languages close to or varietry of Persian and used in Caucasus. For the other separate group, see Tati (Iran). Tat Tati Spoken in Azerbaijan, Israel, Russia, USA Region …   Wikipedia

  • Vafsi language — Vafsi,(in Persian: وفسی)(in vafsi: ووسی) is an Iranian language spoken in the Vafs village and surrounding area in the Markazi province of Iran. Vafsi belongs to a branch of Iranian languages called the Central Dialects or Raji. Vafsi forms a… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.