Maratha Empire


Maratha Empire
Maratha Confederacy
मराठा साम्राज्य
Maratha Samrajya

1674–1820

Flag

The Maratha Empire in 1760 in yellow.
Capital Raigad, then later Pune
Language(s) Marathi
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
Chattrapathi
 - 1674–1680 Shivaji
 - 1681–1689 Sambhaji
 - 1689–1700 Rajaram
 - 1700–1707 Tarabai
 - 1707–1749 Shahu
 - 1749–1777 Rajaram II
History
 - Established June 6, 1674
 - Ended September 21, 1820
Area
2,800,000 km2 (1,081,086 sq mi)
Population
 - 1700 est. 150,000,000 
Currency Hon, Rupee, Paisa, Mohor, Shivrai
Today part of  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
History of South Asia
Stone Age before 3300 BCE
Mature Harappan 2600–1700 BCE
Late Harappan 1700–1300 BCE
Iron Age 1200–300 BCE
Maurya Empire 321–184 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 230 BCE–1279 CE
Satavahana 230 BCE–220 CE
Gupta Empire 280–550 CE
Pala Empire 750–1140 CE
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1596
Mughal Empire 1526–1803
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
British India 1858–1947
Modern States since 1947
Timeline
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The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km².

The empire was founded and consolidated by Maharaja Shivaji Bhosale. He created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital,[1] and successfully fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom.[2] The Maratha Empire waged war for 27 years with the Mughals from 1681 to 1707, which became the longest war in the history of India. The Marathas eventually emerged victorious. Shivaji pioneered "Shiva sutra" or Ganimi Kava (guerrilla tactics), which leveraged strategic factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack to defeat his bigger and more powerful enemies.[3] While Venkoji, the younger half-brother of Shivaji, founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom.

Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji became ruler. During this period, he appointed Peshwas as the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire. After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu[4][5] in the south, to Attock[6] (modern-day Pakistan) on the Indus River in the north and led Expeditions to Bengal in the east. Ahmad Shah Abdali, amongst others, were unwilling to allow the Maratha's gains to go unchecked. In 1761, the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat which halted imperial expansion.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa reinstated the Maratha authority over North India, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha states. They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, Bhonsales of Nagpur. In 1775, the British East India Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. Marathas remained the preeminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars (1805–1818), which left Britain in control of most of India.

A large portion of the empire was coastline that had been secured by a potent navy under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre. He was very successful at keeping foreign naval ships, particularly of the Portuguese and British, at bay.[7] Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history.

Contents

Brief History

After a lifetime of guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, Shivaji founded an independent Hindu Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving behind a large, but vulnerable kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful War of 27 years from 1681 to 1707.

Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed the first Peshwa as head of the government, under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Maratha Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until the Third Battle of Panipat following which Marathas never fought as a single unit..

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire in the North-west and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas slowly started losing the control of the state. Many military chiefs of the Maratha Empire like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, Pant Pratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar started to work towards their ambition of becoming kings in their respective regions. However, under Madhavrao Peshwa, Maratha authority in North India was restored, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. After the death of Madhavrao, the empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Chhatrapati Shivaji

Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire.

The Marathas had lived in the Desh region around Pune for a long time, in the western portion of the Deccan, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim Turkic sultans of Bijapur to the southeast under the leadership of Shivaji Maharaj, and became much more aggressive, frequently raiding Mughal territory and ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664 and again in 1670. In 1674 Shivaji proclaimed himself king, taking the title (Chhatrapati). By Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, the Marathas had expanded their territory to include some parts of central India. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against the Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja I against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji.[8] According to the legend, Shivaji was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (natural law, righteousness).

Chhatrapati Sambhaji

Sambhaji Maharaja Bhosale

Chhatrapati Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a great warrior, great politician and poet. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as the Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the campaign but for an event in early 1689. Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar to decide on the final onslaught on the Mughal forces. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was accompanied by a few men. Sambhaji was ambushed and captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad.[9] Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tortured to death on March 11, 1689.

Rajaram and Tarabai

Rajaram, Chattrapati Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Mughals laid siege to Raigad. Rajaram fled to Vishalgad and then to Jinji for safety. From there, the Marathas raided the Mughal territory and many forts were captured by Maratha commanders Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, Shankaraji Narayan Sacheev, and Melgiri Pandit.[10] In 1697, Rajaram offered a truce but this was rejected by the emperor. Rajaram died in 1700 at Sinhagad. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Ramaraja (Shivaji II). Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha Empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal emperors became titular rulers. The Marathas emerged victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha Empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

Shahu

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Azam Shah, the next Mughal emperor, under conditions that rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710, two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom was the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

An army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return, he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison. The same applied to the less prominent kings of Kerala. Chhatrapati Shahu did not rule the following states unofficially, namely Delhi, Agra, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir as the Mughuls were prominent in these areas.

Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar

After the Battle of Poona, the flight of Peshwa left the government of Maratha state in the hands of Yashwantrao Holkar.[11] He appointed Amrutrao as the Peshwa and went to Indore on 13 March 1803. All except Gaikwad chief of Baroda, who had already accepted British protection by a separate treaty on 26 July 1802, supported the new regime. He made a treaty with the British in 1805, that fulfilled his demands. Also, Yashwant-Rao successfully resolved the disputes with Scindia and the Peshwa. His battles were the most remarkable in the military history of India and the title given to him by the Mughal Emperor gave him a prominent position amongst the rulers of India.[12]

He tried to unite the Maratha Confederacy. In a letter dated 15 February 1806 to Vyankoji Bhosale of Nagpur he states:

The Maratha state had been grasped by foreigners. To resist their aggression, God knows, how during the last two and a half years I sacrificed everything, fighting night and day, without a moment’s rest. I paid a visit to Daulatrao Sindia and explained to him how necessary it was for all of us to join in averting foreign domination. But Daulatrao failed me. It was mutual cooperation and goodwill which enabled our ancestors to build up, the Maratha states. But now we have all become self-seekers. You wrote to me that you were coming for my support, but you did not make your promise good. If you had advanced into Bengal as was planned, we could have paralyzed the British Government. It is no use of now talking of past things. When I found myself abandoned on all sides, I accepted the offer which the British agents brought to me and concluded the war.

He was as clever organizer as he was skillful in war. The various branches of the army were organized on a sound military basis. As a military strategist he ranks among the foremost generals who have ever trod on Indian soil. His heroic achievements shed a noble luster on his military genius, political sagacity and indefatigable industry. He was undoubtedly the greatest and most romantic figure on the stage of Indian history.[13] Yashwant Rao Holkar rose to power from initial nothingness entirely by dint of his personal valour and spirit of adventure. So great was his personality that even in those troublesome times, no state or power could venture to commit aggression on his territory; and this influence kept the Holkar State secure even after his death for some years.

Peshwas

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Chhatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha Empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Mughals, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha state) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha Empire in an appropriate state.

Engraving of a Maratha Soldier by James Forbes 1813

He received military help from the Maratha commanders – Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow ruler in absence of Chhatrapati Rajaram.

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife, Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant among senior administrators of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" (मराठी: आज्ञापञ) in which he has explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707.

Baji Rao I

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most liberal emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha Empire, enabling its rapid expansion.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699 - April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire that reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

Balaji Baji Rao

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749.

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 2,800,000 km² acres.

Decline

Some Indian Muslim rulers including the Rohillas and the Nawabs of Oudh as well as others like Ahmed Shah Durrani did not want the Maratha expansion go unchecked. Thus, the combined Muslims armies on January 14, 1761 decisively defeated the Marathas at the Third Battle of Panipat. The defeat at Panipat checked Maratha expansion towards North and Northwest and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit.

The Marathas had antagonised the Jats and Rajputs by taxing them heavily, punishing them after defeating the Mughals and interfering in their internal affairs. The Marathas were abandoned by Raja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur and the Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at Agra before the start of the great battle and withdrew their troops, as Maratha general Sadashivrao Bhau did not heed the advice to leave soldier's families (women and children) and pilgrims at Agra and not take them to the battle field with the soldiers, rejected their cooperation. Their supply chains (earlier assured by Raja Suraj Mal and Rajputs) did not exist.

Maratha Confederacy

Map showing states of Maratha confederacy in 1795

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health and reinstated the Maratha authority over North India, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states came into being in far flung regions of the empire:

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha Empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty.

The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left the British in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (Maratnear Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

Legacy

The Maratha Empire is also credited for the laying the foundation of the Indian Navy and bringing about a considerable change in naval warfare by introducing a blue-water navy. The Maratha Empire is also credited for developing many of the important cities like Pune, Baroda, Indore.

Geography

Maratha Empire, 1758 (in orange) was the major superpower in the sub-continent at that time.

Maratha Empire, at its peak, ruled over much of the Indian Subcontinent (modern-day Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as well as bordering Nepal and Afghanistan). Apart from capturing various regions, the Marathas maintained a large number of tributaries who were bounded by agreement to pay a certain amount of tax, known as "Chauth". Apart from capturing the whole Mughal Empire, the Maratha Empire defeated Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali - the general of the Wodeyar dynasty, Nawab of Oudh, Nawab of Bengal and Nizam of Hyderabad as well as the Polygar kingdoms of South India. They extracted chauth from Oudh, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Hyderabad, Mysore, Uttar Pradesh and Rajput states.[14][15][16]

In March 1758, the Maratha Empire expanded its boundary till Afghanistan. They defeated Afghan forces in what is now Pakistan as well as Kashmir. The Afghans were numbered around 25,000-30,000 and were led by Timur Shah, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. On May 1758, the Marathas massacred and looted the Afghan soldiers and captured Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Attock in the Punjab region and Kashmir.[17] The Marathas were requested by the Nawab Safdarjung, Nawab of Oudh, in 1752 to help him defeat Afghani Rohilla. The Maratha force left Poona and defeated Afghan Rohilla in 1752, capturing the whole of Rohilkhand (present-day northwestern Uttar Pradesh).[18][19]

Raghoba's letter to the Peshwa, 4 May 1758 - [20]

Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on this side of Attock are under our rule for the most part, and places which have not come under our rule we shall soon bring under us. Ahmad Shah Durrani's son Timur Shah Durrani and Jahan Khan have been pursued by our troops, and their troops completely looted. Both of them have now reached Peshawar with a few broken troops . . . we have decided to extend our rule up to Kandahar.

Royal Houses

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (1630–1680)
  • Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657–1689)
  • Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670–1700)
  • Maharani Tarabai (1675–1761)
  • Chhatrapati Shahu (1682–1749) (alias Shivaji II, son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji)
  • Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram and Queen Tarabai)
Kolhapur
  • Queen Tarabai (1675–1761) (wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji II
  • Chhatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chhatrapati [Rajaram] from his second wife)
  • Chhatrapati Shahu IV

Peshwas

  • Sonopant Dabir (1640–1652)
  • Shyampant Kulkarni-Ranzekar (1652–1657)
  • Moropant Trimbak Pingle (1657–1683)
  • Moreshwar Pingale (1683–1689)
  • RamchandraPant Amatya (1689–1708)
  • Bahiroji Pingale (1708–1711)
  • Parshuram Tribak Kulkarni (1711–1713)
  • Balaji Vishwanath (1713–1720)
  • Peshwa Bajirao I (1720–1740)
  • Balaji Bajirao (4 Jul.1740-23 Jun.1761) (b. 8 Dec.1721, d. 23 Jun.1761)
  • Madhavrao Peshwa (1761-18 Nov.1772) (b. 16 Feb. 1745, d. 18 Nov. 1772)
  • Narayanrao Bajirao (13 Dec.1772-30 Aug.1773) (b. 10 Aug.1755, d. 30 Aug.1773)
  • Raghunathrao (5 Dec.1773–1774) (b. 18 Aug.1734, d. 11 Dec.1783)
  • Sawai Madhava Rao II Narayan (1774-27 Oct.1795) (b. 18 Apr.1774, d. 27 Oct.1795)
  • Chimnajee Madhavarao (26 May 1796 – 6 Dec 1796) (brother of Bajirao II, adopted by Madhavrao II's wife)
  • Baji Rao II (6 Dec.1796 - 3 Jun.1818) (d. 28 Jan.1851)
  • Amritrao (brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's Rule (May 1802 – May 1803).
  • Nana Sahib (1 Jul.1857–1858) (b. 19 May.1825, d. 24 Sep.1859)

Chieftains

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/4407933
  2. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/2053980
  3. ^ Purandare, Babasaheb. Raja Shivachhatrapati. 
  4. ^ Mehta, J. L. Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707-1813
  5. ^ Mackenna, P. J. et al. Ancient and modern India
  6. ^ http://indiansaga.com/history/maratha_panipat.html
  7. ^ Pagadi, Setumadhavarao S (1993). SHIVAJI. NATIONAL BOOK TRUST. p. 21. ISBN 8123706472. http://books.google.com/books?id=UVFuAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 
  8. ^ Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), p243.
  9. ^ Patil, Vishwas. Sambhaji. 
  10. ^ http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/Medieval/chapter_9.pdf
  11. ^ C A Kincaid and D B Parasnis, A history of the Maratha people. Vol III pg 194
  12. ^ Sutherlands Scketches pg 64, Somerset Playne Op. Cit. pg 87
  13. ^ Hemchandra Rai, Flowers of Hindostan, 1932, p.261, 262.
  14. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books? id=1BY9AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA556&dq=maratha+chauth+from+oudh,bihar&hl=en&ei=b30mTpvkMcS4rAfezomRCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20chauth%20from%20oudh%2Cbihar&f=false
  15. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=meN0GwpRWhUC&pg=PA97&dq=maratha+capture+peshawar&hl=en&ei=SH4mToCtMYHirAe65uG8CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20capture%20peshawar&f=false
  16. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=lugDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT94&dq=maratha+capture+mysore&hl=en&ei=an4mToXTNsXVrQet1720CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20capture%20mysore&f=false
  17. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zp0FbTniNaYC&pg=PA103&dq=maratha+plunder+rohilkhand&hl=en&ei=kh0tTuaaEIjsrQeo3qGyDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20plunder%20rohilkhand&f=false
  18. ^ <http://books.google.co.in/books?id=47sfj8DUwNgC&pg=PA78&dq=maratha+defeated+rohilla&hl=en&ei=Ch8tTsjACMq8rAfx5_yxDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20defeated%20rohilla&f=false
  19. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=AZdCrUxFAHEC&pg=PA26&dq=maratha+defeated+rohilla&hl=en&ei=Ch8tTsjACMq8rAfx5_yxDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=maratha%20defeated%20rohilla&f=false
  20. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named K.RoyIHB; see Help:Cite errors/Cite error references no text

References

  • James Grant Duff – A History of the Mahrattas, 3 vols. London, Longmans, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green (1826) ISBN 81-7020-956-0
  • Bombay University – Maratha History – Seminar Volume
  • Ranade, Mahadev Govind, Rise of the Maratha Power (1900); reprint (1999) ISBN 81-7117-181-8
  • Samant, S. D. – Vedh Mahamanavacha
  • Kasar, D.B. – Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)
  • Apte, B.K. (editor) – Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974–75)
  • Desai, Ranjeet – Shivaji the Great, Janata Raja (1968), Pune: Balwant Printers – English Translation of popular Marathi book.
  • Pagdi, Setu Madhavrao – Hindavi Swaraj Aani Moghul (1984), Girgaon Book Depot, Marathi book
  • Deshpande, S.R. – Marathyanchi Manaswini, Lalit Publications, Marathi book
  • Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), OCLC: 7796041.
  • Charles Augustus Kincaid – History of the Maratha People Vol1 Vol2 Vol3

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