LIGA, a German acronym for ″Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung," in English (X-ray) Lithography, Electroplating, and Molding, is a process in microtechnology that was developed in the early 1980s [Becker EW et al, "Production of Separation-Nozzle Systems for Uranium Enrichment by a Combination of X-Ray Lithography and Galvanoplastics", "Naturwissenschaften" 69, 520-523 (1982)] by a team under the leadership of Erwin Willy Becker and Wolfgang Ehrfeld at the Institute for Nuclear Process Engineering("Institut für Kernverfahrenstechnik" IKVT) [present name/successor institution: Institute for Microstructure Technology ("Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik") IMT] at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center [present name: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe ("Karlsruhe Research Center")] . LIGA was one of the first major techniques to allow on-demand manufacturing of high-aspect-ratio structures (structures that are much taller than wide) with lateral precision below one micrometre. This capability is important in the fabrication of MEMS devices. Because of the high collimation of X-rays needed, the source must be synchrotron light.

There are today three different types of LIGA technologies, differing in the radiation and preform used:
*X-Ray LIGA, the first LIGA technology developed, using X-Rays produced by a synchrotron,
*UV-LIGA using ultraviolet light, typically from a mercury lamp, and special resists like SU-8, and
*Silicon-LIGA using deep reactive ion etched silicon as preform.

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories further developed this technique throughout the 1990s and early 2000s.

Notes and references

External links

* [ LIGA] at Sandia National Laboratories
* [ LiMiNT - LIGA process] from Singapore Synchrotron Light Source
* [ The International LIGA interest group]
* [ LIGA at Sandia, Livermore]

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