- Persecution of Muslims
Persecution of Muslims refers to the
religious persecutioninflicted upon Muslims. Persecution may refer to beating, torture, confiscation or destruction of property. Persecution can extend beyond those who perceive themselves as Muslims to include those who are perceived by others as Muslims, or to Muslims which are considered by fellow Muslims as non-Muslims.
Pagan Arab persecution of Muslims
In the early days of Islam at
Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution. Some were killed, such as Sumayyah bint Khabbab, the seventh convert to Islam, who was tortured first by Abu Jahl. [ [http://www.themuslimweekly.com/fullstoryview.aspx?NewsID=40336F9421B392F034112220&MENUID=KID&DESCRIPTION=Kids http://www.themuslimweekly.com/fullstoryview.aspx?NewsID=40336F9421B392F034112220&MENUID=KID&DESCRIPTION=Kids] "Themuslimweekly.com" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] but even he was subjected to such abuse; while he was praying near the Kaaba, Abu Lahabthrew the entrails of a sacrificed camel over him, and Abu Lahab's wife Umm Jamilwould regularly dump filth outside his door. [ [http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/from_the_beginning_of_revelation.htm http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/from_the_beginning_of_revelation.htm] "Witness.pioneer.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] And if free Muslims were attacked, slaves who converted were subjected to far worse. The master of the Ethiopian Bilal ibn Rabah(who would become the first muezzin) would take him out into the desert in the boiling heat of midday and place a heavy rock on his chest, demanding that he forswear his religion and pray to the polytheists' gods and goddesses, until Abu Bakrbought him and freed him. [ [http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/profile_story.asp?service_id=756 http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/profile_story.asp?service_id=756] "Islamonline.com" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] This persecution ultimately provoked the hijra.
Christian persecution of Muslims
Persecution of Muslims during the Crusades
First Crusadewas launched in 1095 by Pope Urban IIwith the stated effort to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalemand the Holy Landfrom the Muslimswho had captured them from the Byzantinesin 638 and partly in response to the Investiture Controversywhich was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute between the Holy Roman Emperorand the Gregorian Papacy and gave rise to the political concept of Christendomas a union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the pope; as both sides tried to marshal public opinion in their favor, people became personally engaged in a dramatic religious controversy.
May 7, 1099the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only a year before. On July 15, the crusaders were able to end the siege by breaking down sections of the walls and entering the city. Over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem. Muslims, Jews, and even eastern Christians were all massacred. Although many Muslims sought shelter atop the Temple Mountinside the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the crusaders spared few lives. According to the anonymous " Gesta Francorum", in what some believe to be one of the most valuable contemporary sources of the First Crusade, "...the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles..." [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#gesta2 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#gesta2] "Fordham.edu" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he was unable to prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. According to Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women nor children were spared." [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#fulcher1 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#fulcher1] "Fordham.edu" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ]
Nonetheless, it was the norm of the time to put the population of the city to the sword if it resisted a siege. [cite book|last=Madden|first=Thomas|title=Crusades The Illustrated History|location=Ann Arbor|publisher= University of Michiga P|year=2005|pages=p. 47] In the heat of the battle, soldiers would make no distinction between civilian and combatant. Furthermore, it is likely that many of the combatants defending Jerusalem were inhabitants. Some Jews were captured and ransomed to Cairo [cite book|last=Madden|first=Thomas|title=Crusades The Illustrated History|location=Ann Arbor|publisher= University of Michiga P|year=2005|pages=p. 47] . In any case, the Crusaders were severly short of manpower by this stage of the campaign, having no more than 12,000 men. Given the limited siege weaponry of the Crusaders, they would had to have concentrated their forces on a few sections of the city; thus, it is highly improbable that they had the manpower to kill every inhabitant of Jerusalem.
Persecution of Muslims in South Europe
At first, the Muslim populations did well in
Sicilyin the first 100 years of the Norman conquest. Arabs remained privileged in the matters of government. Indeed, 4000 Saracen archers took part in various battles between Christian forces. When the Normans and later the House of Anjou lost control of the Island to Peter of Aragon, Islam began to decline. Islam was no longer a major presence in the Island by the 14th century. Toleration of Muslims ended with Increasing Hohenstaufen control.
Modern persecution of Muslims occurred during the
Yugoslav War, in which numerous Bosnians were raped, killed or forced off their land by the Serbs. However, the Serbs and Croats claim that the persecutions were not religious in nature. In addition to denying persecution of Muslims, Serbs advocated that it was "part of a war". In any case, it was more a matter of Ethnic cleansing, rather than a religious conflict.
In the Iberian Peninsula
During the centuries of
Reconquista(711-1492), the Christian North of the Iberian Peninsulaand the Southern Muslim-ruled Al Andalusbattled internally and against each other. It ended with the Christian domination of the Peninsula.Fact|date=May 2008
Depending on the local capitulations, local Muslims were allowed to remain (
Mudéjars) with some restrictions and some assimilated into the Christian population. After the conquest of Granada, all the Spanish Muslims were under Christian rule. The new acquired population spoke Arabic and the campaigns to convert them were unsuccessful. Legislation was gradually introduced to remove Islam, Arabic language and Arabic-style dressing. Muslims were forced to convert by the Spanish Inquisition. They were known as Moriscos and considered New Christians. Some kept practising their Islamic faith in secrecy. Between 1609 and 1614 the Moriscos were expelled from Spain. [L. P. Harvey. "Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614". University Of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0226319636.]
The period from the conquest of Kazan in 1552 to the ascension of
Catherine the Greatin 1762, was marked by systematic repression of Muslims through policies of exclusion and discrimination as well as the destruction of Muslim culture by elimination of outward manifestations of Islam such as mosques. While total expulsion as in other Christian nations such as Spain, Portugaland Sicilywas not feasible to achieve a homogenous Russian Orthodoxpopulation, other policies such as land grants and the promotion of migration by other Russian and non-Muslim populations into Muslim lands displaced many Muslims making them minorities in places such as some parts of the South Ural region to other parts such as the Ottoman Turkey, and almost annihilating the Circassians. In the 16th century this led to an uprising against the TsarFeodor by the Tatar aristocracy and their subsequent expulsion. The trend of Russificationhas continued at different paces in the rest of Tsarist and Sovietperiods, so that today there are more Tatars living outside the Republic of Tatarstanthan inside it. [Shireen Tahmasseb Hunter, Jeffrey L. Thomas, Alexander Melikishvili, "Islam in Russia", M.E. Sharpe, Apr 1, 2004, ISBN 0-7656-1282-8]
Mongol persecution of Muslims
Following the brutal
Mongol invasion of Central Asiaunder Genghis Khanand after the Battle of Baghdad (1258), the Mongol Empire's rule extended across most Muslim lands in Asia. The Abbasid caliphatewas destroyed and Islamic civilization, especially Mesopotamia, suffered much devastation and was replaced by Buddhismas the official religion of the land. Daniel W. Brown, " New Introduction to Islam", Blackwell Publishing, Aug 1, 2003, ISBN 0-631-21604-9 pg. 185-187] It must be remembered that despite Islam's decline at the hands of the Mongol invaders, their actions should not qualify as persecution rooted in religious hatred or intolerance. The Mongol destruction of Muslim lands should be seen rather as military tactics employed for the purpose of conquest through psychological warfare. John Man, " Genghis Khan, Life , Death and Resurrection", Feb 6, 2007, "Muslim Holocaust"] The seventh ruler of the Ilkhanate dynasty Mahmud Ghazanconverted to Islam and thus began the gradual trend of the decline of Buddhism in the region and a renaissance of Islam.
Persecution of Muslims in China
During the mid-nineteenth century, the
Muslims of Chinarevolted against the Qing Dynasty,most notably in the Dungan revolt(1862-1877) and the Panthay rebellion1856-1873) in Yunnan. These little known revolts were suppressed by the Manchu government in a manner that amounts to genocide, [Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288] [Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219] [ [http://kcm.co.kr/bethany_eng/a_code/china4.html Muslim History in China] ] [Dillon, Michael. [http://www.hsais.org/2essay0405_4.htm China’s Muslim Hui Community] . Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix] killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion, [Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig,Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. LonelyPlanet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870] Gernet,Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1996.ISBN 0521497124 ] and several million in the Dungan revolt. A "washing off the Muslims"(洗回 (xi Hui)) policy had been long advocated by officials in the Manchu government. [Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0295976446.]
Persecution of Muslims in the modern West
Persecution of Muslims in Europe
Ziauddin Sardarwrites in "The New Statesman" that Islamophobia is a widespread European phenomenon, so widespread that he asks whether Muslims will be victims of the next pogroms. [http://www.newstatesman.com/200512050006 "The next holocaust"] , "New Statesman", December 5, 2005.] He writes that each country has its extremes, citing Jean-Marie Le Penin France; Pim Fortuyn, who was assassinated, in the Netherlands; and Philippe Van der Sande of Vlaams Blok, a Flemish nationalist party founded in Belgium. Filip Dewinter, the leader of the nationalist Flemish " Vlaams Belang" has said that his party is "Islamophobic." He said: "Yes, we are afraid of Islam. The Islamisation of Europe is a frightening thing." [ [http://flemishrepublic.org/current_issue.php?id=50 "Belgian Establishment Fears Crack-Up"] , The Flemish Republic.org newsletter, April-June 2006.]
In Germany, the state of
Baden-Württembergrequires citizenship applicants from the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conferenceto answer questions about their attitudes on homosexualityand domestic violence. [ [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=52&story_id=26707&name=Failing+the+tolerance+test http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=52&story_id=26707&name=Failing+the+tolerance+test] "Expatica.com" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] [ [http://www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/1524 http://www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/1524] "Militantislammonitor.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] Dress codehas become a flashpoint. France, which has a strong secular tradition separating church and state, [ [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=3013 http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=3013] "Yaleglobal.yale.edu" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] was accused of Islamophobia when girls who wore muslim headscarfs were expelled from school under a new law. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4616664.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4616664.stm] "News.bbc.co.uk" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] [ The French policy extends to all visible religious paraphernalia, including large Christian crosses and Jewish scullcaps, although small crucifixes and stars of David are still allowed.] In January 2006, the Dutch parliament voted in favour of a proposal to ban the burqain public, which led to similar accusations.Madell, Mark. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4616664.stm "Dutch MPs to decide on burqa ban"] , BBC News, January 16, 2006.]
Sardar argues that Europe is "post-colonial, but ambivalent." Minorities are regarded as acceptable as an underclass of menial workers, but if they want to be upwardly mobile, as Sardar says young Muslims do, the prejudice rises to the surface.
Wolfram Richter, professor of economics at Dortmund University of Technology, told Sardar: "I am afraid we have not learned from our history. My main fear is that what we did to Jews we may now do to Muslims. The next holocaust would be against Muslims."
The largest monitoring project to be commissioned into Islamophobia was undertaken following 9/11 by the
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia(EUMC). Their May 2002 report "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", written Dr. Chris Allenand Jorgen S. Nielsen of the University of Birmingham, was based on 75 reports – 15 from each EU member nation.Allen, Chris and Nielsen, Jorgen S. [http://www.raxen.eumc.eu.int/1/webmill.php?id=32813&ditem=3101&lin=detail "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001"] , EUMC, May, 2002.] The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became targets of abusive and sometimes violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. The attacks took the form of verbal abuse; blaming all Muslims for terrorist attacks; women having their hijabtorn from their heads; male and female Muslims being spat at; children being called "Usama"; and random assaults, which left victims hospitalized, and on one occasion, left a victim paralyzed.
The report also discussed the representation of Muslims in the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated."
Communist persecution of Muslims
USSRwas hostile to all forms of religion, which was "the opium of the masses" according to Karl Marx. Many Muslim regions of the Soviet Union, like other non-ethnic Russian regions, were subjected to intense russification. Many mosques were closed. [ [http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/ussrmuslims.htm Muslims in the Former U.S.S.R] ]
Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar
Myanmarhas a Buddhist majority. The Muslim minority in Myanmar mostly consists of the Rohingya peopleand the descendants of Muslim immigrants from Bangladesh, India, and China(the ancestors of Chinese Muslims in Myanmar came from the Yunnanprovince), as well as descendants of earlier Araband Persian settlers. Indian Muslims were brought to Burma by the British to aid them in clerical work and business. After independence, many Muslims retained their previous positions and achieved prominence in business and politics.When General Ne Winswept to power on a wave of nationalism in 1962, the status of Muslims changed for the worse. Muslims were expelled from the army and were rapidly marginalized.http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=5380&z=102]
Muslims are stereotyped in the society as "cattle killers" (referring to the cattle sacrifice festival of
Eid Al Adhain Islam). The generic racistslur of "Kala" (black) used against perceived "foreigners" has especially negative connotations when referring to Burmese Muslims. The more pious Muslim communities which segregate themselves from the Buddhist majority face greater difficulties than those Muslims who integrate more at the cost of not observing Islamic personal laws.
Muslims in Myanmar are affected by the actions of
Islamic Fundamentalistsin other countries. Violence in Indonesiaperpetrated by Islamistsis used as a pretext to commit violence against Muslim minorities in Burma. The anti-Buddhist actions of the Talibanin Afghanistan (the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan) was also used as a pretext to commit violence against Muslims in Myanmar by Buddhist mobs. Human Rights Watchreports that there was mounting tension between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Taungoo for weeks before it erupted into violence in the middle of May 2001. Buddhist monks demanded that the Hantha Mosque in Taungoo be destroyed in "retaliation" for the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan. [ [http://hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/burma-bck4.htm#P103_22688 http://hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/burma-bck4.htm#P103_22688] "Hrw.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] Mobs of Buddhists, led by Monks, vandalized Muslim owned businesses and property and attacked and killed Muslims in Muslim communities. This was followed by retaliation by Muslims against Buddhists. Human Rights Watch also alleges that Burmese military intelligence agents disguised as monks, led the mobs. [ [http://hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/burma-bck4.htm#P103_22688 Taungoo Violence (May 2001): Crackdown on Burmese Muslims (Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper, July 2002) ] ]
The dictatorial government, which operates a pervasive internal security apparatus, generally infiltrates or monitors the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations.Religious freedom for Muslims is reduced.Monitoring and control of Islam undermines the free exchange of thoughts and ideas associated with religious activities. [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2001/5581.htm] . Accusations of "terrorism" are made against Muslim organizations such as the All Burma Muslim Union. [http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=5380&z=102]
It is widely feared that persecution of Muslims in Myanmar could foment
Islamic fundamentalismin the country. [ [http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=5380&z=102 http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=5380&z=102] "Irrawaddy.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ] Many Muslims have joined armed resistance groups that are fighting for greater freedom in Myanmar, [ [http://www.khrg.org/khrg2002/khrg0202.html Easy Targets ] ] but are not Islamic fundamentalistsas such.
Persecution of Muslims in Cambodia
Khmer Rougeregime in Cambodiadisproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups. The Cham, a Muslim minority who are the descendants of migrants from the old state of Champa, were forced to adopt the Khmer language and customs. A Khmer Rouge order stated that henceforth “The Cham nation no longer exists on Kampuchean soil belonging to the Khmers” (U.N. Doc. A.34/569 at 9). Only about half of the Cham survived. [ [http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_cambodia1.html Genocide - Cambodia] ] [ [http://www.genocidewatch.org/aboutgenocide/stantoncambodianlaw.htm The Cambodian Genocide and International Law] ]
Persecution of Muslims in India
There were widespread riots during the
Partition of Indiain 1947, with attacks on Muslim minorities by Hinduand Sikhmobs and vice versa though it is agreed that the initial violent incidents were, in fact, carried out by Hindu mobs.
After the annexation of the Muslim-ruled state of Hyderabad by India in 1948, about 7,000 Arabs were either due to emigrate to Pakistan at their own will or interned and deported from
India. [ [http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/freitag99.htm British-Yemeni Society: Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries] ] There was widespread violence against the Muslims as an aftermath of the 'Police Action' (officially Operation Polo) and Nehruhad a committee investigate the pogrom against Muslims, but the resulting Sundarlal Report was never made public.
1992, members of the Vishva Hindu Parishadand the Bajrang Daldestroyed the 430 year old Babri Mosquein Ayodhya, [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/indiachr/christians8-03.htm The Context of Anti-Christian Violence] ] on the basis of their assertion that the mosque was built over the birthplace of the Hindu deity Ramaand a Hindu temple existed at the site before the erection of the Mosque on the assumption that much agreeable evidence suggests this to be fact. The demolition was followed by anti-Muslim riots in Mumbai allegedly perpetrated by the Shiv Senaparty.
Sangh Parivarfamily of organisations, has allegedly been involved in encouraging negative, if true, stereotypingof Muslims, and in the 2002 Gujarat violencethey were allegedly responsible for encouraging alleged attacks against Muslims. [ [http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/India0402-02.htm#P335_60148 Human Rights Watch] ] . Subsequent riots led to the death of a few hundred Muslims. Another major incident was at Naroda Patia, where a Hindu mob, massacred more than 100 Muslims after an incident sparked by Muslim on Hindu violence had got out of hand. In another incident at Best Bakery, in the city of Baroda, 12 men were massacred and burnt. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2003/24470.htm International Religious Freedom Report 2003] ] The Gujarat riots officially led to the death of 1044 people. Human Rights Watchputs the death toll at higher figures, with 2000 deaths, mostly, with attacks against Hindus by Muslim mobs. [ [http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/ http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/] "Hrw.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ]
Recently Hindu mobs have attacked Muslim villages after cows had been slaughtered for the festivities of
Eid. In 2005, this caused the destruction of 40 homes and 3 deaths. A police investigation revealed a cow had been slaughtered in the village. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-11-06-india-mobattack_x.htm USA Today] - Retrieved 06/11/2005.]
Persecution of minority/sectarian Muslim groups by other Muslim groups
takfir, Ahmadiyya, Shia, Kharijite, Mu'tazili, Alawites, Druze."
Persecution of and by Mutazilites
In medieval Iraq, the
Mu'tazilitheological movement was made a state doctrine in 832, igniting the Mihna(ordeal) a struggle over the application of Greek logical proof of the Qu'ran; people who would not accept Mu'tazili claims that the Qur'an was created rather than eternal were sometimes persecuted. The most famous victims of the Mihna were Ahmad Ibn Hanbalwho was imprisoned and tortured, and the judge Ahmad Ibn Nasr al-Khuza'iwho was crucified.Fact|date=May 2008
However, it lost official support soon afterwards. This coincided with the loss of the scientific edge of the Islamic world and the rise to prominence of a more dogmatic approach to Islam, of which
Al-Ghazaliwas a staunch defender. Sunniand shi'aIslam became the mainstream schools of Islam. As a consequence, the tables turned and most scholars and scientists like Ibn Rushdand Avicennawith Mutazilite views were the victims of persecution themselves in the centuries to follow.Fact|date=May 2008
unni-Shi'a conflicts and persecutions
At various times many Shi'a groups have faced persecution.
While the dominant strand in modern Sunni dogma regards Shiism as a valid "madhhab", following
Al Azhar, some Sunnis both now and in the past have regarded it as beyond the pale, and have attacked its adherents. In modern times, notable examples include the bombing campaigns by the Sunni Sipah-e-Sahabaand the Shia Tehrik-e-Jafria, two small extremist groups, against Shia or Sunni mosques in Pakistan, the persecution of Hazara under the Taliban, and the bloody attacks linked with Zarqawiand his followers against Shia in Iraq.Fact|date=May 2008
Persecution of Ahmadis
Ahmadiyyaregard themselves as Muslims, but are seen by many other Muslims as non-Muslims and "heretics". Armed groups, led by the umbrella organization Khatme Nabuwat("Finality of Prophethood"), have launched violent attacks against their mosques in [http://hrw.org/reports/2005/bangladesh0605/ Bangladesh] .
They committed massacres against them which resulted in 2,000 Ahmadiyya deaths in Pakistani Punjab. Eventually, martial law had to be established and Governor general Ghulam Mohamed dismissed the federal cabinet. This anti-Ahmadiyya movement led Pakistani prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to declare that the Ahmadiyyas were "non-Muslims". [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+pk0121) Jamaat-i-Islami] Federal Research Division US Library of Congress]
1984, the Government of Pakistan, under General Zia-ul-Haq, passed Ordinance XX, [ [http://www.thepersecution.org/50years/paklaw.html Ordinance XX] ] which banned proselytizing by Ahmadis and also banned Ahmadis from referring to themselves as Muslims. According to this ordinance, any Ahmadi who refers to oneself as a Muslim by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, directly or indirectly, or makes the call for prayer as other Muslims do, is punishable by imprisonment of up to 3 years. Because of these difficulties, Mirza Tahir Ahmadmigrated to London, UK.
Alawitesare a secretive group that seems to believe in the divine nature of Ali. They have been persecuted in the past and survive in the remote and more mountainous parts of Syria. The ruling Ba'athparty is dominated by Alawis (President Bashar al-Assadis Alawi himself) and they have sought fatwas from Shiite clergy in Lebanondeclaring that they are, in fact, Muslims.Fact|date=May 2008
Persecution by Takfiris
Certain small groups - the
Kharijites of early medieval times, and Takfir wal Hijraand the GIA today - follow " takfirist" doctrines, regarding almost all other Muslims as infidels whose blood may legitimately be shed. As a result, they have killed large numbers of Muslims; the GIA, for example, proudly boasted of having committed the Bentalha massacre.Fact|date=May 2008
Persecution of Ajlaf and Arzal Muslims in South Asia
Islam's egalitarian tenets, units of social stratification, termed as "castes" by many, have developed among Muslims in some parts of South Asia. [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9042918 "Islamic caste."] Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Oct. 2006] Burton-Page, J. [http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-2884 "Hindū."] Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzeland W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006. Brill Online.] Various theories have been put forward regarding the development of castes among Indian muslims. Majority of sources state that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam, [Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960, Page 66] cite web|last = Singh Sikand|first = Yoginder|title = Caste in Indian Muslim Society|publisher = Hamdard University|url = http://stateless.freehosting.net/Caste%20in%20Indian%20Muslim%20Society.htm|accessdate = 2006-10-18 ] while few others feel that these developed based on claims of descent from the prophet Mohammed.Sajida Sultana Alvi, Advice on the art of governance, an Indo-Islamic Mirror for Princes P122, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-918-5] Ahmad, Imtiaz, "The Ashraf-Ajlaf dichotomy in Muslim social structure in India", Indian economic and social history review 33 (1966) pgs 268-78]
Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) have declared the religious legitimacy of the caste system with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classic example of scholarly literature supporting the Muslim caste system is the "Fatawa-i Jahandari", written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of
Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and he regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims. Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth. Barrani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf] .Das, Arbind, Arthashastra of Kautilya and Fatwa-i-Jahandari of Ziauddin Barrani: an analysis, Pratibha Publications, Delhi 1996, ISBN 81-85268-45-2 pgs 138-139] His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.Ibid pg124] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" which would carry precedence over Sharialaw whenever they were in conflict. In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" as being the "custodians of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominy, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf] ". [Ibid p143] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect. Barrani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was conducted primarily on the basis of caste. [Das pgs 138-139]
In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the "Arzal" caste among Muslims, whose members were regarded by anti-Caste activists like Babasaheb
Ambedkaras the equivalent of untouchables.cite book |last = Ambedkar |first = Bhimrao |authorlink = B.R. Ambedkar |title = Pakistan or the Partition of India |publisher = Thackers Publishers ] [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_partition/410.html Web resource for "Pakistan or the Partition of India"] ] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc. The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and its members are also called DalitMuslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”.They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil. [ [http://www.indianexpress.com/story/12109.html Dereserve these myths] by Tanweer Fazal,"Indian express"]
Persecution of Shia Muslims
Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
War against Islam
Bagram torture and prisoner abuse
Desecration of the Qur'an at Guantánamo Bay
Historical persecution by Christians
* The Assimilation Campaign of 1980s
Nasr Abu Zayd
Persecution of Christians
Persecution of Jews
Persecution of Hindus
* [http://www.islamweb.net/ver2/archive/article.php?lang=E&id=51361 Persecution of Muslims in Mecca Before Hijra]
* [http://www.mwlusa.org/presentations/speech_persec.html Persecution of Muslims in Europe]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Persecution of Muslims in Burma — Muslims in Burmese history The first Muslim recorded in Burmese history The first Muslim documented in Burmese history (recorded in Hmannan Yazawin or Glass Palace Chronicle ) was Byat Wi during the reign of Mon, a Thaton King, circa 1050 AD. [Pe … Wikipedia
Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans — This is a sub article to Muhammad before Medina and Persecution of MuslimsIn the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution. OverviewSome were killed, such as Sumayyah bint Khabbab, the seventh… … Wikipedia
Persecution — is the systematic mistreatment of an individual/group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms. International… … Wikipedia
Persecution of Hindus — refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. Hindus have been historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent and during the Goa Inquisition. In modern times, Hindus in Kashmir, Pakistan and Bangladesh have… … Wikipedia
Persecution of Christians — This article is about acts committed against Christians because of their faith. For negative attitudes towards Christians, see Anti Christian sentiment. A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. A Christian woman is martyred under Nero in this re … Wikipedia
Persecution of Buddhists — Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of… … Wikipedia
Persecution of Ahmadiyya — has occurred periodically. The information given below is but a summary of major periods of Persecution of Ahmadis.1953In 1953 at the instigation of religious parties, Anti Ahmadiyya riots erupted, killing scores of Ahmadi Muslims and destroying… … Wikipedia
Persecution of Bahá'ís — Bahá í Faith Central figures Bahá u lláh The Báb · Abdu l Bahá Key scriptur … Wikipedia
Persecution of Jews — The persecution of Jews has occurred many times in Jewish history. Christian antisemitismIn the Middle Ages Antisemitism in Europe was religious. Though not part of Roman Catholic dogma, many Christians, including members of the clergy, have held … Wikipedia
Muslims in Burma — Members of the Islamic community have lived in Burma since before the Pagan Dynasty, arriving by way of Indian Ocean trade routes and the Indian subcontinent. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Burmese government estimated that Muslims… … Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar)