W. H. Auden

Infobox Person


image_size = 144
caption = U.S. Library of Congress
birth_date = #ifeq:yes|yes|2|2
21 1907
birth_place = York, England
death_date = #ifeq:yes|yes|9|9 29 1973 (aged age at date | 1907 | 2 | 21 | 1973 | 9 | 29 )
death_place = Vienna, Austria

Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973, pronEng|ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən) [The first syllable of "Auden" rhymes with "law" (not with "how").] who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.cite book
last = Smith
first = Stan, ed.
title = The Cambridge Companion to W. H. Auden
year = 2004
publisher = Cambridge University Press
location = Cambridge
isbn = 0-521-82962-3
] His work is noted for its stylistic and technical achievements, its engagement with moral and political issues, and its variety of tone, form and content.cite web
url = http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/120
author = Academy of American Poets
title = W. H. Auden
accessdate = 2007-01-21
] cite book
last = Brodksy
first = Joseph
year = 1986
title = Less Than One: selected essays
publisher = Farrar, Straus and Giroux
location = New York
pages = p. 357
isbn = 0-374-18503-4
] The central themes of his poetry are love, politics and citizenship, religion and morals, and the relationship between unique human beings and the anonymous, impersonal world of nature.

Auden grew up in Birmingham in a professional middle-class family and read English literature at Christ Church, Oxford. His early poems, written in the late 1920s and 1930s, alternated between telegraphic modern styles and fluent traditional ones, were written in an intense and dramatic tone, and established his reputation as a left-wing political poet and prophet. He became uncomfortable in this role in the later 1930s, and abandoned it after he moved to the United States in 1939. His poems in the 1940s explored religious and ethical themes in a less dramatic manner than his earlier works, but still combined new forms devised by Auden himself with traditional forms and styles. In the 1950s and 1960s many of his poems focused on the ways in which words revealed and concealed emotions, and he took a particular interest in writing opera librettos, a form ideally suited to direct expression of strong feelings.cite book
last = Fuller
first = John
authorlink = John Fuller (poet)
title = W. H. Auden: a commentary
publisher = Faber and Faber
location = London
year = 1998
isbn = 0-571-19268-8
]

He was also a prolific writer of prose essays and reviews on literary, political, psychological and religious subjects, and he worked at various times on documentary films, poetic plays and other forms of performance. Throughout his career he was both controversial and influential. After his death, some of his poems, notably "Funeral Blues" ("Stop all the clocks") and "September 1, 1939", became widely known through films, broadcasts and popular media.

Life

Childhood and education, 1907-1927

Childhood

Wystan Hugh Auden was born in York, England, where his father George Augustus Auden was a physician. Wystan (see note on the source of this name [The name Wystan originates from the ninth century St Wystan, a grandson of King Wiglaf of Mercia, who may have ruled Mercia himself briefly in 839-840. St Wystan was murdered by Beorhtwulf, king of Mercia 840-852. He was buried at Repton, Derbyshire, where a cult grew up. Auden's father, George Augustus Auden, was educated at Repton School, where the parish church is called St Wystan's (Humphrey Carpenter, "W. H. Auden: A Biography", 1981).] ) was the third of three children, all sons; the eldest, George Bernard Auden, became a farmer; the second, John Bicknell Auden, became a geologist. His mother, Constance Rosalie Bicknell Auden, had trained as a missionary nurse. Auden's grandfathers were both Church of England clergymen; his household was Anglo-Catholic, following a "High" form of Anglicanism with doctrine and ritual resembling that of Roman Catholicism.cite book
last = Carpenter
first = Humphrey
authorlink = Humphrey Carpenter
title = W. H. Auden: A Biography
publisher = George Allen & Unwin
date = 1981
location = London
isbn = 0-049-28044-9
] cite book
last = Davenport-Hines
first = Richard
title = Auden
authorlink = Richard Davenport-Hines
publisher = Heinemann
location = London
year = 1995
isbn = 0-434-17507-2
] Auden traced his love of music and language partly to the church services of his childhood.cite web
title = Auden, Wystan Hugh
author = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
authorlink = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
format = Subscription access only
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30775
accessdate = 2007-01-21
] He believed he was of Icelandic descent, and his lifelong fascination with Icelandic legends and sagas is visible throughout his work. [In "Letter to Lord Byron" he names the saga character Auðun Skökull as one of his ancestors.]

In 1908 his family moved to Harborne, Birmingham, where his father had been appointed the School Medical Officer and Lecturer (later Professor) of Public Health; Auden's lifelong psychoanalytic interests began in his father's library. From the age of eight he attended boarding schools, returning home for holidays.

From the ages six to twelve, "I spent a great many of my waking hours in the fabrication of a private secondary sacred world, the basic elements of which were (a) a limestone landscape mainly derived from the Pennine Moors in the North of England, and (b) an industry - lead mining". [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = A Certain World
publisher = Viking
date = 1970
location = New York
pages = p. 423
isbn = 0-670-20994-5
] His visits to the Pennine landscape and its declining lead-mining industry figure in many of his poems; the remote decaying mining village of Rookhope was for him a "sacred landscape", [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H; ed. by Katherine Bucknell and Nicholas Jenkins
title = In Solitude, For Company: W. H. Auden after 1940, unpublished prose and recent criticism (Auden Studies 3)
publisher = Clarendon Press
location = Oxford
year = 1995
pages = p. 193
isbn = 0-19-818294-5
] evoked in a late poem, "Amor Loci".

Until he was fifteen he expected to become a mining engineer, but his "passion for words" had already begun. He wrote later: "words so excite me that a pornographic story, for example, excites me sexually more than a living person can do". [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = The Prolific and the Devourer
publisher = Ecco
location = New York
year = 1993
pages = p. 10
isbn = 0-88001-345-1
]

Education

Auden's first boarding school was St. Edmund's School (Hindhead), Surrey, where he met Christopher Isherwood (two and a half years older than Auden), later famous as a novelist. At thirteen he went to Gresham's School in Norfolk, where, in 1922, his friend Robert Medley first suggested that he might write poetry. Soon after, he "discover [ed] that he has lost his faith" (through a gradual realisation that he had lost interest in religion, not through any decisive change of views). [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = Forewords and Afterwords
publisher = Random House
location = New York
date = 1973
pages = p. 517
isbn = 0-394-48359-6
] He played Caliban in a school production of "The Tempest" in 1922, [Wright, Hugh, "Auden and Gresham's" in "Conference Common Room", [http://www.schoolsearch.co.uk/sdata/documents/93%20C&CR%20Vol%2044.2.pdf Vol. 44, No. 2, Summer 2007] online at schoolsearch.co.uk (accessed 25 April 2008)] and his first published poems appeared in the school magazine in 1923.cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell
title = Juvenilia: Poems, 1922-1928
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1994
isbn = 0-691-03415-X
]

In 1925 he went to Christ Church, Oxford, with a scholarship in biology, but he switched to English by his second year. Friends he met at Oxford included Cecil Day Lewis, Louis MacNeice, and Stephen Spender; these four were commonly though misleadingly identified in the 1930s as the "Auden Group" for their shared (but not identical) left-wing views. Auden left Oxford in 1928 with a third-class degree.

He was reintroduced to Christopher Isherwood in 1925; for the next few years Isherwood was his literary mentor to whom he sent poems for comments and criticism. Auden probably fell in love with Isherwood (who was unaware of the intensity of Auden's feelings) and in the 1930s they maintained a sexual friendship in intervals between their relations with others. In 1935-39 they collaborated on three plays and a travel book. [cite book
last = Davenport-Hines
first = Richard
title = Auden
authorlink = Richard Davenport-Hines
publisher = Heinemann
location = London
year = 1995
pages = ch. 3
isbn = 0-434-17507-2
]

From his Oxford years onward, his friends uniformly described him as funny, extravagant, sympathetic, generous, and, partly by his own choice, lonely. In groups he was often dogmatic and overbearing in a comic way; in more private settings he was diffident and shy except when certain of his welcome. He was punctual in his habits, and obsessive about meeting deadlines, while choosing to live amidst physical disorder.

Britain and Europe, 1928-1938

In the autumn of 1928 Auden left Britain for nine months in Weimar Berlin, partly to rebel against English repressiveness in a city where homosexuality was widely tolerated. In Berlin, he said, he first experienced the political and economic unrest that became one of his central subjects.

On returning to Britain in 1929, he worked briefly as a tutor. In 1930 his first published book, "Poems" (1930), was accepted by T. S. Eliot for Faber and Faber; the firm also published all his later books. In 1930 he began five years as a schoolmaster in boys' schools: two years at the Larchfield Academy, in Helensburgh, Scotland, then three years at the The Downs School, in the Malvern Hills, where he was a much-loved teacher. At the Downs, in June 1933, he experienced what he later described as a "Vision of Agape," when, while sitting with three fellow-teachers at the school, he suddenly found that he loved them for themselves, that their existence had infinite value for him; this experience, he said, later influenced his decision to return to the Anglican Church in 1940. [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = Forewords and Afterwords
publisher = Random House
location = New York
date = 1973
pages = p. 69
isbn = 0-394-48359-6
]

During these years, Auden's erotic interests focused, as he later said, on an idealized "Alter Ego" [cite book
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
authorlink = Edward Mendelson
title = Later Auden
publisher = Farrar, Straus and Giroux
date = 1999
location = New York
pages = p. 35
isbn = 0-374-18408-9
] rather than on individual persons. His relations (and his unsuccessful courtships) tended to be unequal either in age or intelligence; his sexual relations were transient, although some evolved into long friendships. He contrasted these relations with what he later regarded as the "marriage" (his word) of equals that he began with Chester Kallman in 1939 (see below), based on the unique individuality of both partners.cite book
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
authorlink = Edward Mendelson
title = Early Auden
publisher = Viking
date = 1981
location = New York
isbn = 0-670-28712-1
] From 1935 until he left Britain early in 1939, Auden worked as freelance reviewer, essayist, and lecturer, first with the G.P.O. Film Unit, a documentary film-making branch of the post office, headed by John Grierson. Through his work for the Film Unit in 1935 he met and collaborated with Benjamin Britten, with whom he also worked on plays, song cycles, and a libretto. Auden's plays in the 1930s were performed by the Group Theatre, in productions that he supervised to varying degrees.

His work now reflected his belief that any good artist must be "more than a bit of a reporting journalist". [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Prose and travel books in prose and verse, Volume I: 1926-1938
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1996
pages = p. 138
isbn = 0-691-06803-8
] In 1936 he spent three months in Iceland, where he gathered material for a travel book "Letters from Iceland" (1937), written in collaboration with Louis MacNeice. In 1937 he went to Spain intending to drive an ambulance for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War, but was put to work broadcasting propaganda, a job he left in order to visit the front. His seven-week visit to Spain affected him deeply, and his social views grew more complex as he found political realities to be more ambiguous and troubling than he had imagined. Again attempting to combine reportage and art, he and Isherwood spent six months in 1938 visiting the Sino-Japanese War, working on their book "Journey to a War" (1939). On their way back to England they stayed briefly in New York and decided to move to the United States. Auden spent the autumn of 1938 partly in England, partly in Brussels.

Many of his poems during the 1930s and afterward were inspired by unconsummated love, and in the 1950s he summarized his emotional life in a famous couplet: "If equal affection cannot be / Let the more loving one be me" ("The More Loving One"). He had a gift for friendship and, starting in the late 1930s, a strong wish for the stability of marriage; in a letter to his friend James Stern he called marriage "the "only" subject". [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell and Nicholas Jenkins
title = In Solitude, For Company: W. H. Auden after 1940, unpublished prose and recent criticism (Auden Studies 3)
publisher = Clarendon Press
location = Oxford
year = 1995
pages = p. 88
isbn = 0-19-818294-5
] Throughout his life, he performed charitable acts, sometimes in public, as in his marriage of convenience to Erika Mann in 1935 that gave her a British passport with which to escape the Nazis, but, especially in later years, usually in private, and he was embarrassed if they were publicly revealed (as when his gift to his friend Dorothy Day for the Catholic Worker movement was reported on the front page of "The New York Times" in 1956). [Lissner, Will. "Poet and Judge Assist a Samaritan." "New York Times", 2 March 1956, pp. 1, 39.]

United States and Europe, 1939-1973

Auden and Isherwood sailed to New York in January 1939, entering on temporary visas. Their departure from Britain was later seen by many there as a betrayal and Auden's reputation suffered. In April 1939 Isherwood moved to California, and he and Auden saw each other only intermittently in later years. Around this time, Auden met an eighteen-year old poet Chester Kallman, who became his lover for the next two years (Auden described their relation as a "marriage" that began with a cross-country "honeymoon" journey). [cite book
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
authorlink = Edward Mendelson
title = Later Auden
publisher = Farrar, Straus and Giroux
location = New York
year = 1999
pages = p. 46
isbn = 0-374-18408-9
] In 1941 Kallman ended their sexual relations because he could not accept Auden's insistence on a mutual faithful relationship, but he and Auden remained companions for the rest of Auden's life, sharing houses and apartments from 1953 until Auden's death. Auden dedicated both editions of his collected poetry (1945/50 and 1966) to Isherwood and Kallman.cite book
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
authorlink = Edward Mendelson
title = Later Auden
publisher = Farrar, Straus and Giroux
date = 1999
location = New York
isbn = 0-374-18408-9
]

In 1940-41, Auden lived in a house in Brooklyn Heights which he shared with Carson McCullers, Benjamin Britten, and others, and which became a famous center of artistic life. [cite book
last = Tippins
first = Sherrill
title = February House: The Story of W. H. Auden, Carson McCullers, Jane and Paul Bowles, Benjamin Britten, and Gypsy Rose Lee, Under One Roof In Wartime America
publisher = Houghton Mifflin
location = Boston
year = 2005
isbn = 0-618-41911-X
] In 1940, he joined the Episcopal Church, returning to the Anglican Communion he had abandoned at thirteen. His reconversion was influenced partly by what he called the "sainthood" of Charles Williams, [cite book
last = Pike
first = James A., ed.,
authorlink = James Pike
title = Modern Canterbury Pilgrims
publisher = Morehouse-Gorham
date = 1956
location = New York
pages = p. 42
] whom he had met in 1937, partly by reading Søren Kierkegaard and Reinhold Niebuhr; his existential, this-worldly Christianity became a central element in his life.cite book
last = Kirsch
first = Arthur
title = Auden and Christianity
publisher = Yale University Press
location = New Haven
year = 2005
isbn = 0-300-10814-1
]

In 1941-42 he taught English at the University of Michigan. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1942, but did not use it, choosing instead to teach at Swarthmore College in 1942-45. In the summer of 1945, after the end of World War II in Europe, he was in Germany with the U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey, studying the effects of Allied bombing on German morale, an experience that affected his postwar work as his visit to Spain had affected him earlier. On his return, he settled in Manhattan, working as a freelance writer and as a visiting professor at Bennington, Smith, and other American colleges. In 1946 he became a naturalized citizen of the US.

His theology in his later years evolved from a highly inward and psychologically oriented Protestantism in the early 1940s to a more Roman Catholic-oriented interest in the significance of the body and in collective ritual in the later 1940s and 1950s, and finally to the theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer which rejected "childish" conceptions of God for an adult religion that focused on the significance of human suffering.

Auden began summering in Europe in 1948, first in Ischia, Italy, where he rented a house, then, starting 1958, in Kirchstetten, Austria where he bought a farmhouse, and, he said, shed tears of joy at owning a home for the first time.In 1951, shortly before the two British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean fled to the USSR, Burgess attempted to phone Auden to arrange a vacation visit to Ischia that he had earlier discussed with Auden; Auden never returned the call and had no further contact with either spy, but a media frenzy ensued in which his name was mistakenly associated with their escape. The frenzy was repeated when the MI5 documents on the incident were released in 2007. [cite web
title = BBC report on release of MI5 file on Auden
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6407793.stm
] [cite web
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
title=Clouseau Investigates Auden
url=http://audensociety.org/investigation.html
]

In 1956-61, Auden was Professor of Poetry at Oxford University where he was required to give three lectures each year. This fairly light workload allowed him to continue to winter in New York, where he now lived on St. Mark's Place, and to summer in Europe, spending only three weeks each year lecturing in Oxford. He now earned his income mostly by readings and lecture tours, and by writing for "The New Yorker" and other magazines.

During his last years, his conversation became repetitive, to the disappointment of friends who had known him earlier as a witty and wide-ranging conversationalist.cite book
last = Clark
first = Thekla
title = Wystan and Chester: a personal memoir of W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman
publisher = Faber and Faber
location = London
year = 1995
isbn = 0-571-17591-0
] In 1972, he moved his winter home from New York to Oxford, where his old college, Christ Church, offered him a cottage, but he continued to summer in Austria. He died in Vienna in 1973 and was buried in Kirchstetten.

Work

Overview

Auden published about four hundred poems, including seven long poems (two of them book-length). His poetry was encyclopedic in scope and method, ranging in style from obscure twentieth-century modernism to the lucid traditional forms such as ballads and limericks, from doggerel through haiku and villanelles to a "Christmas Oratorio" and a baroque eclogue in Anglo-Saxon meters. The tone and content of his poems ranged from pop-song clichés to complex philosophical meditations, from the corns on his toes to atoms and stars, from contemporary crises to the evolution of society.

He also wrote more than four hundred essays and reviews about literature, history, politics, music, religion, and many other subjects. He collaborated on plays with Christopher Isherwood and on opera libretti with Chester Kallman, worked with a group of artists and filmmakers on documentary films in the 1930s and with the New York Pro Musica early music group in the 1950s and 1960s. About collaboration he wrote in 1964: "collaboration has brought me greater erotic joy . . . than any sexual relations I have had". [cite book
last = Davenport-Hines
first = Richard
authorlink = Richard Davenport-Hines
title = Auden
publisher = Heinemann
location = London
year = 1995
pages = p. 137
isbn = 0-434-17507-2
]

Auden controversially rewrote or discarded some of his most famous poems when he prepared his later collected editions. He wrote that he rejected poems that he found "boring" or "dishonest" in the sense that they expressed views that he had never held but had used only because he felt they would be rhetorically effective. [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = Collected Shorter Poems, 1927-1957
publisher = Faber and Faber
location = London
year = 1966
pages = p. 15
isbn = 0-571-06878-2
] His rejected poems include "Spain" and "September 1, 1939". His literary executor, Edward Mendelson, argues in his introduction to Auden's "Selected Poems" that Auden's practice reflected his sense of the persuasive power of poetry and his reluctance to misuse it. [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Selected Poems, new edition
publisher = Vintage Books
location = New York
year = 1979
pages = pp. xix-xx
isbn = 0-394-72506-9
] ("Selected Poems" includes some poems that Auden rejected and early texts of poems that he revised.)

Early work, 1922-1939

Through 1930

Auden began writing poems at thirteen, mostly in the styles of 19th-century romantic poets, especially Wordsworth, and later poets with rural interests, especially Thomas Hardy. At eighteen he discovered T. S. Eliot and adopted an extreme version of Eliot's style. He found his own voice at twenty, when he wrote the first poem later included in his collected work, "From the very first coming down". This and other poems of the late 1920s tended to be in a clipped, elusive style that alluded to, but did not directly state, their themes of loneliness and loss. Twenty of these poems appeared in his first book "Poems" (1928), a pamphlet hand-printed by Stephen Spender. [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell
title = Juvenilia: Poems, 1922-1928
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1994
isbn = 0-691-03415-X
]

In 1928 he wrote his first dramatic work, "Paid on Both Sides", subtitled "A Charade," which combined style and content from the Icelandic sagas with jokes from English school life. This mixture of tragedy and farce, with a dream play-within-the-play, introduced the mixed styles and content of much of his later work. This drama and thirty short poems appeared in his first published book "Poems" (1930, 2nd edition with seven poems replaced, 1933); the poems in the book were mostly lyrical and gnomic mediations on hoped-for or unconsummated love and on themes of personal, social, and seasonal renewal; among these poems were "It was Easter as I walked," "Doom is dark," "Sir, no man's enemy," and "This lunar beauty."

A recurrent theme in these early poems is the effect of "family ghosts", Auden's term for the powerful, unseen psychological effects of preceding generations on any individual life (and the title of a poem). A parallel theme, present throughout his work, is the contrast between biological evolution (unchosen and involuntary) and the psychological evolution of cultures and individuals (voluntary and deliberate even in its subconscious aspects).

1931 through 1935

Auden's next large-scale work was "The Orators: An English Study" (1932; revised editions, 1934, 1966), in verse and prose, largely about hero-worship in personal and political life. In his shorter poems, his style became more open and accessible, and the exuberant "Six Odes" in "The Orators" reflect his new interest in Robert Burns. During the next few years, many of his poems took their form and style from traditional ballads and popular songs, and also from expansive classical forms like the Odes of Horace, which he seems to have discovered through the German poet Hölderlin. Around this time his main influences were Dante, William Langland, and Alexander Pope. [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Prose, Volume II: 1939-1948
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 2002
pages = p. 92
isbn = 0-691-08935-3
] During these years, much of his work expressed left-wing views, and he became widely known as a political poet, although his work was more politically ambivalent than many reviewers recognized. He generally wrote about revolutionary change in terms of a "change of heart", a transformation of a society from a closed-off psychology of fear to an open psychology of love. His verse drama "The Dance of Death" (1933) was a political extravaganza in the style of a theatrical revue, which Auden later called "a nihilistic leg-pull". [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H. and Christopher Isherwood; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Plays and other dramatic writings by W. H. Auden, 1928-1938
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1988
pages = p. xxi
isbn = 0-691-06740-6
] His next play "The Dog Beneath the Skin" (1935), written in collaboration with Isherwood, was similarly a quasi-Marxist updating of Gilbert and Sullivan in which the general idea of social transformation was more prominent than any specific political action or structure.

"The Ascent of F6" (1937), another play written with Isherwood, was partly an anti-imperialist satire, partly (in the character of the self-destroying climber Michael Ransom) an examination of Auden's own motives in taking on a public role as a political poet. This play included the first version of "Funeral Blues" ("Stop all the clocks"), written as a satiric eulogy for a politician; Auden later rewrote the poem as a "Cabaret Song" about lost love (written to be sung by the soprano Hedli Anderson for whom he wrote many lyrics in the 1930s). In 1935, he worked briefly on documentary films with the G.P.O. Film Unit, writing his famous verse commentary for "Night Mail" and lyrics for other films that were among his attempts in the 1930s to create a widely-accessible, socially-conscious art.

1936 through 1939

These tendencies in style and content culminate in his collection "Look, Stranger!" (1936; his British publisher chose the title, which Auden hated; Auden retitled the 1937 US edition "On This Island"). This book included political odes, love poems, comic songs, meditative lyrics, and a variety of intellectually intense but emotionally accessible verse. Among the poems included in the book, connected by themes of personal, social, and evolutionary change and of the possibilities and problems of personal love, were "Hearing of harvests", "Out on the lawn I lie in bed", "O what is that sound", "Look, stranger, on this island now" (later revised versions change "on" to "at"), and "Our hunting fathers."

Auden was now arguing that an artist should be a kind of journalist, and he put this view into practice in "Letters from Iceland" (1937) a travel book in prose and verse written with Louis MacNeice, which included his long social, literary, and autobiographical commentary "Letter to Lord Byron". In 1937, after observing the Spanish Civil War he wrote a politically-engaged pamphlet poem "Spain" (1937); he later discarded it from his collected works. "Journey to a War" (1939) a travel book in prose and verse, was written with Isherwood after their visit to the Sino-Japanese War. Auden's last collaboration with Isherwood was their third play, "On the Frontier", an anti-war satire written in Broadway and West End styles.

Auden's themes in his shorter poems now included the fragility and transience of personal love ("Danse Macabre", "The Dream", "Lay your sleeping head"), a theme he treated with ironic wit in his "Four Cabaret Songs for Miss Hedli Anderson" (which included "O Tell Me the Truth About Love" and the revised version of "Funeral Blues"), and also the corrupting effect of public and official culture on individual lives ("Casino", "School Children", "Dover"). In 1938 he wrote a series of dark, ironic ballads about individual failure ("Miss Gee", "James Honeyman", "Victor"). All these appeared in his next book of verse, "Another Time" (1940), together with other famous poems such as "Dover", "As He Is", and "Musée des Beaux Arts" (all written before he moved to America in 1939), and "In Memory of W. B. Yeats", "The Unknown Citizen", "Law Like Love", "September 1, 1939", and "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (written in America). The elegies for Yeats and Freud are partly statements of Auden's anti-heroic theme, in which great deeds are performed, not by unique geniuses whom others cannot hope to imitate, but by otherwise ordinary individuals who were "silly like us" (Yeats) or of whom it could be said "he wasn't clever at all" (Freud), and who became teachers of others, not awe-inspiring heroes.

Middle period, 1940-1957

1940 through 1946

In 1940 Auden wrote a long philosophical poem "New Year Letter", which appeared with miscellaneous notes and other poems in "The Double Man" (1941). At the time of his return to the Anglican Communion he began writing abstract verse on theological themes, such as "Canzone" and "Kairos and Logos". Around 1942, as he became more comfortable with religious themes, his verse became more open and relaxed, and he increasingly used the syllabic verse he learned from the poetry of Marianne Moore.

His recurring themes in this period included the artist's temptation to use other persons as material for his art rather than valuing them for themselves ("Prospero to Ariel") and the corresponding moral obligation to make and keep commitments while recognizing the temptation to break them ("In Sickness and Health"). From 1942 through 1947 he worked mostly on three long poems in dramatic form, each differing from the others in form and content: "For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio", "The Sea and the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's "The Tempest" (both published in "For the Time Being", 1944), and "The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue" (published separately 1947). The first two, with Auden's other new poems from 1940-44, were included in his first collected edition, "The Collected Poetry of W. H. Auden" (1945), with most of his earlier poems, many in revised versions.

1947 through 1957

After completing "The Age of Anxiety" in 1946 he focused again on shorter poems, notably "A Walk After Dark," "The Love Feast", and "The Fall of Rome." Many of these evoked the Italian village where he summered in 1948-57, and his next book, "Nones" (1951), had a Mediterranean atmosphere new to his work. A new theme was the "sacred importance" of the human body [cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.
title = Forewords and Afterwords
publisher = Random House
date = 1973
location = New York
pages = p. 68
isbn = 0-394-48359-6
] in its ordinary aspect (breathing, sleeping, eating) and the continuity with nature that the body made possible (in contrast to the division between humanity and nature that he had emphasized in the 1930s); his poems on these themes included "In Praise of Limestone" and "Memorial for the City". In 1949 Auden and Kallman wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinsky's opera "The Rake's Progress", and later collaborated on two libretti for operas by Hans Werner Henze.

Auden's first separate prose book was "The Enchafèd Flood: The Romantic Iconography of the Sea" (1950), based on a series of lectures on the image of the sea in romantic literature.cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Prose, Volume II: 1939-1948
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 2002
isbn = 0-691-08935-3
] Between 1949 and 1954 he worked on a sequence of seven Good Friday poems, "Horae Canonicae", an encyclopedic survey of geological, biological, cultural, and personal history, focused on the irreversible act of murder; the poem was also a study in cyclical and linear ideas of time. While writing this, he also wrote a sequence of seven poems about man's relation to nature, "Bucolics". Both sequences appeared in his next book, "The Shield of Achilles" (1955), with other short poems, including the book's title poem, "Fleet Visit", and "Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier".

Extending the themes of "Horae Canonicae", in 1955–56 he wrote a group of poems about "history," the term he used to mean the set of unique events made by human choices, as opposed to "nature," the set of involuntary events created by natural processes, statistics, and anonymous forces such as crowds. These poems included "T the Great", "The Maker", and the title poem of his next collection "Homage to Clio" (1960).

Later work, 1958-1973

In the late 1950s Auden's style became less rhetorical while its range of styles increased. In 1958, having moved his summer home from Italy to Austria, he wrote "Good-bye to the Mezzogiorno"; other poems from this period include "Dichtung und Wahrheit: An Unwritten Poem", a prose poem about the relation between love and personal and poetic language, and the contrasting "Dame Kind", about the anonymous impersonal reproductive instinct. These and other poems, including his 1955-66 poems about history, appeared in "Homage to Clio" (1960).

His prose book "The Dyer's Hand" (1962) gathered many of the lectures he gave in Oxford as Professor of Poetry in 1956-61, together with revised versions of essays and notes written since the mid-1940s.

While translating the haiku and other verse in Dag Hammarskjöld's "Markings", Auden began using haiku for many of his poems. A sequence of fifteen poems about his house in Austria, "Thanksgiving for a Habitat", appeared in "About the House" (1965), with other poems that included his reflections on his lecture tours, "On the Circuit". In the late 1960s he wrote some of his most vigorous poems, including "River Profile" and two poems that looked back over his life, "Prologue at Sixty" and "Forty Years On". All these appeared in "City Without Walls" (1969). His lifelong passion for Icelandic legend culminated in his verse translation of "The Elder Edda" (1969).

He was commissioned in 1963 to write lyrics for the Broadway musical Man of La Mancha, but the producer rejected them as insufficiently romantic. "A Certain World: A Commonplace Book" (1970) was a kind of self-portrait made up of favorite quotations with commentary, arranged in alphabetical order by subject. His last prose book was a selection of essays and reviews, "Forewords and Afterwords" (1973).

His last books of verse, "Epistle to a Godson" (1972) and the unfinished "Thank You, Fog" (1974) include reflective poems about language ("Natural Linguistics") and about his own aging ("A New Year Greeting", "Talking to Myself", "A Lullaby" ["The din of work is subdued"] ). His last completed poem, in haiku form, was "Archeology", about ritual and timelessness, two recurring themes in his later years.

Reputation and influence

Auden’s stature in modern literature has been disputed, with opinions ranging from that of Hugh MacDiarmid, who called him "a complete wash-out", to the obituarist in the "Times" (London), who wrote: "W. H. Auden, for long the "enfant terrible" of English poetry . . . emerges as its undisputed master".cite book
last = Sansom
first = Ian
year = 2004
chapter = Auden and Influence
title = The Cambridge Companion to W. H. Auden
editor = Stan Smith
publisher = Cambridge University Press
location = Cambridge
pages = pp. 226-39
isbn = 0-521-82962-3
]

In his "enfant terrible" stage in the 1930s he was both praised and dismissed as a progressive and accessible voice, in contrast to the politically nostalgic and poetically obscure voice of T. S. Eliot. His departure for America in 1939 was hotly debated in Britain (once even in Parliament), with some critics treating it as a betrayal, and the role of influential young poet passed to Dylan Thomas, although defenders such as Geoffrey Grigson, in an introduction to a 1949 anthology of modern poetry, wrote that Auden "arches over all". His stature was suggested by book titles such as "Auden and After" by Francis Scarfe (1942) and "The Auden Generation" by Samuel Hynes (1972).

In the US, starting in the late 1930s, the detached, ironic tone of Auden’s regular stanzas set the style for a whole generation of poets; John Ashbery recalled that in the 1940s Auden "was "the" modern poet". His manner was so pervasive in American poetry that the ecstatic style of the Beat Generation was partly a reaction against his influence. In the 1950s and 1960s, some writers (notably Philip Larkin and Randall Jarrell) lamented that Auden’s work had declined from its earlier promise.cite book
last = Haffenden
first = John
year = 1983
title = W. H. Auden: The Critical Heritage
publisher = Routledge and Kegan Paul
location = London
isbn = 0-7100-9350-0
]

By the time of Auden’s death in 1973 he had attained the status of a respected elder statesman. The Encyclopaedia Britannica notes that "by the time of Eliot's death in 1965 ... a convincing case could be made for the assertion that Auden was indeed Eliot's successor, as Eliot had inherited sole claim to supremacy when Yeats died in 1939". [cite web
title = Encyclopaedia Britannica Article: W. H. Auden
url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9011216/W-H-Auden
accessdate = 2008-02-23
] With some exceptions, British critics tended to treat his early work as his best, while American critics tended to favor his middle and later work. Unlike other modern poets, his reputation did not decline after his death, and Joseph Brodsky wrote that his was "the greatest mind of the twentieth century".

Auden’s popularity and familiarity suddenly increased after his "Funeral Blues" ("Stop all the clocks") was read aloud in the film "Four Weddings and a Funeral" (1994); subsequently, a pamphlet edition of ten of his poems, "Tell Me the Truth About Love", sold more than 275,000 copies. After September 11, 2001, his poem "September 1, 1939" was widely circulated and frequently broadcast. Public readings and broadcast tributes in the UK and US in 2007 marked his centenary year. [cite web
author = The W. H. Auden Society
url = http://audensociety.org/news.html
title = The Auden Centenary 2007
accessdate = 2007-01-20
]

Published works

The following list includes only the books of poems and essays that Auden prepared during his lifetime; for a more complete list, including other works and posthumous editions, see Bibliography of W. H. Auden.

In the list below, works reprinted in the "Complete Works of W. H. Auden" are indicated by footnote references.

Books

* "Poems" (London, 1930; second edn., seven poems substituted, London, 1933; includes poems and "Paid on Both Sides: A Charade"cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H. and Christopher Isherwood; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Plays and other dramatic writings by W. H. Auden, 1928-1938
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1988
isbn = 0-691-06740-6
] ) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood).
* "The Orators: An English Study" (London, 1932, verse and prose; slightly revised edn., London, 1934; revised edn. with new preface, London, 1966; New York 1967) (dedicated to Stephen Spender).
* "The Dance of Death" (London, 1933, play) (dedicated to Robert Medley and Rupert Doone).
* "Poems" (New York, 1934; contains "Poems" [1933 edition] , "The Orators" [1932 edition] , and "The Dance of Death").
* "The Dog Beneath the Skin" (London, New York, 1935; play, with Christopher Isherwood) (dedicated to Robert Moody).
* "The Ascent of F6" (London, 1936; 2nd edn., 1937; New York, 1937; play, with Christopher Isherwood) (dedicated to John Bicknell Auden).
* "Look, Stranger!" (London, 1936, poems; US edn., "On This Island", New York, 1937) (dedicated to Erika Mann)
* "Letters from Iceland" (London, New York, 1937; verse and prose, with Louis MacNeice)cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H.; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Prose and travel books in prose and verse, Volume I: 1926-1938
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1996
isbn = 0-691-06803-8
] (dedicated to George Augustus Auden).
* "On the Frontier" (London, 1938; New York 1939; play, with Christopher Isherwood) (dedicated to Benjamin Britten).
* "Journey to a War" (London, New York, 1939; verse and prose, with Christopher Isherwood) (dedicated to E. M. Forster).
* "Another Time" (London, New York 1940; poetry) (dedicated to Chester Kallman).
* "The Double Man" (New York, 1941, poems; UK edn., "New Year Letter", London, 1941) (Dedicated to Elizabeth Mayer).
* "For the Time Being" (New York, 1944; London, 1945; two long poems: "The Sea and the Mirror: A Commentary on Shakespeare's "The Tempest", dedicated to James and Tania Stern, and "For the Time Being: A Christmas Oratorio", in memoriam Constance Rosalie Auden [Auden's mother] ).
* "The Collected Poetry of W. H. Auden" (New York, 1945; includes new poems) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman).
* "The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue" (New York, 1947; London, 1948; verse; won the 1948 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry) (dedicated to John Betjeman).
* "Collected Shorter Poems, 1930-1944" (London, 1950; similar to 1945 "Collected Poetry") (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman).
* "The Enchafèd Flood" (New York, 1950; London, 1951; prose) (dedicated to Alan Ansen).
* "Nones" (New York, 1951; London, 1952; poems) (dedicated to Reinhold and Ursula Niebuhr)
* "The Shield of Achilles" (New York, London, 1955; poems; won the 1956 National Book Award for Poetry) (dedicated to Lincoln and Fidelma Kirstein).
* "Homage to Clio" (New York, London, 1960; poems) (dedicated to E. R. and A. E. Dodds).
* "The Dyer's Hand" (New York, 1962; London, 1963; essays) (dedicated to Nevill Coghill).
* "About the House" (New York, London, 1965; poems) (dedicated to Edmund and Elena Wilson).
* "Collected Shorter Poems 1927-1957" (London, 1966; New York, 1967) (dedicated to Christopher Isherwood and Chester Kallman).
* "Collected Longer Poems" (London, 1968; New York, 1969).
* "Secondary Worlds" (London, New York, 1969; prose) (dedicated to Valerie Eliot).
* "City Without Walls and Other Poems" (London, New York, 1969) (dedicated to Peter Heyworth).
* "A Certain World: A Commonplace Book" (New York, London, 1970; quotations with commentary) (dedicated to Geoffrey Gorer).
* "Epistle to a Godson and Other Poems" (London, New York, 1972) (dedicated to Orlan Fox).
* "Forewords and Afterwords" (New York, London, 1973; essays) (dedicated to Hannah Arendt).
* "Thank You, Fog: Last Poems" (London, New York, 1974) (dedicated to Michael and Marny Yates).

Film scripts and opera libretti

* "Night Mail" (1936, documentary film narrative, not published separately except as a program note).
* "Paul Bunyan" (1941, libretto for operetta by Benjamin Britten; not published until 1976).cite book
last = Auden
first = W. H. and Chester Kallman; ed. by Edward Mendelson
title = Libretti and other dramatic writings by W. H. Auden, 1939-1973
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = Princeton
year = 1993
isbn = 0-691-03301-3
]
* "The Rake's Progress" (1951, with Chester Kallman, libretto for an opera by Igor Stravinsky).
* "Elegy for Young Lovers" (1961, with Chester Kallman, libretto for an opera by Hans Werner Henze).
* "The Bassarids" (1961, with Chester Kallman, libretto for an opera by Hans Werner Henze based on "The Bacchae" of Euripides).
* "Love's Labour's Lost" (1973, with Chester Kallman, libretto for an opera by Nicolas Nabokov, based on Shakespeare's play).

Notes

References

Printed sources

"See also" the listings on [http://audensociety.org/criticism.html the criticism page at the W. H. Auden Society web site] . In the list below, unless noted, publication data and ISBN refer to the first editions; many titles are also available in later reprints.

Bibliography

*Bloomfield, B. C., and Edward Mendelson (1972). "W. H. Auden: A Bibliography 1924-1969". Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0-8139-0395-5. See post-1969 supplements in "Auden Studies" series listed below.

General biographical and critical studies

*Carpenter, Humphrey (1981). "W. H. Auden: A Biography". London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-049-28044-9.
*Clark, Thekla, "Wystan and Chester: A Personal Memoir of W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman". London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-17591-0.
*Davenport-Hines, Richard (1996). "Auden". London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-17507-2.
*Farnan, Dorothy J. (1984). "Auden in Love". New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-50418-5.
*Fuller, John (1998). "W. H. Auden: A Commentary". London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19268-8.
*Mendelson, Edward (1981). "Early Auden". New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-28712-1.
*Mendelson, Edward (1999). "Later Auden". New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-18408-9.
*Smith, Stan, ed. (2005). "The Cambridge Companion to W. H. Auden". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82962-3.
*Spears, Monroe K. (1963). "The Poetry of W. H. Auden: The Disenchanted Island". New York: Oxford University Press.
*Spender, Stephen, ed. (1975). "W. H. Auden: A Tribute". London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76884-0.
*Wright, George T. (1969; rev. ed. 1981). "W. H. Auden". Boston: Twayne. ISBN 0-8057-7346-0.

pecial topics

*Haffenden, John, ed. (1983). "W. H. Auden: The Critical Heritage". London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-710-09350-0. Selected reviews of Auden's books and plays.
*Kirsch, Arthur (2005). "Auden and Christianity". New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10814-1.
*Mitchell, Donald (1981), "Britten and Auden in the Thirties: the year 1936". London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-11715-5.
*Myers, Alan, and Robert Forsythe (1999), [http://www.forsythe.demon.co.uk/other_pages/BKAUD.HTM "W. H. Auden: Pennine Poet" ] . Nenthead: North Pennines Heritage Trust. ISBN 0-9513535-78. Pamphlet with map and gazetteer.

Auden Studies series

*Auden, W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell and Nicholas Jenkins (1990) "The Map of All My Youth": early works, friends and influences" (Auden Studies 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-812964-5.
*Auden, W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell and Nicholas Jenkins (1994). "The Language of Learning and the Language of Love": uncollected writings, new interpretations" (Auden Studies 2). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-812257-8.
*Auden, W. H.; ed. by Katherine Bucknell and Nicholas Jenkins (1995). "In Solitude, For Company": W. H. Auden after 1940: unpublished prose and recent criticism" (Auden Studies 3). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-818294-5.

External links

"See also" the descriptive list on [http://audensociety.org/links.html the links page at the W. H. Auden Society web site] .
* cite web
title=The W. H. Auden Society: news, links, books, notes, etc.
url=http://audensociety.org/
accessdate = 2007-01-21

*cite web
title = Auden, Wystan Hugh (1907-1973)
author = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
date
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30775
format = Subscription access only
accessdate = 2007-01-21

*cite web
title=Back issues of "The W. H. Auden Society Newsletter"
url=http://audensociety.org/archives.html
accessdate = 2007-01-21

*cite web
title=W. H. Auden at Swarthmore
url=http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/auden
accessdate = 2007-01-20

*cite web
title=Fourteen poems by Auden (Academy of American Poets site)
url=http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/120
accessdate = 2007-01-20

*cite web
title = Auden reads "On Reading a Child's Guide to Modern Physics"
url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/poetry/outloud/auden.shtml
accessdate = 2007-01-21

*cite web
last = Myers
first = Alan
title = Auden in the North
url = http://www.seaham.i12.com/myers/auden.html
accessdate = 2007-05-14

*cite web
title = Recorded interviews with the BBC
url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/audenw1.shtml
accessdate = 2007-01-21

* cite web
url=http://www.theparisreview.com/viewinterview.php/prmMID/3970
title="Paris Review" interview with Auden
accessdate = 2007-01-21

*cite web
last = Gopnik
first = Adam
title = "The Double Man: Why Auden is an indispensable poet of our time", "The New Yorker", 23 Sept. 2002
url = http://www.newyorker.com/printables/critics/020923crat_atlarge?critics/020923crat_atlarge
date =
accessdate = 2007-01-21

* cite web
last = Fenton
first = James
url=http://books.guardian.co.uk/poetry/features/0,,2004611,00.html
title="A voice of his own", "The Guardian", 3 Feb. 2007
date =
accessdate = 2007-02-03

*cite web
last = Bucknell
first = Katherine
url=http://books.guardian.co.uk/poetry/features/0,,2005358,00.html
title="In praise of a guilty genius", "The Observer", 4 Feb. 2007
date =
accessdate = 2007-02-06

* cite web
url=http://www.webenglishteacher.com/auden.html
author = Web English Teacher
title = Lesson plans for Auden's poetry
accessdate = 2007-02-28

*cite web
author = Slate.com
title=Auden at 100
url=http://www.slate.com/id/2160858/entry/2160922
accessdate = 2007-03-03

*cite web
last = Mendelson
first = Edward
title=Clouseau Investigates Auden (on the release of MI5 files)
url=http://audensociety.org/investigation.html
accessdate = 2007-03-18

* Wikiquote page of quotations from (with notes on misattributions).

Persondata
NAME=Auden, Wystan Hugh
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Auden, W. H.
SHORT DESCRIPTION=20th century Anglo-American poet
DATE OF BIRTH=21 February 1907
PLACE OF BIRTH=York, England
DATE OF DEATH=29 September 1973
PLACE OF DEATH=Vienna, Austria


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  • AUDEN (W. H.) — Né en 1907, à York (Angleterre), Wystan Hugh Auden joua un rôle de premier plan dans la poésie des années trente, dominant de haut les disciples auxquels on a coutume de l’associer; Stephen Spender et Louis MacNeice. Très tôt, avant même qu’il… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Auden — is a surname, and may refer to:* George Augustus Auden (1872 1957), English physician * John Bicknell Auden (1903 1991), English geologist and explorer * W. H. Auden (1907 1973), Anglo American poet …   Wikipedia

  • Auden — n. An English poet in the U. S. Born 1907, died 1973. Syn: Wystan Hugh Auden [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Auden —   [ɔːdn], Wystan Hugh, englischer Dichter, * York 21. 2. 1907, ✝ Wien 28. 9. 1973; studierte in Oxford, war 1928 29 in Berlin, heiratete 1935 Erika Mann, lebte ab 1939 in den USA (1946 amerikanischer Staatsbürger), war 1956 61 Professor für… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Auden — (izg. ódn), Wystan Hugh (1907 1973) DEFINICIJA jedan od najutjecajnijih angloameričkih pjesnika svoga vremena; društveno angažirana poezija snažnog modernog izraza …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Auden — [ôd′ n] W(ystan) H(ugh) 1907 73; U.S. poet, born in England …   English World dictionary

  • Auden, W H — ▪ British poet Introduction born Feb. 21, 1907, York, Yorkshire, Eng. died Sept. 29, 1973, Vienna, Austria  English born poet and man of letters who achieved early fame in the 1930s as a hero of the left during the Great Depression. Most of his… …   Universalium

  • Auden — Wystan Hugh Auden (* 21. Februar 1907 in York; † 29. September 1973 in Wien) war ein englischer Schriftsteller. Christopher Isherwood und W. H. Auden 1939 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Auden Group — The Auden Group is the name given to a group of writers active in the 1930s that included W. H. Auden, Louis MacNeice, Cecil Day Lewis, Stephen Spender, Christopher Isherwood, and sometimes Edward Upward and Rex Warner. They were sometimes called …   Wikipedia

  • Auden, W(ystan) H(ugh) — Au·den (ôdʹn), W(ystan) H(ugh). 1907 1973. British born American writer and critic whose poems, published in collections such as The Dance of Death (1933) and The Double Man (1941), established his importance in 20th century literature. * * *… …   Universalium

  • Auden, Wystan Hugh — (1907 1973)    A Yorkshire man who moved to the USA in 1939 and became an American citizen in 1946, Auden taught in several American universities. He returned to England in 1956, when he was elected professor of poetry at Oxford University. After …   British and Irish poets


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