- Associated state
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as
protectorate, is adopted. The details of such "free association" are contained in a Compact of Free Associationor Associated Statehood Actand are specific to the countries involved.
All free associated states either are independent (with status of subject of
international law) or have the potential right to independence.
Informally it can be considered more widely: from a post-colonial form of
amical protection, or protectorate, to confederationof unequal members when the lesser partner(s) delegate to the major one (often the former colonial power) some authority normally exclusively retained by a self-governing state, often in such fields as defence and foreign relations, while often enjoying favorable economic terms such as market access.
federacy, a type of government where at least one of the subunits in an otherwise unitary state enjoys autonomy like a subunit within a federation, is similar to an associated state, with such subunit(s) having considerable independence in internal issues, except foreign affairs and defense. Yet in terms of international law it is a completely different situation because the subunits are not independent international entities and have no potential right to independence.
Associated States of New Zealand
Cook Islands(since 1965) and Niue(since 1974)—neither are independent—are formally said to be "in free association" with New Zealand. The residents of those islands are New Zealand citizens. In contrast to the US situation, those territories are not treated by the UN as independent states, although the Cook Islands have the right to declare independence, are parties to several international conventions (such as the convention on children's rights) and regional organizations, and already maintain diplomatic missions in other countries.
In early February 2006,
Tokelauvoted in a referendum to determine whether it wanted to remain a New Zealand territory or become the third state in free association with New Zealand. While a majority of voters chose free association, the vote did not meet the two-thirds threshold needed for approval. A repeat referendum under United Nationssupervision yielded similar results in October 2007. [ [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/2/story.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10472094 Tokelau votes to remain dependent territory of New Zealand, NZ Herald October 25 2007] ]
Associated States of the United States
Commonwealth of the Philippineswas the first associated state of the United States. From 1935-1946, the foreign affairs and military of the commonwealth were handled by the United States although it was otherwise constitutionally separate and independent in domestic matters.
Federated States of Micronesia(since 1986), Palau(since 1994), and the Marshall Islands(since 1986) are associated with the United Statesunder what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereigntyand ultimate control over their territory. However, the governments of those areas have agreed to allow the United States to provide defense, funding grants and access to US social services for citizens of these areas. Puerto Rico(since 1952) and Northern Mariana Islands(since 1986) are non-independent states freely (willingly) associated with the USA. The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico", literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Associationand at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States.
For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into a Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their own foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of
Puerto Ricohas territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, “to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory…belonging to the United States.” [http://www.prfaa.com/eng/PuertoRicoBookletFinal.pdf December 2005 report of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status] ] . Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desired for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.
Former Commonwealth associated states
A formal association existed under the
Associated Statehood Act 1967between the United Kingdomand the six West Indies Associated States. These were former British colonies in the Caribbean: Antigua (1967-1981), Dominica(1967-1978), Grenada(1967-1974), Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla(1967-1983), Saint Lucia(1967-1979), and Saint Vincent (1969-1979). Under this arrangement, each state had full control over its constitution. The United Nations never determined whether these associated states had achieved a full measure of self-government within the meaning of the United Nations Charterand General Assembly resolutions. Within a few years after the status of associated state was created, all six of the former associated states requested and were granted full independence, except for Anguilla within the former St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, which separated from the associated state before independence and remains a United Kingdom dependent territory.
Other comparable relationships
In a loose form of association, some of the foreign affairs of these three European nations are handled by the indicated countries. Otherwise, they are constitutionally separate and independent in all other matters:
Andorra- Franceand Spain(since 1278)
Liechtenstein- the Swiss Confederation(since 1923)
Monaco- France(since 1814)
Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the UK. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but they are not part of the UK, nor do they form part of the
European Union. None of the Crown dependencies has representatives in the UK Parliament. These are the Crown dependencies associated to England and later the UK:
The foreign affairs of
Bhutan, a Himalayan Buddhist monarchy, were partially handled by the neighbouring republic India(since 1949), which thus in a sense succeeds its former colonizer Britain's role as protector, in a loose form of association, although Bhutanis otherwise constitutionally separate and independent in all other matters. Fact|date=April 2008Before its merger with India (1947-1975), a similar relationship existed with Sikkim, which is now a constitutive state.Fact|date=April 2008
This kind of relationship also can be found in the
Kingdom of the Netherlands, where the continental part is organized like a unitary state but the status of its external territories— Aruba(since 1986) and the Netherlands Antilles(since 1954)—can be considered associated non-independent states. After the split-up of the Netherlands Antilles (on 15 December 2008), Curaçaoand Saint Maartenwill be associated states like Aruba. Although this relationship is similar, the Kingdom of the Netherlands is actually a federacy.
According to a law of the Republic of Tatarstan (1990-2000), and the Treaty of Mutual Delegation of Plenipotentiaries between it and the
Russian Federation(1994), from 1994 to 2000 Tatarstan was considered a sovereign state under international law, but associated with Russia. But between 1994 and 2000 there was no international recognition of Tatarstan as an independent state.
According to statements of officials of
Abkhaziaand Transnistria(self-proclaimed unrecognized republics seceded from the meanwhile independent, former USSR's formerly constitutive Soviet Republics Georgia and Moldova), both intend after recognition of their independence Abkhazia and Transnistria to become associated states of the Russian Federation. In Transnistria a referendum took place in September 2006, in which secession from the Moldova and "future free association" with Russia was approved by a margin of 97%, even though the results of the referendum were internationally unrecognised.
Associated Statehood Act 1967
Compact of Free Association
* [http://www.ck/govt.htm Cook Islands Government]
* " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4136333.stm Basque MPs back greater autonomy] ", BBC News
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
associated state — noun a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs; protectorates are established by treaty • Syn: ↑protectorate • Hypernyms: ↑district, ↑territory, ↑territorial dominion,… … Useful english dictionary
associated state — a nation with limited sovereignty, esp. a former colony that now assumes responsibility for domestic affairs but continues to depend on the colonial ruler for defense and foreign policy. Also, associate state. [1955 60] * * * … Universalium
State of Vietnam — Infobox Former Country native name = Quốc gia Việt Nam conventional long name = State of Vietnam common name = South Vietnam continent = moved from Category:Asia to Southeast Asia region = Southeast Asia country = Vietnam era = Cold War… … Wikipedia
Associated Press of Pakistan — (APP) is a government operated national news agency of Pakistan. It is not associated with the Associated Press agency (AP).HistoryThe authentic history of the Associated Press of Pakistan as told by the Founder of the Associated Press of… … Wikipedia
Associated Press College Basketball Player of the Year — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Associated Press College Basketball Player of the Year es un premio anual que concede Associated Press al mejor jugador universitario. El galardón fue establecido en 1961. Ganadores 2009 Blake Griffin, Oklahoma… … Wikipedia Español
Associated Dry Goods — (ADG) was a chain of department stores that merged with May Department Stores in 1986. It was founded in 1916 as an association of independent stores called American Dry Goods based in New York City.HistoryThe chain began when Henry Siegel, who… … Wikipedia
Associated Motorways — was a consortium of motor coach operators in the south and Midlands of England, which was active from 1934 to 1974. History Associated Motorways was formed as a result of the Road Traffic Act 1930, which encouraged competing coach operators to co … Wikipedia
state — n often attrib 1 a: a politically organized body of people usu. occupying a definite territory; esp: one that is sovereign b: the political organization that has supreme civil authority and political power and serves as the basis of government… … Law dictionary
Associated Grocers of Florida — is a retailers cooperative that distributes full lines of groceries and general merchandise. Originally founded in 1945, it provides retail services to independent groceries. See also * Associated Grocers StoryDistributionAssociated Grocers of… … Wikipedia
State of New York — State of New York † Catholic Encyclopedia ► State of New York One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of Independence and became the United States of America. BOUNDARIES AND… … Catholic encyclopedia