Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the
Organisation of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic Shari'ahas its sole source. CDHRI declares its purpose to be "general guidance for Member States [of the OIC] in the Field of human rights". This declaration is usually seen as an Islamic counterpart of and a response to the post- World War II United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR) of 1948.
Predominantly Muslim countries, like
Sudan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, frequently criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for its perceived failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-Western countries. In 1981, the post-revolutionary Iranian representative to the United Nations Said Rajaie-Khorassani articulated the position of his country regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by saying that the UDHR was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christiantradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law. [ citeweb|url=http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-littman011903.asp|title=Universal Human Rights and 'Human Rights in Islam'|publisher='Midstream']
The CDHRI was adopted on
August 5, 1990by 45 foreign ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conferenceto serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights.
The Declaration starts by forbidding "any discrimination on the basis of race, colour,
language, belief, sex, religion, political affiliation, social statusor other considerations". It continues on to proclaim the sanctity of life, and declares the "preservation of human life" as "a duty prescribed by the Shariah". In addition the CDHRI guarantees "non-belligerents such as old men, women and children", "wounded and the sick" and "prisoners of war", the right to be fed, sheltered and access to safety and medical treatment in times of war.
The CDHRI gives men and women the "right to marriage" regardless of their race, colour or nationality, but not religion. In addition women are given "equal human dignity", "own rights to enjoy", "duties to perform", "own civil entity", "financial independence", and the "right to retain her name and lineage", though not equal rights in general. The Declaration makes the husband responsible for the social and financial protection of the
family. The Declaration gives both parents the rights over their children, and makes it incumbent upon both of them to protect the child, before and after birth. The Declaration also entitles every family the "right to privacy". It also forbids the demolition, confiscationand evictionof any family from their residence. Furthermore, should the family get separated in times of war, it is the responsibility of the Stateto "arrange visits or reunions of families".
The Declaration prohibits to force anybody "to change his religion to another religion or to atheism", but it gives the individual no freedom to change his religion or belief.
The Declaration protects each individual from arbitrary
arrest, torture, maltreatment and/or indignity. Furthermore, no individual is to be used for medical or scientific experiments. It also prohibits the taking of hostages of any individual "for any purpose" whatsoever. Moreover, the CDHRI guarantees the presumption of innocence; guilt is only to be proven through a trial in "which he [the defendant] shall be given all the guarantees of defence". The Declaration also forbids the promulgation of "emergency laws that would provide executive authority for such actions". Art. 19 stipulates that there are no other crimes or punishments than those mentioned in the Sharia, which include corporal punishment (whippings, amputations) and capital punishment. [There shall be no crime or punishment except as provided for in the Schari’a.] The right to hold public office can only be exercised in accordance with the Sharia, [Smith (2003), p.195] which forbids muslims to submit to the rule of non-muslims.
The Declaration also emphasizes the "full right to freedom and self-determination", and its opposition to enslavement, oppression, exploitation and colonialism. The CDHRI declares the
rule of law, establishing equality and justice for all. The CDHRI also guarantees all individuals the "right to participate, directly or indirectly in the administration of his country's public affairs". The CDHRI also forbids any abuse of authority 'subject to the Islamic Shari'ah.'
The Declaration grants individuals the right to express their opinion freely. It encourages them to propagate that which is right and good. However, it forbids the misuse of this right in order to "violate sanctities and the dignity of Prophets", "undermine moral and ethical values or disintegrate", "arouse nationalistic or doctrinal hatred" or commit an "incitement to any form of racial discrimination".
The CDHRI concludes in article 24 and 25 that all rights and freedoms mentioned are subject to the
Islamic Shariah, which is the declaration's sole source [ [http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam,Aug. 5, 1990, U.N. GAOR] , World Conf. on Hum. Rts., 4th Sess., Agenda Item 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/62/Add.18 (1993)] .
The CDHRI declares "true religion" to be the "guarantee for enhancing such dignity along the path to human integrity". It also places the responsibility for defending those rights upon the entire
The CDHRI has been criticized for falling short of the international human rights standards by not upholding the fundamentality of equality of rights for all.
Whereas the Universal declaration states
'Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.'CDHRI does not guarantee equal rights, but merely equal dignity:
'All men are equal in terms of basic human dignity and basic obligations and responsibilities, without any discrimination on the basis of race, colour, language, belief, sex, religion, political affiliation, social status or other considerations.'
In particular, CDHRI has been criticised for failing to guarantee
freedom of religion.Kazemi, Farouh. "Perspectives on Islam and Civil Society" in "Islamic Political Ethics: Civil Society, Pluralism and Conflict", Sohail H. Hashmi, ed. Princeton University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-691-11310-6, p.50]
In a joint written statement submitted by the
International Humanist and Ethical Union(IHEU), a non-governmental organization in special consultative status, the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC): a number of concerns were raised, that the CDHRI limits Human Rights, Religious Freedomand Freedom of Expression.It concludes: "The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam is clearly an attempt to limit the rights enshrined in the UDHR and the International Covenants. It can in no sense be seen as complementary to the Universal Declaration." [citeweb|url=http://www.iheu.org/node/3162|title=The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights]
The Centre for Inquiry in September 2008 in an article to the United Nations writes that the CDHRI: "undermines equality of persons and freedom of expression and religion by imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law." [citeweb|url=http://www.centerforinquiry.net/newsroom/cfi_defends_freedom_of_expression_at_the_un_human_rights_council/|title=CFI Defends Freedom of Expression at the U.N. Human Rights Council]
Article 5 prohibits imposing any restrictions on marriage stemming from "race, colour or nationality", notably excluding religion from the list, so that men and women may be prevented from marrying on the basis of their religion.
Similarly, CDHRI is criticized as not endorsing equality between men and women; moreover, it is accused of asserting the superiority of men.Rhona, Smith. "Textbook on International Human Rights", Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 1-84174-301-1, p.195] In the Article 6, women are guaranteed equal dignity, in contrast to the Universal declaration which offers equal rights. The article also puts upon the husband the responsibility to maintain welfare of the family, while no similar obligation is placed upon the wife. Finally, it makes no mention of the widespread practice of having multiple wives in some Islamic countries.
Adama Dieng, a member of the International Commission of Jurists, criticized the CDHRI. He argued that the declaration gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus, on which the international human rights instruments are based; that it introduces intolerable discrimination against non-Muslims and women. He further argued that the CDHRI reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standards in effect in a number of Muslim countries; it uses the cover of the "Islamic Shari'a (Law)" to justify the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, which attack the integrity and dignity of the human being. [ citeweb|url=http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-littman011903.asp|title=Universal Human Rights and 'Human Rights in Islam'|publisher='Midstream']
* "Human Rights in Islam"
Arab Charter on Human Rights
* [http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam] (English text)
* [http://www.dhimmitude.org/archive/universal_islam.html Universal Human Rights and "Human Rights in Islam"]
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