Wearable computers are
computers that are worn on the body. They have been applied to areas such as behavioral modeling, health monitoringsystems, information technologies and media development. Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require computational support while the user's hands, voice, eyes or attention are actively engaged with the physical environment.
"Wearable computing" is an active topic of research, with areas of study including
user interfacedesign, augmented reality, pattern recognition, use of wearables for specific applications or disabilities, electronic textiles and fashion design. Many issues are common to the wearables, mobile computing, Pervasive computing, Ambient intelligenceand ubiquitous computingresearch communities, including power management and heat dissipation, software architectures, wirelessand personal area networks and bobs.
One of the main features of a wearable computer is consistency. There is a constant
interactionbetween the computer and user, ie. there is no need to turn the device on or off. Another feature is the ability to multi-task. It is not necessary to stop what you are doing to use the device; it is augmented into all other actions. These devices can be incorporated by the user to act like a prosthetic. It can therefore be an extension of the user’s mind and/or body.
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Depending on how broadly one defines both wearable and computer, the first wearable computer could be as early as the 1500s with the invention of the
pocket watch. The first device that would fit the modern-day image of a wearable computer was constructed in 1961 by the mathematician Edward O. Thorp, [Edward O. Thorp, [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=15725&arnumber=729523&count=30&index=1 The invention of the first wearable computer] , in "The Second International Symposium on Wearable Computers: Digest of Papers", IEEE Computer Society, 1998, pp. 4-8.] better known as the inventor of the theory of card-counting for blackjack, and Claude E. Shannon, who is best known as "the father of information theory." The system was a concealed cigarette-pack sized analog computerdesigned to predict roulettewheels. A data-taker would use microswitches hidden in his shoes to indicate the speed of the roulette wheel, and the computer would indicate an octantto bet on by sending musical tones via radio to a miniature speaker hidden in a collaborators ear canal. The system was successfully tested in Las Vegas in June 1961, but hardware issues with the speaker wires prevented them from using it beyond their test runs.Edward O. Thorp, "Beat the Dealer", 2nd Edition, Vintage, New York, 1966. ISBN 0-394-70310-3 ] Their wearable was kept secret until it was first mentioned in Thorp's book "Beat the Dealer" (revised ed.) in 1966 and later published in detail in 1969. [Edward O. Thorp, "Optimal gambling systems for favorable game,." "Review of the International Statistical Institute", V. 37:3, 1969, pp. 273-293.] The 1970s saw rise to similar roulette-prediction wearable computers using next-generation technology, in particular a group known as Eudaemonic Enterprises that used a CMOS 6502 microprocessorwith 5K RAM to create a shoe-computer with inductive radio communications between a data-taker and better.T.A. Bass, "The Eudaemonic Pie", Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1985.] Besides gambling aids, early wearable applications included two notable systems designed to help the disabled. In 1967, Hubert Upton developed an analogue wearable computer that included an eyeglass-mounted display to aid lip reading. Using high and low-pass filters, the system would determine if a spoken phonemewas a fricative, stop consonant, voiced-fricative, voiced stop consonant, or simply voiced. An LED mounted on ordinary eyeglasses illuminated to indicate the phoneme type. The LEDs were positioned to enable a simple form of augmented reality; for example, when a phoneme was voiced the LED at the bottom of the glass illuminated, making it seem as if the speaker's throat was glowing.Hubert Upton, "Wearable Eyeglass Speechreading Aid," "American Annals of the Deaf", V113, [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki/March_2 2 March] [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki/1968 1968] , pp. 222-229.] Another early wearable system was a camera-to-tactile vest for the blind, published by C.C. Collins in 1977, that converted images into a 1024-point, 10-inch square tactile grid on a vest.C.C. Collins, L.A. Scadden, and A.B. Alden, "Mobile Studies whith a Tactile Imaging Device," "Fourth Conference on Systems & Devices For The Disabled", June 1-3, 1977, Seattle WA.] On the consumer end, 1977 also saw the introduction of the HP-01 algebraic calculator watch by Hewlett-Packard.Andre F. Marion, Edward A. Heinsen, Robert Chin, and Bennie E. Helmso, wrist instrument Opens New Dimension in Personal Information [http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/abouthp/histnfacts/museum/personalsystems/0022/other/0022hpjournal.pdf Wrist instrument opens new dimension in personal information] ", Hewlett-Packard Journal, December 1977. See also [http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/abouthp/histnfacts/museum/personalsystems/0022/index.html HP-01 wrist instrument, 1977] .]
The 1980s saw the rise of more general-purpose wearable computers. In 1981 Steve Mann designed and built a backpack-mounted 6502-based computer to control flash-bulbs, cameras and other photographic systems. Mann went on to be an early and active researcher in the wearables field, especially known for his 1994 creation of the Wearable Wireless
Webcam. [Steve Mann, "An historical account of the 'WearComp' and 'WearCam' inventions developed for applications in 'Personal Imaging,'" in "The First International Symposium on Wearable Computers: Digest of Papers", IEEE Computer Society, 1997, pp. 66-73] Though perhaps not technically "wearable," in 1986 Steve Roberts built Winnebiko-II, a recumbent bicyclewith on-board computer and chording keyboardWinnebiko II was the first of Steve Roberts' forays into nomadic computing that allowed him to type while riding. [http://www.microship.com/bike/winnebiko2/index.html The Winnebiko II and Maggie] In 1989 Reflection Technology marketed the Private Eye head-mounted display, which scanned a vertical array of LEDs across the visual field using a vibrating mirror. This display gave rise to several hobbyist and research wearables, including Gerald "Chip" Maguire's IBM / Columbia University Student Electronic Notebook,J. Peter Bade, G.Q. Maguire Jr., and David F. Bantz, The IBM/Columbia Student Electronic Notebook Project, IBM, T. J. Watson Research Lab., Yorktown Heights, NY, 29 June 1990. (The work was first shown at the DARPAWorkshop on Personal Computer Systems, Washington, D.C., 18 January 1990.)] Doug Platt's Hip-PC and Carnegie Mellon University's VuMan 1 in 1991. [http://www.wearablegroup.org wearablegroup.org ] ] The Student Electronic Notebook consisted of the Private Eye, Toshibadiskless AIX notebook computers (prototypes) and a stylus based input system plus virtual keyboard, and used direct-sequence spread spectrum radio links to provide all the usual TCP/IP based services, including NFS mounted file systems and X11, all running in the Andrew Project environment. The Hip-PC included an Agenda palmtop used as a chording keyboard attached to the belt and a 1.44 megabyte floppy drive. Later versions incorporated additional equipment from Park Engineering. The system debuted at "The Lap and Palmtop Expo" on April 16, 1991. VuMan 1 was developed as part of a Summer-term course at |Carnegie Mellon's Engineering Design Research Center, and was intended for viewing house blueprints. Input was through a three-button unit worn on the belt, and output was through Reflection Tech's Private Eye. The CPU was an 8 MHz 80188 processor with 0.5 MB ROM.
In 1993 the Private Eye was used in
Thad Starner's wearable, based on Doug Platt's system and built from a kit from Park Enterprises, a Private Eye display on loan from Devon Sean McCullough, and the Twiddler chording keyboard made by Handykey. Many iterations later this system became the MIT"Tin Lizzy" wearable computer design, and Starner went on to become one of the founders of MIT's wearable computing project. 1993 also saw Columbia University's augmented-reality system known as KARMA: Knowledge-based Augmented Reality for Maintenance Assistance. Users would wear a Private Eye display over one eye, giving an overlay effect when the real world was viewed with both eyes open. KARMA would overlay wireframe schematics and maintenance instructions on top of whatever was being repaired. For example, graphical wireframes on top of a laser printer would explain how to change the paper tray. The system used sensors attached to objects in the physical world to determine their locations, and the entire system ran tethered from a desktop computerSteve Feiner, Bruce MacIntyre, and Doree Seligmann, "Knowledge-based augmented reality," in "Communications of the ACM", 36(7), July 1993, 52-62.] [http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/graphics/projects/karma/karma.html KARMA webpage] .] .
Edgar Matiasand Mike Ruicciof the University of Toronto, debuted the "wrist computer." Their system presented an alternative approach to the emerging head-up display plus chord keyboard wearable. The system was built from a modified HP 95LX palmtop computer and a Half-QWERTY one-handed keyboard. With the keyboard and display modules strapped to the operator's forearms, text could be entered by bringing the wrists together and typing.Edgar Matias, I. Scott MacKenzie, and William Buxton, "Half-QWERTY: Typing with one hand using your two-handed skills," "Companion of the CHI '94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems", ACM, 1994, pp. 51-52.] The same technology was used by IBM researchers to create the half-keyboard "belt computer.Edgar Matias, I.Scott MacKenzie and William Buxton, "A Wearable Computer for Use in Microgravity Space and Other Non-Desktop Environments," "Companion of the CHI '96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems", ACM, 1996, pp. 69-70.] Also in 1994, Mik Lammingand Mike Flynnat Xerox EuroPARCdemonstrated the Forget-Me-Not, a wearable device that would record interactions with people and devices and store this information in a database for later query. [Mik Lamming and Mike Flynn, [http://www.lamming.com/mik/Papers/fmn.pdf "'Forget-me-not' Intimate Computing in Support of Human Memory"] in "Proceedings FRIEND21 Symposium on Next Generation Human Interfaces"] . It interacted via wireless transmitters in rooms and with equipment in the area to remember who was there, who was being talked to on the telephone, and what objects were in the room, allowing queries like "Who came by my office while I was on the phone to Mark?" As with the Toronto system, Forget-Me-Not was not based on a head-mounted display.
Also in 1994,
DARPAstarted the Smart Modules Program to develop a modular, humionicapproach to wearable and carryable computers, with the goal of producing a variety of products including computers, radios, navigation systems and human-computer interfaces that have both military and commercial use. In July 1996 DARPA went on to host the "Wearables in 2005" workshop, bringing together industrial, university and military visionaries to work on the common theme of delivering computing to the individual.E.C. Urban, Kathleen Griggs, Dick Martin, Dan Siewiorek and Tom Blackadar, [http://www.darpa.mil/MTO/Displays/Wear2005/ Proceedings of Wearables in 2005] , Arlington, VA, July 18-19, 1996.] A follow-up conference was hosted by Boeingin August 1996, where plans were finalized to create a new academic conference on wearable computing. In October 1997, Carnegie Mellon University, MIT, and Georgia Techco-hosted the IEEEInternational Symposium on Wearables Computers in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The symposium was a full academic conference with published proceedings and papers ranging from sensors and new hardware to new applications for wearable computers, with 382 people registered for the event.
2002, as part of Kevin Warwick's Project Cyborg, Warwick's wife, Irena, wore a necklace which was electronically linked to Warwick's nervous system via an implanted electrode array. The color of the necklace changed between red and blue dependent on the signals on Warwick's nervous system [Warwick,K, "I,Cyborg", University of Illinois Press, 2004] .
The commercialization of general-purpose wearable computers, as led by companies such as
Xybernaut, CDIand ViA Inc, has thus far met with limited success. Publicly-traded Xybernaut tried forging alliances with companies such as IBMand Sonyin order to make wearable computing widely available, but in 2005 their stock was delisted and the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcyprotection amid financial scandal and federal investigation. Xybernaut emerged from bankruptcy protection in January, 2007. In 1998 Seikomarketed the Ruputer, a computer in a (fairly large) wristwatch, to mediocre returns. In 2001 IBMdeveloped and publicly displayed two prototypes for a wristwatch computer running Linux, but the product never came to market. In 2002 Fossil, Inc.announced the Fossil Wrist PDA, which ran the Palm OS. Its release date was set for summer of 2003, but was delayed several times and was finally made available on January 5 2005. Timex Datalinkis another example of a practical wearable computer. Hitachilaunched a wearable computer called Poma in 2002. Arcom Control Systemsoffers the ZYPAD, a wrist wearable touch screen computer with GPS, Wi-Fiand Bluetoothconnectivity and which can run a number of custom applications. [ [http://www.arcom.com/wearable_computer/Zypad/default.htm Zypad™ WL 1000 - wrist wearable computer ] ]
Evidence of the allure of the wearable computer and the weak market acceptance is evident with market leading
PanasonicComputer Solutions Company's failed product in this market. Panasonic has specialized in mobile computing with their Toughbookline for over 10 years and has extensive market research into the field of portable, wearable computing products. In 2002, Panasonic introduced a wearable brick computercoupled with a handheld or armworn touchscreen. The brick would communicate wirelessly to the screen, and concurrently the brick would communicate wirelessly out to the internet or other networks. The wearable brick was quietly pulled from the market in 2005, while the screen evolved to a thin clienttouchscreen used with a handstrap.
The most extensive military program in the wearables arena is the
US Army's Land Warriorsystem,Fact|date=May 2008 which will eventually be merged into the Future Force Warriorsystem.Fact|date=May 2008
Personal digital assistant
Virtual retinal display
* [http://bradleyrhodes.com/Papers/brief-history-of-wearable-computing.html A brief history of wearable computing]
* [http://www.wearitatwork.com WearIT@work: a large European research project on wearable computing at work]
* [http://www.iswc.net IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (Academic Conference)]
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