- Partial charge
A partial charge is a charge with an
absolute valueof less than one elementary charge unit (that is, smaller than the charge of the electron).
Partial atomic charges
Partial charges are created due to the asymmetric distribution of electrons in chemical bonds. The resulting partial charges are a property only of zones within the distribution, and not the assemblage as a whole. For example, chemists often choose to look at a small space surrounding the nucleus of an
atom: When an electrically neutral atom bonds chemically to another neutral atom that is more electronegative, its electrons are partially drawn away. This leaves the region about that atom's nucleus with a partial positive charge, and it creates a partial negative charge on the atom to which it is bonded.
In such a situation, the distributed charges taken as a group always carries a whole number of elementary charge units. Yet one can point to zones within the assemblage where less than a full charge resides, such as the area around an atom's nucleus. This is possible in part because particles are not like mathematical points--which must be either inside a zone or outside it--but are smeared out by the
uncertainty principleof quantum mechanics. Because of this smearing effect, if one defines a sufficiently small zone, a fundamental particle may be both partly inside and partly outside it.
Partial atomic charges are used in
molecular mechanicsforce fields to compute the electrostatic interaction energy using Coulomb's law. They are also often used for a qualitative understanding of the structure and reactivity of molecules.
Methods of determining partial atomic charges
Despite its usefulness, the concept of a partial atomic charge is somewhat arbitrary, because it depends on the method used to delimit between one atom and the next (in reality, atoms have no clear boundaries). As a consequence, there are many methods for estimating the partial charges. According to Cramer (2002), all methods can be classified in one of four classes:
*"Class I charges" are those that are not determined from quantum mechanics, but from some intuitive or arbitrary approach. These approaches can be based on experimental data such as dipoles and electronegativities.
*"Class II charges" are derived from partitioning the molecular wave function using some arbitrary, orbital based scheme.
*"Class III charges" are based on a partitioning of a physical observable derived from the wave function, such as electron density.
*"Class IV charges" are derived from a semiempirical mapping of a precursor charge of type II or III to reproduce experimentally determined observables such as dipole moments.
The following is a detailed list of methods, based on Meister and Schwarz (1994).
* Population analysis of
Mulliken population analysis
** Natural charges
** CM1, CM2,
CM3 charge models
* Partitioning of
** Density fitted atomic charges
** Bader charges (obtained from an
atoms in moleculesanalysis)
** Maslen's corrected Bader charges
* Charges derived from density-dependent properties
Partial derived charges
** Dipole derivative charges
* Charges derived from electrostatic potential
** ChelpG, Breneman model
** MK, Merz-Kollman
* Charges derived from
** Charges from infrared intensities
** Charges from
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(ESCA)
** Charges from
X-ray emission spectroscopy
** Charges from
X-ray absorption spectra
** Charges from ligand-field splittings
** Charges from UV-vis intensities of transition metal complexes
** Charges from other spectroscopies, such as NMR, EPR,
* Charges from other experimental data
** Charges from
bandgaps or dielectric constants
** Apparent charges from the
** Charges derived from adiabatic potential energy curves
** Other physicochemical data, such as equilibrium and
reaction rate constants, thermochemistry, and liquid densities.
J. Meister, W. H. E. Schwarz. Principal Components of Ionicity. "J. Phys. Chem." 1994, "98", 8245-8252.C. J. Cramer. "Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Methods". Wiley, 2002, pp. 278-289.
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